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As stated in the Preface to Volume I, the alphabetical 
articles that make up the body of the Gazetteer (beginning 
with the present volume) have been written for the most 
part by officials who had already acquired local experience 
as Census Superintendents of their Provinces or States in 1901. 
and who now became Gazetteer Superintendents. In some 
cases, when they happened to be called away to fresh duties, 
their work was continued by others. In a few cases, as in 
that of Kashmir, the task was entrusted to special writers. 
A list of all of them, arranged under Provinces or States, is 
appended on the next page. As in previous editions of the 
Gazetteer, the minor articles are based on materials collected 
by District officers and officials of Native States, supplemented 
by contributions from experts. Special mention must be 
made of the assistance given generally by Lieut. -Colonel Prain 
for Botany, by Mr. S. Eardley-Wilmot for Forests, and by 
Mr. T. H. Holland and other officers of the Geological Survey. 
More detailed acknowledgements will be found in the prefaces 
to the several volumes of the Provincial Gazetteers^ which 
have been compiled for use in India. 

In addition to the folding map of India, which is prefixed to 
every volume, maps of each Province and of the larger States 
or groups of States, and also plans of the three Presidency 
cities, will be found inserted in the text where the correspond- 
ing article occurs. These maps and plans are reproduced from 
the companion Atlas volume, specially prepared by Mr. J. G. 
Bartholomew, of Edinburgh, in accordance with instructions 
from the editors of the Gazetteer. 

. .-. .. ■. . 



The Index volume will contain a brief glossary of vernacular 
and other Anglo-Indian terms in common use (though not 
always used everywhere in the same way), which it has not been 
found possible to explain wherever they occur. The glossary 
has been compiled by Mr. R. Burn, the Indian editor. 


Province or State 


Andaman's . 
Assam . 

Berar . 


Central India . 
Central Provinces 
Coorg . 
Eastern Bengal. 





Nepal . 

North-West Frontiei 

Rajputana . 
United Provinces 

E. H. S. Clarke, CLE. 
R. C. Bramley. 

Sir Richard C. Temple, Bart., CLE. 
B. C Allen, I.C.S. 
R. Hughes-Buller, I.C.S. 
T. S. Tait. 
E. A. Gait, CLE.; C G. H. Allen, I.C.S.; 

H. F. Howard, I.C.S. ; L. S. S. O'Malley, 

Major W. Haig, LA. 
R. E. Enthoven, I.C.S., and S. M. Edvvardes, 

C C. Lowis, I.C.S.; R. Casson, I.C.S., and 

G. E. R. Grant-Brown, I.C.S. 
Captain C E. Luard, LA. 
R. V. Russell, I.C.S. 
B. L. Rice, CLE. 
E. A. Gait, CLE.; C G. H. Allen, I.C.S., and 

H. F. Howard, I.C.S. 
Mirza Mehdy Khan. 
Sir Walter R. Lawrence, Bart., G.C.I.E. 
W. Francis, I.C.S. 
B. L. Rice, CLE. 
Major W. E. A. Armstrong, I. M.S. 

H. A. Rose, I.C.S., and E. B. Howell, I.C.S. 
H. A. Rose, I.C.S., and J. P. Thompson, I.C.S. 
Major K. D. Erskine, LA. 
R. Burn, I.C.S. 


Notes on Transliteration 

Vowel- Sounds 

a has the sound of a in ' woman.' 
a has the sound of a in ' father.' 
e has the vowel-sound in 'grey.' 
i has the sound of i in ' pin.' 
i has the sound of i in ' police.' 
o has the sound of o in ' bone.' 
u has the sound of u in ' bull.' 
u has the sound of u in ' flute.' 
ai has the vowel-sound in ' mine.' 
au has the vowel-sound in ' house.' 

It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish 
between the long and short sounds of e and o in the Dravidian 
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in 'bet' and 'hot' in 
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary 
to mark vowels as long in cases where mistakes in pronunciation 
were not likely to be made. 


Most Indian languages have different forms for a number of con- 
sonants, such as d, f, r, &c, marked in scientific works by the use 
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with 
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir- 
able to embarrass the reader with them ; and only two notes are 
required. In the first place, the Arabic k, a strong guttural, has 
been represented by k instead of g, which is often used. Secondly, 
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common ; and, 
in particular, dh and th (except in Burma) never have the sound of 
th in 'this 'or 'thin,' but should be pronounced as in 'woodhouse' 
and ' boathook.' 


Burmese Words 

Burmese and some of the languages on the frontier of China have 
the following special sounds : — 

aw has the vowel-sound in 'law.' 
6 and ii are pronounced as in German, 
gy is pronounced almost like j in ' jewel.' 
ky is pronounced almost like ch in ' church.' 
th is pronounced in some cases as in ' this,' in some cases as in 

' thin.' 
w after a consonant has the force of ww. Thus, ywa and pwe 
are disyllables, pronounced as if written yuiva and piave. 

It should also be noted that, whereas in Indian words the accent 
or stress is distributed almost equally on each syllable, in Burmese 
there is a tendency to throw special stress on the last syllable. 

The names of some places— e. g. Calcutta, Bombay, Lucknow, 
Cawnpore — have obtained a popular fixity of spelling, while special 
forms have been officially prescribed for others. Names of persons 
are often spelt and pronounced differently in different parts of India; 
but the variations have been made as few as possible by assimilating 
forms almost alike, especially where a particular spelling has been 
generally adopted in English books. 

Notes on Money, Prices, Weights and Measures 

As the currency of India is based upon the rupee, all statements 
with regard to money throughout the Gazetteer have necessarily been 
expressed in rupees, nor has it been found possible to add generally 
a conversion into sterling. Down to about 1873 the gold value of 
the rupee (containing 165 grains of pure silver) was approximately 
equal to 2s., or one-tenth of a £ ; and for that period it is easy to 
convert rupees into sterling by striking off the final cipher (Rs. 1,000 
= £100). But after 1873, owing to the depreciation of silver as 
compared with gold throughout the world, there came a serious and 
progressive fall in the exchange, until at one time the gold value of 
the rupee dropped as low as is. In order to provide a remedy for 
the heavy loss caused to the Government of India in respect of its 
gold payments to be made in England, and also to relieve foreign 
trade and finance from the inconvenience due to constant and 
unforeseen fluctuations in exchange, it was resolved in 1893 to close 
the mints to the free coinage of silver, and thus force up the value of 
the rupee by restricting the circulation. The intention was to raise 


the exchange value of the rupee to is. qd., and then introduce a gold 
standard (though not necessarily a gold currency) at the rate of Rs. 1 5 
= £1. This policy has been completely successful. From 1899 on- 
wards the value of the rupee has been maintained, with insignificant 
fluctuations, at the proposed rate of is. ^d. ; and consequently since 
that date three rupees have been equivalent to two rupees before 1873. 
For the intermediate period, between 1873 and 1899, it is manifestly 
impossible to adopt any fixed sterling value for a constantly changing 
rupee. But since 1899, if it is desired to convert rupees into sterling, 
not only must the final cipher be struck off (as before 1873), but 
also one-third must be subtracted from the result. Thus Rs. 1,000 
= £100 — ^ = (about) £67. 

Another matter in connexion with the expression of money state- 
ments in terms of rupees requires to be explained. The method of 
numerical notation in India differs from that which prevails through- 
out Europe. Large numbers are not punctuated in hundreds of thou- 
sands and millions, but in lakhs and crores. A lakh is one hundred 
thousand (written out as 1,00,000), and a crore is one hundred lakhs 
or ten millions (written out as 1,00,00,000). Consequently, accord- 
ing to the exchange value of the rupee, a lakh of rupees (Rs. 1,00,000) 
may be read as the equivalent of £10,000 before 1873, and as the 
equivalent of (about) £6,667 a ft er 1899 ; while a crore of rupees 
(Rs. 1,00,00,000) may similarly be read as the equivalent of 
£1,000,000 before 1873, and as the equivalent of (about) £666,667 
after 1899. 

Finally, it should be mentioned that the rupee is divided into 
16 annas, a fraction commonly used for many purposes by both 
natives and Europeans. The anna was formerly reckoned as \\d. ; 
it may now be considered as exactly corresponding to id. The 
anna is again subdivided into 12 pies. 

The various systems of weights used in India combine uniformity 
of scale with immense variations in the weight of units. The scale 
used generally throughout Northern India, and less commonly in 
Madras and Bombay, may be thus expressed : one maund = 40 seers ; 
one seer = 16 chittaks or 80 tolas. The actual weight of a seer 
varies greatly from District to District, and even from village to 
village; but in the standard system the tola is 180 grains Troy 
(the exact weight of the rupee), and the seer thus weighs 2-057 lb., 
and the maund 82-28 lb. This standard is used in official reports 
and throughout the Gazetteer. 

For calculating retail prices, the universal custom in India is to 
express them in terms of seers to the rupee. Thus, when prices 
change, what varies is not the amount of money to be paid for the 


same quantity, but the quantity to be obtained for the same amount 
of money. In other words, prices in India are quantity prices, not 
money prices. When the figure of quantity goes up, this of course 
means that the price has gone down, which is at first sight perplexing 
to an English reader. It may, however, be mentioned that quantity 
prices are not altogether unknown in England, especially at small 
shops, where pennyworths of many groceries can be bought. Eggs, 
likewise, are commonly sold at a varying number for the shilling. 
If it be desired to convert quantity prices from Indian into English 
denominations without having recourse to money prices (which would 
often be misleading), the following scale may be adopted — based 
upon the assumptions that a seer is exactly 2 lb., and that the value 
of the rupee remains constant at is. ^d. : 1 seer per rupee = (about) 
3 lb. for 2S. ; 2 seers per rupee = (about) 6 lb. for 2s. ; and so on. 

The name of the unit for square measurement in India generally 
is the bigha, which varies greatly in different parts of the country. 
But areas have always been expressed throughout the Gazetteer either 
in square miles or in acres. 

Afghanistan to face p. 64 



Abazai. — Fort and village in the Charsadda tahsil of Peshawar Dis- 
trict, North-West Frontier Province, 24 miles north of Peshawar city, 
on the left bank of the Swat river, and a mile from its exit from the 
hills. The river, here 150 yards wide, is crossed by a ferry, and is the 
highest point in British territory where a ferry is stationed. The fort, 
which lies between Abazai village and the hills, was constructed in 
1852, and has been very effective in preventing iaids by the Utman 
Khel and Mohmands on British territory. It was made over to the 
border military police in 1894, and is held by 30 men of this force. 
Its chief interest now consists in the fact that it is close to the head- 
works of the Swat River Canal. 

Abbottabad Tahsfl.— Tahsil of Hazara District, North-West 
Frontier Province, lying between 33 49/ and 34 22' N. and 72 55' and 
73 31" E., with an area of 715 square miles. It is bounded on the 
east by the Jhelum, which divides it from Punch and the Punjab Dis- 
trict of Rawalpindi ; and it comprises part of the mountain valleys 
drained by the Dor and Harroh rivers, together with the hill country 
eastward. The hill-sides to the north and north-east are covered with 
timber forest. The population in 1901 was 194,632, compared with 
175,735 in 1891. It contains the towns of Abbottabad (population, 
7,764), the tahsil wad District head-quarters, and Nawashahr (4,114); 
and 359 villages. The land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 
to Rs. 97,000. 

Abbottabad Town. — Head-quarters of Hazara District, and also 
of the Abbottabad tahsil, North-West Frontier Province, situated in 
34 9' N. and 73 13" E. Population (1901), 7,764. The head- 
quarters of the District were fixed here in 1853, and the new canton- 
ment was named after Major James Abbott, first Deputy-Commissioner 
of Hazara, 1847-53. The town is picturesquely situated at the southern 
corner of the Rash (Orash) plain, 4,120 feet above the sea. The garri- 
son consists of four battalions of native infantry (Gurkhas) and four 
native mountain batteries. The municipality was created in 1867. 

vol. v. B 


The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 14,900, 
and the expenditure Rs. 14,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 22,300, 
chiefly derived from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 18,100. The 
receipts and expenditure of cantonment funds during the ten years 
ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 7,300. The chief public institutions are 
the Albert Victor unaided Anglo-vernacular high school, a municipal 
Anglo-vernacular high school, and a Government dispensary. 

Ab-Ustada. — A lake in the Taraki Ghilzai country, Afghanistan, 
lying between 32 30' N. and 67 50' E., about 65 miles south-south- 
west of Ghazni, and about 70 miles north-east of Kalat-i-Ghilzai. Its 
length and breadth are 17 and 15 miles respectively; it is very shallow, 
its extreme depth in the centre being only 12 feet. It is bounded by 
a shelving margin of naked clay ; not a tree is in sight, nor a blade 
of grass. The water is salt and bitter, and the banks are encrusted 
with salt. Its principal feeder is the Ghazni river. Major Broadfoot 
relates that the fish brought down by the Ghazni river from its upper 
parts, on reaching the salt portion, sicken and die ; and Outram 
mentions that the point where the Ghazni river enters the lake is 
marked by thousands of dead fish. The surrounding country is very 
barren and dreary, and has scarcely any permanent inhabitants, though 
it is a favourite grazing-ground of the Ghilzai tribes during the summer 
months. No water runs out of the lake, but its waters percolate 
underground in streams which unite to form the Arghastan Lora. 

Abiramam. — Town in the Ramnad estate, Madura District, Madras, 
situated in 9 29' N.and 78 27' E. Population (1901), 7,338, of whom 
nearly half consist of the Musalman trading community of Labbais. 
The chief industry is cotton-weaving, and there is a considerable trade 
in grain, cotton, and cloth. The town possesses a good supply of 
drinking-water and a fine irrigation tank. A local superstition declares 
that within an area of two miles snake-bite is innocuous. 

Abohar. — Ancient town in the Fazilka tahsil of Ferozepore District, 
Punjab, situated in 30 9' N. and 74 16' E. Population (1901), 5,439. 
Tradition ascribes its foundation to Jaura, a grandson of the legendary 
Bhatti king, Raja Rasalu, and it was the capital of Bhattiana. It was 
named Uboh-har or ' the pool of Uboh,' after Jaura's wife. It lay on the 
ancient high road from Multan to Delhi and was visited by Ibn Batata 
(a.d. 1332). In it was resident the family of Shams-i-Siraj Afif, the 
author of the Tarikh-i-Flroz Shahi, whose grandfather was collector 
of the district, then a dependency of Dlpalpur. The place is now of no 
importance. It has a Government dispensary. 

Aboo. — Tahsil, mountain, and sanitarium in Sirohi State, Rajputana. 
See Abu. 

Abor Hills. — A section of the Himalayan range lying on the 
northern frontier of Assam, between the Siom river on the west and 

ABU 3 

the Dibang on the east, occupied by tribes of Tibeto-Burman origin 
loosely termed 'Abors' or 'unknown savages.' Owing to the difficulty 
of the country and the inhospitable character of the inhabitants, these 
hills have never been properly explored. The ranges, which arr of 
considerable height, are covered with dense forest, and intersected with 
large rivers which make their way through wild and precipitous gorges 
into the plains. The Abor tribes fall into two chief sections : the 
Passi-Meyongs, who occupy the hills bounded on the west by the Miri 
country and on the east by the Dihang ; and the Bor Abors, who live 
between that river and the Dibang. The Abors are short and sturdy 
savages, with countenances of a marked Mongolian type. They possess 
a high opinion of their own strength and importance, and the want of 
population on the north bank of the Brahmaputra between 1 )ibrugarh and 
Sadiya is largely due to the dread of their raids. On several occasions 
Government has found it necessary to send punitive expeditions into 
their hills to avenge the murder of British subjects. Such expeditions 
were dispatched in 1858 and 1859 ; and in 1861, when a fresh massacre 
took place a few miles from Dibrugarh, preparations were made to 
establish a chain of outposts along the north bank of the Brahmaputra. 
The Abors appear to have been impressed by these operations, and 
entered into agreements under which they were to receive an annual 
allowance of iron hoes, salt, opium, and other articles, so long as they 
continued to be of good behaviour. For some years the tribes remained 
quiet; but in 1889 four Mlris, who were British subjects, were decoyed 
by Passi-Meyongs across the frontier and killed. The guilty villages 
were punished by a fine, but in 1893 the hillmen again broke out and 
cut up a patrol of three military police sepoys. A few weeks later 
a second attack was made on a police patrol, one of whom was killed 
and one wounded. An expedition was then sent into Abor territory, 
which occupied the principal villages after meeting with a good deal of 
resistance ; and as a further punishment a blockade was imposed against 
the tribe, which was only withdrawn in 1900. These measures appear 
to have made some impression upon the Abors, and their conduct of 
recent years has been satisfactory. A full account of their manners and 
customs will be found in Colonel Dalton's Ethnology of Bengal. 

Abu (Ar-budha, 'the hill of wisdom,' identified as the Mons Capiialia 
of Pliny). — A celebrated mountain in the south of the State of Sirohi, 
Rajputana, situated in 24 36' N. and 72 43' E., 17 miles north-west of 
Abu Road station on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, and 442 miles 
north of Bombay. Although regarded as a part of the Aravalli range, 
it is completely detached from that chain by a narrow valley, 7 miles 
across, through which flows the Western Banas, and it rises suddenly 
from the flat plain like a rocky island lying off the sea-coast of a 
continent. In shape it is long and narrow ; but the top spreads out 

b 2 

4 ABU 

into a picturesque plateau nearly 4,000 feet above the sea, about 
12 miles in length, and 2 to 3 miles in breadth. Its principal peak, 
Guru Sikhar ('the hermit's pinnacle'), is situated towards the northern 
end, and is 5,650 feet above sea-level, the highest point between the 
Himalayas and the Nilgiris. The climate is agreeable and healthy for 
the greater part of the year. The mean temperature is about 69 , 
varying from 59 in January to 79 in May; and the average diurnal 
range is about 14 , varying from 7 in August to 17 in May. The 
natural features of Abu are very bold, and the slopes, especially on the 
western and northern sides, extremely precipitous ; on the east and 
south the outline is more broken by spurs, with deep valleys between. 

The slopes and base of the hill are clothed with fairly dense forests 
of the various trees common to the plains and the neighbouring Aravalli 
range, interspersed with great stretches of bamboo jungle. Owing to its 
heavy rainfall, Abu is, as regards vegetation, by far the richest spot in 
Rajputana. On the higher parts humid types appear, which are unknown 
on the plains below. Most noteworthy of these is an epiphytal orchid 
{ambdrlari), which clings to the mango and other trees, and in the rains 
produces fine racemes of delicate pink or lilac flowers. The occurrence 
of a charming white wild-rose and of a stinging nettle (Girardinia 
heterophylla) at once reminds the visitor that he has left the arid region 
below, while the karanda {Carissa Carandas) is so abundant that during 
part of the hot season its white flowers scent the air for miles round the 
station with their delicious fragrance. The kdra (Strobilanthus callosus), 
a large handsome plant, blooms but once in six or seven years ; but its 
blue and purple flowers, when they do appear, make a great show in 
September. Several kinds of ferns are also to be found. 

The beauty of Abu is much enhanced by the Nakhi Talao, or lake 
said to have been excavated by the ' finger-nails ' {nakhi) of the gods. 
Tod described it as about 400 yards in length and the counterpart 
of the lake 3 miles above Andernach on the Rhine, while Fergusson 
knew no spot in India so exquisitely beautiful. The lake is now about 
half a mile long by a quarter of a mile broad, most picturesquely 
situated between high hills except at the western end, where a peep of 
the distant plains is obtained through a gorge. The slopes and ravines 
in the vicinity are well wooded, and several rocky islands add to the 
beauty of the scene. Colonel Tod, well-known as the author of The 
Annals of Rajaslhan, was the first European who visited Abu, and, for 
practical purposes, he may be said to have discovered the place in 
1822; for, as he expresses it in his Travels in Western India, 'the 
discovery was my own. To Abu I first assigned a local habitation 
and a name, when all these regions were a terra incognita to my 

From the time of Tod's visit till 1840, Abu was used to some extent 

ABU 5 

as a summer residence by the Political Superintendent of Sirohi and the 
officers of the old Jodhpur Legion. In 1840 invalid European soldiers 
were sent up for the first time, encamping for the hot season only. In 
1845 the Sirohi chief made over to the British Government certain 
lands for the establishment of a sanitarium, the grant being fettered by 
several conditions, one of which was that no kine should be killed on, 
or beef brought up, the hill ; and about the same time the Governor- 
General's Agent made the place his head-quarters. In this way the 
station has gradually grown up, and may now be divided into the military 
and the civil portion. The barracks were originally built near the 
Nakhi lake, but were subsequently pulled down as the situation was 
feverish, and the present site, north of the civil station, was fixed on. 
They have accommodation for 160 single men and 28 families. The 
civil portion consists of the Residency of the Agent to the Governor- 
General, eighty or ninety scattered houses, the bazar, and the lines of 
the detachment of the 43rd (Erinpura) regiment. 

The population of Abu varies, and, as in other hill stations, is greater 
from April to June than at any other period of the year. On March 1, 
1 90 1, the inhabitants numbered 3,488. Scattered about the hill are 
seventeen small villages, with a population of 1,752 persons, mostly 
Loks or Bhils. The former are said to be descended from Rajputs by 
Bhil women, and are a good-tempered, indolent, and generally ill-clad 
and dirty people, who eke out a living partly by labour and partly by 
agriculture and the produce of their cattle. The sanitary arrangements, 
lighting, &c.j of the civil portion of the station are in the hands of a 
municipal committee, of which the Magistrate of Abu is the secretary. 
The annual receipts average about Rs. 11,000, derived mainly from a 
conservancy cess, taxes on dogs, horses, ponies, and rickshaws, and 
a contribution of Rs. 3,000 from the Maharao of Sirohi ; the average 
expenditure is slightly less than the receipts. Civil and criminal juris- 
diction in the civil station, including the road thence to the Abu Road 
railway station, the bazar at the latter place, and the village of Anadra 
at the foot of the western slope of the hill, has been granted to the 
British Government by the Darbar, except in cases in which both parties 
are subjects of the Sirohi State; and since 1866, with the Maharao's 
consent, numerous British enactments have been extended to the area 
described. This jurisdiction is now exercised by an officer termed the 
Magistrate of Abu, who on the civil side exercises the powers of a Judge 
of a Court of Small Causes and of a District Court (the Governor- 
General's Agent being the Appellate and High Court), while on the 
criminal side he has the powers of a District Magistrate (the Commis- 
sioner of Ajmer-Merwara and the Governor-General's Agent respectively 
being the Court of Session and the High Court). 

There are three schools on the hill. The oldest is the Abu Lawrence 

6 ABU 

school, founded in 1854 by Sir Henry Lawrence 'to provide a refuge in 
a good climate for the orphans and other children of soldiers, and there 
to give them a plain, practical education adapted to the condition of the 
inmates and to train them to become useful members of society.' This 
institution, which has accommodation for 48 boys and 32 girls, is main- 
tained at a cost of about Rs. 30,000 a year, half of which is contributed 
by Government, one-fourth from private subscriptions, and the balance 
from fees and the interest on the endowment. A primary vernacular 
school, kept up by the municipality at a cost of about Rs. 800 a year, 
is attended by about 44 boys. The third school, known as the high 
school (for European and Eurasian children), is about 2^ miles south- 
east of the station on an excellent site. Originally maintained by the 
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, it came under private 
management in 1903, and is now assisted by a grant-in-aid from Gov- 
ernment. It has accommodation for 100 children, and the daily 
average attendance is about 72. The Lawrence and high schools be- 
tween them form the Abu Volunteer cadet company, which contains 
about 40 members. There are two hospitals on Abu, one for the British 
troops and the other for the rest of the population. 

The celebrated Delwara temples {devalwara, ' the place of temples ') 
are situated about a mile to the north of the station. They are 
five in number and all Jain ; and two of them require special notice, 
being, in many respects, unrivalled in India. The first is the temple of 
Vimala Sah, built, as the inscription records, in 1032. It is dedicated 
to Adinath, the first of the twenty-four Tirthankars of the Jains. The 
second, which is just opposite, is the temple of the two brothers 
Vastupala and Tejpala ; it is dedicated to Neminath, the twenty-second 
of the Tirthankars, and was built in 1231. Both are of white marble, 
and carved with all the delicacy and richness of ornament which the 
resources of Indian art at the time of their creation could devise. The 
temple of Vimala Sah consists of a shrine, containing a large brazen 
image of Adinath with jewelled eyes and wearing a necklace of 
brilliants. In front is a platform which, with the shrine, is raised 
three steps above the surrounding court. The platform and the 
greater part of the court are covered by a mandap or portico, cruciform 
in plan and supported by forty-eight pillars. The eight central pillars 
are so arranged as to form an octagon supporting a dome, which, 
together with its circular rims and richly carved pendant, forms the 
most striking and beautiful feature of the entire composition. The 
whole is enclosed in an oblong courtyard surrounded by fifty-two cells, 
each of which contains an image of one of the Tirthankars. Externally 
the temple is perfectly plain, and the visitor is totally unprepared for 
the splendour of the interior. At the entrance is the hdthi-khana or 
elephant-room, in the doorway of which stands a life-size equestrian 


statue of Vimala Sah, a painful stucco monstrosity, 'painted in a style 
that a sign-painter in England would be ashamed of.' Round the 
room are ten marble elephants which formerly bore riders, but the 
figures have nearly all been removed. In the other temple (that of 
Vastupala and Tejpala), the dome is the most striking feature. It 
stands on eight pillars and is a magnificent piece of work. It lias 
a pendant which is a perfect gem. 

' Where it drops from the ceiling it appears like a cluster of the half- 
-disclosed lotus, whose cups are so thin, so transparent, and so accurately 
wrought that it fixes the eyes in admiration.' 

Fergusson says : — 

' It is finished with a delicacy of detail and appropriateness ot 
ornament which is probably unsurpassed by any similar example to be 
found anywhere else. Those introduced by the Gothic architects in 
Henry the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, or at Oxford, are coarse 
and clumsy in comparison.' 

Round the courtyard are thirty-nine cells containing one or more 
images, and some of the ceilings of the porches in front of these cells 
are elaborately carved. Like its neighbour, this temple has its elephant- 
room, which, however, is much larger, taking up one side of the court. 
It is enclosed by a pierced screen of open tracery, ' the only one,' so far 
as Fergusson knew, ' of that age — a little rude and heavy, it must be 
confessed, but still a fine work of its kind.' Inside the room are ten 
elephants, which, with their trappings, knotted ropes, &c., have been 
sculptured with exquisite care. As in the older building, the riders 
have disappeared, but the slabs behind the elephants tell us who they 
originally were : for example, Vastupala with his two wives, Lalita Devi 
and Wiruta Devi ; and Tejpala with his wife Anupama. 

[J. Fergusson, Picturesque Illustrations of Ancient Architecture (1848), 
and History of Indian and Eastern Architecture (1899); C. E. Luard, 
Notes on the Dehvdra Temples and other Antiquities of Abu (Bombay, 

Abu Road (also called Kharari). — Town in the State of Sirohi, 
Rajputana, situated in 24 29' N. and 72 47' E., on the left bank of 
the Western Banas river. It is a station on the Rajputana-Malwa 
Railway, 465 miles from Delhi and 425 from Bombay ; it is also the 
terminus for the hill station of Abu, with which it is connected by 
a metalled road 17 miles long. Population (1901), 6,661. The town 
is of importance as a trade centre, as it supplies the needs of the 
neighbouring districts of the Danta, Idar, and Mewar States, and 
contains a combined post and telegraph office and a small hospital 
with accommodation for four in-patients. The railway authorities main- 
tain a primary school for European and Eurasian children attended by 


35 boys and girls, an Anglo-vernacular high school, aided by Govern- 
ment and attended by 180 pupils, and a hospital for their employes. 

Achanta. — Town in the Narasapur taluk of Kistna District, Madras, 
situated in i6° 36' N. and 8i° 49' E. Population (1891), 8,382. It 
has been constituted a Union. 

Achhnera. — Town in the Kiraoll tahsil of Agra District, United 
Provinces, situated in 27 io' N. and 77 46' E., on the road from 
Agra city to Rajputana, and at the junction of the Rajputana-Malwa 
and Cawnpore-Achhnera Railways. Population (1901), 5,375. The 
place first became of importance under the Tats in the eighteenth 
century, and a British tahsill was situated here from 1803 to 1832. It 
then declined, but has again prospered since it became a railway 
junction. Achhnera is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an 
income of about Rs. 1,200. The trade is largely local, but there is 
a cotton gin which employed 130 hands in 1903. The town contains 
a primary school with 85 pupils. 

Adam-jo-Tando. — Town in the Shahdadpur taluka of Hyderabad 
District, Sind, Bombay. See Tando Adam. 

Adam's Bridge. — A ridge of sand and rocks, about 17 miles in 
length, stretching from north-west to south-east from the island of 
Rameswaram on the coast of Madura District, Madras, to the island 
of Manaar off Ceylon, and nearly closing the northern end of the Gulf 
of Manaar. The centre of the bridge is in 9 5' N. and 79 34' E. At 
high tide three or four feet of water cover it in places. Hindu tradition 
says that the bridge was made by Hanuman, the monkey-god, and his 
army of monkeys, to convey Rama across to Ceylon in his expedition 
to recover his wife Slta, whom Ravana, the ten-headed demon-king of 
that island, had carried off. It is under consideration to carry the 
railway, which now runs as far as Mandapam, on the mainland opposite 
the island of Pamban, across to the island and thence over this ridge to 
Ceylon, thus linking up the Ceylon and Indian railways and establish- 
ing direct and unbroken communication between the port of Colombo 
and India generally. 

Adas (or Arras). — A plain in Kaira District, Bombay, situated in 
22 29' N. and 73 2' E., between Anand and the Mahi river, which has, 
in modern times, been the scene of three battles. At the first of these 
(1723) Rustam All, the imperial governor of Surat, was, through the 
treachery of Pilaji Gaikwar, defeated and slain by Hamid Khan, deputy 
of Nizam-ul-mulk. At the second (February, 1775) Raghunath Rao 
Peshwa was defeated by the Maratha confederation. At the third, a few 
months later (May 18, 1775), the Maratha army was, after a severe 
struggle, defeated by a British detachment under the command of 
Colonel Keating. Of the third battle of Adas, James Forbes, who 
was present, gives the following details : The enemy's cannon silenced, 


and their cavalry dispersed by die British artillery, a party was sent 
forward to take their guns. While a strong force of cavalry opposed 
this party's advance, a body of Maratha troops, professing to be 
partisans of Raghunath Rao, was allowed to pass between the advanced 
party and the main British line. Attacked both in front and rear, the 
forward party resisted bravely till the grenadiers, facing to the right- 
about to change ground, by some mistake began to retreat. The rest 
followed, and at the same time a tumbril of shells blowing up added to 
the confusion. The men retreated at first in order, but getting broken 
at a high hedge, fled to the main line. The enemy followed, but wire 
met by so steady a fire of grape-shot and shell that they were driven off 
the ground. The British were left masters of the field, and a gun that 
had fallen into the enemy's hands was retaken. The engagement lasted 
for four hours. Victory was dearly bought. Of fifteen British officers 
in the advanced division, seven were killed and four wounded. Eighty 
Europeans, a number of native officers, and 200 men, were killed or 

Adavad. — Town in the Chopda taluka of East Khandesh District, 
Bombay, situated in 21 13' N. and 75 28' E. Population (1901), 
5,983, including many Tadvi Bhils. It was once a place of some con- 
sequence, the head-quarters of a taluka. The site of the old offices 
is now occupied by a schoolhouse, and the people are fast carting 
away the earth of the ruined fort in the centre of the town. A school 
for boys has 152 pupils. Among the objects of interest is a fine old 
stone-and-mortar step-well, 30 feet by 12, in a ruined enclosure known 
as the Lai Bagh ('red garden'). To the north of the town is 
a mosque, built, according to an inscription on one of the steps, 
in 1678. Three miles to the north-west are the Unabdev hot 

Addanki.— Town in the Ongole taluk of Guntur District, Madras, 
situated in 15 49' N. and 79 58' E., on the banks of the Gundlakamma 
river, 23 miles from the Ongole railway station. Population (1901), 
7,230. It contains a ruined mud fort of about 79 acres in area, said 
to have been built or restored about a.d. 1400 by Haripaludu, son 
of Pratap Rudra. The Mondapati family of Ongole ruled here two 
centuries ago. Addanki is the centre of an extensive pulse-growing 
and cattle-breeding country, with a large trade in grain, and is the 
head-quarters of a deputy-lakslldar. 

Aden. — Peninsula, isthmus, and fortified town, under the Govern- 
ment of Bombay, on the south coast of the province of Yemen, Arabia, 
situated in 12 47' N. and 45 10' E. The British territory was formerly 
limited to the peninsula of Aden proper, extending to the Khor Maksar 
creek, 2 miles north of the defensive works across the isthmus. In 
1868 the island of Sirah (now connected with the mainland by a masonry 

io ADEN 

causeway), and the peninsula of Jebel Ihsan, or Little Aden, were 
acquired by purchase from the Sultan of Lahej. In 1882, owing to the 
increasing population of Aden town, a further small tract of territory 
was acquired by purchase beyond the Khor Maksar creek, extending to 
just beyond the village of Imad on the north and to Shaikh Othman on 
the north-west, about 10 miles from Bandar Tawayih. The island 
of Sokotra, in the Arabian Sea, passed under the protection of the 
British Government in virtue of a treaty concluded in 1886. 

The inhabited peninsula is an irregular oval, 15 miles in circumference, 
with a diameter of 3 to 5 miles, connected with the continent by a neck 
of land 1,350 yards broad but at one place nearly 
aspects covered at high spring tides. The causeway and aque- 

duct, however, are always above, although at certain 
seasons just above, water. Aden consists of a huge crater, walled round 
by precipices, the highest peak being 1,775 feet above the sea. Rugged 
spurs, with valleys between, radiate from the centre. A great gap in 
the circumference of the crater has been rent on its sea-face, opposite 
the fortified island of Slrah, by some later volcanic disturbance. The 
town and part of the military cantonment lie within the crater, and con- 
sequently are surrounded on all sides by hills. Lavas, brown, grey, and 
dark green, compact, schistose, and spongy breccias, and tufas form 
the materials of this volcanic fortress ; with occasional crystals of augite, 
sanidin, small seams of obsidian, chalcedony in the rock cavities, 
gypsum, and large quantities of pumice-stone, of which several thousand 
tons are exported yearly to Bombay. The scanty vegetation resembles 
that of Arabia Petraea, and includes only ninety-four species ; the more 
arid forms of Dipterygium glaucum, Capparideae, Risida amblyocarpa, 
Cassia pubescens, Acacia eburnea, and Euphorbiaceae predominating. 

The harbour, Bandar Tawayih, or Aden West Bay, more generally 
known as Aden Back Bay, lies between the two peninsulas of Jebel 
Shum Shum and Jebel Ihsan, extending 8 miles from east to west by 
4 from north to south, and is divided into two bays by a spit of land 
running off half a mile to the southward of the small island of Aliyah. 
The depth of water in the western bay is from 3 to 4 fathoms ; across 
the entrance, 4A to 5 fathoms, with 10 to 12 fathoms 2 miles outside. 
The bottom is sand and mud. There are several islands in the inner 
bay ; the principal, Jazlrah Sawayih or Slave Island, is 300 feet high, 
and is almost joined to the mainland at low water. Large vessels lie 
off Steamer Point. 

The Peninsular and Oriental Navigation Company's steamers call 
weekly at the port to receive, tranship, or land passengers and mails. 
There are numerous lights and lightships at Aden and Perim. The 
chief are the Aden Cape Light at Ras Marshag, visible for 20 miles, 
and the High Light on Perim with a range of 22 miles. The Aden 


lightship is visible fur 10 miles, and fires a gun whenever a v< 
enters the harbour at night. 

The average temperature of Aden is 87 in the shade, the mean 
monthly range being from 75 in January to 98 in June, with variations 
up to (and sometimes exceeding) 102 . The lulls between the monsoons 
in May and in September are specially oppressive. The mortality 
among the Europeans, although greatly increased by sick or dying men 
from the passengers and crews of ships, amounts to only 7-24 per 
thousand, and Aden ranks as a rather healthy station for troops ; but 
it is a well-ascertained fact that long residence impairs the faeulties and 
undermines the constitution of Europeans, and even natives of India 
suffer from the effects of too prolonged an abode in the settlement. 
The climate during the north-east monsoon, or from October to April, 
is cool and pleasant, particularly in November, December, and January. 
During the remainder of the year, hot sandy winds, known as shamal, 
or ' north,' indicating the direction from which they come, prevail 
within the crater, but on the western or Steamer Point side the breezes 
coming directly off the sea are fairly cool. The rainfall may be said 
to vary from A inch to 8^ inches, with an irregular average of about 
3 inches. Since the restoration of the tanks commenced in 1S56, they 
have only been filled six times, in May, 1866, May, 1870, and September, 
1877, 1889, 1893, and 1897. The settlement is exceptionally free from 
infectious diseases and epidemics. The absence of vegetation, the dry- 
ness of the soil, and the purity of the drinking-water constitute efficient 
safeguards against many maladies common to tropical countries. 

Aden formed part of Yemen under the ancient Himyarite kings. 

It has been identified with the Eden of Ezekiel xxvii. 23, whose 

merchants traded ' in all sorts, in blue clothes, and __. . 

. 1-1 History, 

broidered work, in chests of rich apparel, bound with 

cords, and made of cedar.' Aden, the 'Apafiia evdaiixav of the Periplus, 

is mentioned as 'Adavrj, one of the places where churches were erected 

by the Christian embassy sent forth by the emperor Constantius, 

a.d. 342. Its position rendered it an entrepot of ancient commerce 

between the provinces of the Roman empire and the East. ' About 525 

Yemen, with Aden, fell to the Abyssinians, who, at the request of the 

emperor Justin, sent an army to revenge the persecution of the 

Christians by the reigning Himyarite dynasty. In 575 the Abyssinians 

were ousted by the Persians. Anarchy and bloodshed followed. The 

rising Muhammadan power reached Aden ten years after the Hijra. It 

became subject successively to the Ummayid Khalifs, the Abbassids 

(749), and the Karamite Khalifs (905), until the period of Yemen 

independence under its own Imams (932). Aden continued in the early 

centuries of Islam to be a place of flourishing commerce. It carried on 

a direct trade with India and China on the east, and with Egypt (and so 

i2 ADEN 

indirectly with Europe) on the west. In 1038 Aden was captured by 
the chief of Lahej, and remained under his successors till 1 137. During 
the next three centuries it was frequently taken and retaken by the 
conflicting powers in the south of Arabia. About the year 1 500 the 
Yemen Imam, then in possession, constructed the aqueduct of 9 miles 
from Bir Mahait into Aden, the ruins of which exist to this day. In 
1503 Aden was visited by Ludovico de Varthema. Ten years later it 
was attacked by the Portuguese under Albuquerque, who had been 
charged by King Emmanuel to effect its capture. His expedition left 
India on February 18, 15 13, with twenty ships and 2,500 sailors, and 
reached Aden on Easter Eve. The assault was delivered on Easter 
Sunday. An outwork with thirty-nine guns fell to the Portuguese ; but, 
after a four days' bloody siege, Albuquerque was repulsed with great 
slaughter, and had to content himself with burning the vessels in the 
harbour and cannonading the town. In 1516 the Mameluke Sultan of 
Egypt failed in a similar attack. Later in that year the fortress was 
offered to the Portuguese under Lopo Soares d'Albergaria ; but the 
defences having been meanwhile repaired by the native governor, it was 
not delivered up. About 1 5 1 7 Sellm I, Sultan of Turkey, having over- 
thrown the Mameluke power in Egypt, resolved to seize Aden as a 
harbour, whence all the Turkish expeditions against the Portuguese in 
the East, and towards India, might sail. This project was carried out 
in August, 1538, by an expedition sent forth by his son Sulaiman the 
Magnificent, under the admiral Rais Sulaiman. The Turkish sailors 
were conveyed on shore lying on beds as if sick ; and the governor was 
invited on board the Turkish fleet, where he was treacherously seized 
and hanged. The Turks strengthened the place with 100 pieces of 
artillery and a garrison of 500 men. For a time Aden, with the whole 
coast of Arabia, remained under the Ottoman power. Before 155 1 the 
townsmen had rebelled and handed the place over to the Portuguese, 
from whom, however, it was retaken in that year by Peri Pasha, the 
Capidan of Egypt, and still more strongly fortified. In 1609 Aden was 
visited by the East India Company's ship Ascension, the captain being 
well received, and then thrown into prison until the governor had 
got as much as he could out of the ship. Next year Sir Henry 
Middleton also visited Aden, and one of his ships being left behind, a 
similar act of treachery was repeated. About 1614 Van den Broeck 
arrived on behalf of the Dutch East India Company, was, as usual, well 
received, but obtained a hint that he had better leave, and returned 
unsuccessful to India. In 16 r 8, by the desire of Sir Thomas Roe, 
British ambassador to the Mughal emperor, permission was obtained to 
establish a factory at Mokha. In 1630 the Turks were compelled to 
evacuate Yemen, and Aden passed again to the native Imams of that 
province. In 1708 the French visited the port, and in 1735 it was 


seized by the Abdali Sultan of Lahej. During the next seventy yi 
formed the subject of constant struggles among various Arabian claim- 
ants. In 1802 Sir Home Popham concluded a treaty of friendship and 
commerce with the chief, and in 1829 the Court of Directors thought of 
making it a coaling station, but abandoned the idea owing to the 
difficulty of procuring labour. Aden was attacked by the Turkchi 
Bilmas in 1833, and sacked by the Fadhlis in 1836. The chief soon 
afterwards committed an outrage on the passengers and crew of a 
British buggalow wrecked in the neighbourhood; and in January, 1838, 
Captain Haines, on behalf of the Government of Bombay, demanded 
restitution. It was arranged that the peninsula should be ceded for a 
consideration to the British. But various acts of treachery supervened; 
and it was captured in January, 1839, by H. M. steamers Vo/age, 
28 guns, and Cruiser, 10 guns, with 300 European and 400 native 
troops under Major Baillie — the first accession of territory in the reign 
of Queen Victoria. Captain Haines thus described its condition when 
it passed into British hands : — 

' The little village (formerly the great city) of Aden is now reduced to 
the most exigent condition of poverty and neglect. In the reign of 
Constantine this town possessed unrivalled celebrity for its impenetrable 
fortifications, its flourishing commerce, and the glorious haven it offered 
to vessels from all quarters of the globe. But how lamentable is the 
present contrast ! With scarce a vestige of its former proud superiority, 
the traveller values it only for its capabilities, and regrets the barbarous 
cupidity of that government under whose injudicious management it has 
fallen so low.' — {MS. Journal, pp. 44, 49.) 

A stipend of 541 German crowns was assigned to the chief during 
his good behaviour. But the Abdali proved fickle, and in three attacks, 
the last in 1841, he was repelled with heavy loss. In 1844 he implored 
forgiveness, and his stipend was restored. In 1846 a fanatic, named 
Saiyid Ismail, preached & jihad among the neighbouring tribes, but was 
routed. Occasional outrages in the neighbourhood, such as atrocities 
on boats' crews and plunderings, have from time to time disturbed the 
peace ; but each has been very promptly checked. The adjacent penin- 
sula of Jebel Ihsan, Little Aden, was obtained by purchase in 1868 ; an 
advance of the Turkish troops on the Lahej territory took place in 1872, 
but was withdrawn in consequence of representations made by the 
British Government to the Porte. 

Attached to the settlement of Aden are the islands of Perim, Sokotra, 
and Kuria Muria. Perim is a volcanic island in the Straits of Bab-el- 
Mandeb, i\ miles from the Arabian and n miles from the African 
coast. It had been visited by Albuquerque in 15 13, and was occupied 
by the British in 1799 during Napoleon's invasion of Egypt, as a pre- 
caution against the descent of the French army upon India, but 



subsequently abandoned. In 1857, with the introduction of the over- 
land route, it was reoccupied, and a lighthouse built upon it to facilitate 
the navigation of the straits. In 1883 a company was formed, which 
obtained a concession on the western side of the island as a site for a 
coaling station, and a large number of vessels now call annually for the 
purpose of taking coal. The island of Sokotra passed under the pro- 
tection of the British Government in virtue of a treaty concluded in 
April, 1886. The Kuria Muria islands were ceded by the Imam of 
Maskat in 1854. They are valuable only for the guano deposits found 
upon them. 

A joint commission, representing the British and Turkish Govern- 
ments, delimitated the boundary of the Aden Protectorate in 1903-4. 
This led to some disturbance with the frontier tribes, and a small 
military force was employed in protecting the commission. 

The area of Aden Peninsula is 2 1 square miles ; of Little Aden, 1 5 
square miles ; of the subsequently acquired tract of Shaikh Othman, 

39 square miles ; and of Perim, 5 square miles : total; 

80 square miles. The inhabitants numbered 6,000 in 
1839, exclusive of the troops; 15,000 in 1842 ; 19,289 in 1872 ; 34,860 
in 1881 ; 44,079 in 1891 ; and 43,974 in 1901. The distribution is as 
follows : — 


Area in 







lation per 

Percentage 1 

of variation 1 Number 

in popula- of persons 
tion between ! aD ' e to 

1 89 1 and read and 
1901. writ e- 

Aden . 







+ O-OI 

- 8.82 






— 0-24 


The European residents and Christians number 3,969 ; Muham- 
madans, 33,581 ; Jews, 3,059. The Parsis (328), Jains (166), and 
Hindus (2,725) have most of the local trade in their hands. 

At the Census of 1901 the population was largely returned as Arabs 
(19,468) and Shaikhs (3,180). The chief Arab tribes are described by 
Captain Hunter as follows : The Abdali inhabit a district lying in a 
north-north-westerly direction from Aden, called Lahej, about 7,7, miles 
long and 8 broad. Al Hautah, the capital, where the Sultan resides, is 
situated about 2 1 miles from the Barrier Gate. The population of this 
district is about 14,500. The Abdali are the most civilized but least 
warlike of all the tribes in south-western Arabia. The Fadhli possess 
two large districts, with a seaboard of 100 miles, extending eastward 
from the boundary of the Abdali. Shukra, their chief seaport, is 


situated 60 or 70 miles from Aden. They are proud, warlike, and 
independent, and have about 6,700 fighting men. The Akrabi inhabit 
a district the coast-line of which stretches from Bir Ahmad to Ras 
Amran. This tribe has a high reputation for courage. The Arab 
chiefs in the neighbourhood are nearly all stipendiaries of the British 

The language of the settlement is Arabic ; but other Asiatic tongues, 
as Urdu, Persian, Gujarat!, Sindi, &c, as well as several European 
languages, are spoken. 

The Somalis from the African coast and Arabs do the hard labour 
of the port. There are also a few Arab merchants of substance. 
Many of the Somalis and Arabs have no homes, but find their meals 
at the. cook-shops, and sleep in the coffee-houses or in the open air. 
The increasing pressure of the civil population upon the military town 
and garrison led to arrangements being made to acquire a suitable 
site to locate the large number of natives who lead a hand-to-mouth 
existence ; and by the purchase of the Shaikh Othman tract, in 
February, 1882, the difficulty of want of room has been removed. The 
food of the whole population, civil and military, is imported, Aden 
producing not a blade of grain. Rice comes from Calcutta, Bombay, 
and Malabar ; jowar, bajra, and maize are carried on camels from the 
interior. Coarse grass and the straw of jowar and bdjra are brought 
for the horses and camels from the Lahej and Fadhli districts in the 
neighbourhood. The people have an untidy and makeshift air, which 
contrasts with the personal cleanliness of an Indian population. This 
arises partly from the scarcity of water, partly from the temporary nature 
of their residence and out-of-door life. They earn high wages in the 
various employments incident to a busy entrepot and port of tranship- 
ment. Domestic servants receive Rs. 15 to Rs. 25 a month ; grooms, 
Rs. 15 to Rs. 20; boatmen, messengers, &c, Rs. 15 to Rs. 20. These 
classes also get three gallons of water per day besides their wages. 
Porters and day-labourers earn daily from a rupee upwards, according 
to their industry. The cost of living is high. 

As far as the settlement is concerned there are no products whatever, 
with the important exception of salt. This commodity is manufactured 
on a stretch of ground situated near Shaikh Othman. The crops in 
the low country axejo7vdr (red and white) : sesamum, from which oil is 
manufactured ; cotton to a small extent ; madder for dyeing purposes ; 
wars or bastard saffron ; and a little indigo, from which the favourite 
Arab cloth is dyed. In the hills, wheat, madder, fruit, coffee, and a 
considerable quantity of wax and honey are obtained. The Amiri 
district supplies aloes, dragon's blood, wooden rafters, and ghl, while 
dragon's blood and aloes come from Sokotra. 

The water-supply forms, perhaps, the most important problem at 

1 6 ADEN 

Aden ; but it has been found that the most reliable means of supply is 

by condensing, and but little is now drawn from the wells and aque- 

„. . , ducts. Water is obtained from four sources — wells, 

Water-supply. , ' 

aqueducts, tanks or reservoirs, and condensers. The 

following description is abridged from a report by Captain F. M. 

Hunter, First Assistant Resident, dated 1877 : — 

(1) Wells. — These may be divided into two classes, within and 
without British limits. Water of good quality is found at the head of 
the valleys within the crater, and to the west of the town, where wells 
are very numerous. They are sunk in the solid rock to the depth of 
from 120 to 190 feet ; in the best the water stands at a depth of 70 feet 
below sea-level. The sweetest is the Banian Well, situated near the 
Khussaf valley ; it yields a daily average of 2,500 gallons ; the tempera- 
ture of the water is 102 , the specific gravity 0-999, and it contains 1-16 
of saline matter in 2,000 gallons. 

Close to the village of Shaikh Othman, and on the northern side 
of the harbour, there is a piece of low-lying ground, called the Hiswah, 
where the bed of a mountain torrent meets the sea. After very heavy 
rains on the neighbouring hills, the flood occasionally empties itself into 
the harbour by this outlet. From wells dug in the watercourse a limited 
supply of water may always be obtained. It is brought over to the 
southern side of the bay in boats, and is also conveyed in leathern 
skins on camels round by land across the isthmus into the settlement. 
Water of a fair quality is obtained from wells in the village of Shaikh 
Othman, and is carried into Aden on camels. During the hot season 
these Hiswah and Shaikh Othman wells yield no inconsiderable portion 
of the quantity of water used by the civil population, as may be gathered 
from the fact that 112 water-carts, or upwards of 1 7,000 gallons, passed 
the barrier gate daily in 1903. 

(2) Aqueduct. — In 1867 the British Government entered into a con- 
vention with the Sultan of Lahej, by which it obtained permission to 
construct an aqueduct from two of the best wells in the village of Shaikh 
Othman, 7 miles distant. The water is received inside the fortifications 
into large reserve tanks, and is thence distributed to the troops and 
establishments, and also to the public in limited quantities at one rupee 
per hundred gallons. This water is of an indifferent quality, and is fit 
only for the purposes of ablution. The Sultan of Lahej subsequently sold 
the territory through which the aqueduct passes, and commuted his share 
of the profits for a monthly payment of Rs. 1,200. The aqueduct cost 
3 lakhs to construct, and the original intention was to extend the work 
up to Darab, 8 miles farther inland. This latter place is situated on 
the bank of the torrent, the outlet of which, on the northern side of 
the harbour, has been already referred to ; and the object was to take 
advantage of the rainfall in the months of May, June, July, August, 


and September, on the hills some 20 miles farther inland, befon 
the thirsty sands had time to drink it up. 

(3) Tanks or Reservoirs (see Playfair's History of Yemen). The 
expediency of constructing reservoirs in which to store rain-water 
was recognized in Arabia at a very early date. They are generally 
found in localities devoid of springs, and depend on the winter rains 
for a supply of water during the summer months. The most remarkable 
instance on record is the great dam at Mareb, assigned to 1700 11. c. 
Travellers who have penetrated into Yemen describe many similar works 
in the mountainous districts, while others exist in the island of Said- 
ud-dln, near Zaila ; in Kotto in the Bay of Amphilla ; and in Dhalak 
Island, near Massowah. Those in Aden are about fifty in number, and, 
if entirely cleared out, would have an aggregate capacity of nearly 
30,000,000 gallons. 

There is no trustworthy record of the construction of these reservoirs, 
but they are supposed to have been commenced at the time of the 
second Persian invasion of Yemen, circ. a.d. 600. They cannot be 
attributed to the Turks. The Venetian officer who described the 
expedition of the Rais Sulaiman in 1538, when Aden was first con- 
quered by the Turkish nation, says : ' They [the inhabitants of Aden] 
have none but rain-water, which is preserved in cisterns and pits 100 
fathoms deep.' Ibn Batuta had previously mentioned the tanks 
as the source of the Aden water-supply in his day (circ. 1330). Mr. 
Salt, who visited Aden in 1809, thus describes the tanks as they then 
existed : — 

' Amongst the ruins some fine remains of ancient splendour are to be 
met with, but they only serve to cast a deeper shade over the devastation 
of the scene. The most remarkable of these reservoirs consists of a line 
of cisterns situated on the north-west side of the town, three of which 
are fully 80 feet wide and proportionately deep, all excavated out of the 
solid rock, and lined with a thick coat of fine stucco, which externally 
bears a strong resemblance to marble. A broad aqueduct may still be 
traced which formerly conducted the water to these cisterns from a deep 
ravine in the mountain above ; higher up is another, still entire, which 
at the time we visited it was partly filled with water.' 

When Captain Haines, then engaged in the survey of the Arabian 
coast, visited Aden in 1835, some of the reservoirs appear to have been 
still in a tolerably perfect state. Besides the tanks built high up on 
the hills, several large ones were traceable round the town. But the 
necessary steps not having been taken to preserve them from further 
destruction, they became filled with debris washed down from the hills 
by the rain. The people of the town carried away the stones for 
building purposes ; and, with the exception of a very few which could 
not be easily destroyed or concealed, all trace of them was lost, save 
where a fragment of plaster, appearing above the ground, indicated the 

vol. v. c 

1 8 ADEN 

supposed position of a reservoir, believed to be ruined beyond the 
possibility of repair. 

In 1856 the restoration of these magnificent public works was 
commenced, and thirteen have been completed, capable of holding 
7, 7 r 8,630 gallons of water. It is almost impossible to give such a 
description of these extraordinary walled excavations as would enable 
one who has not seen them to understand them thoroughly. Trees have 
now been planted in their vicinity, and gardens laid out, making the 
only green spot in the settlement. The Shum-Shum (Sham-sham) hills, 
which form the wall of the crater, are nearly circular; on the western 
side the rainfall rushes precipitously to the sea, down a number of long 
narrow valleys unconnected with each other ; on the interior or eastern 
side the hills are quite as abrupt, but the descent is broken by a large 
table-land occurring midway between the summit and the sea-level, 
which occupies about one-fourth of the entire superficies of Aden. 
The plateau is intersected by numerous ravines, nearly all of them 
converging into one valley, which thus receives a large proportion of 
the drainage of the peninsula. The steepness of the hills, the hardness 
of the rocks, and the scantiness of the soil upon them combine to 
prevent absorption ; and thus a very moderate fall of rain suffices 
to send down the valley a stupendous torrent of water, which, before 
reaching the sea, not unfrequently attains the proportions of a river. 
To collect and store this water, the reservoirs have been constructed. 
They are fantastic in shape. Some are formed by a dike built across 
the gorge of a valley ; in others, the soil in front of a re-entering angle 
on the hill has been removed, and a salient angle or curve of masonry 
built in front of it ; while every feature of the adjacent rocks has been 
taken advantage of and connected by small aqueducts, to ensure that 
no water be lost. The overflow of one tank has been conducted into 
the succeeding one, and thus a complete chain has been formed. In 
1857, when only a very small proportion of the whole had been 
repaired, more water was collected from a single fall of rain on 
October 23 than the whole of the wells yield during an entire year. 
It is manifest, however, that a large city could never have depended 
entirely on this precarious source of supply ; and the sovereign of 
Yemen, Abdul Wahhab, towards the close of the fifteenth century, 
constructed an aqueduct to convey the water of the Bir Mahait 
(Playfair says 'Bir Hameed ') into Aden. The ruins of this magnificent 
public work exist to the present day. 

The restoration of the tanks, including repairs, has cost about 
5^ lakhs. Of late years it has been the practice to put the tanks up to 
auction for a definite period, the highest bidder trusting to a good fall 
of rain to recoup his outlay. The water collected used to be sold at 
R. 1 per 100 gallons, and, when the tanks are full, the annual revenue 


amounts to about Rs. 30,000. But when the rain fails and the tanks 
are exhausted, a skin containing 5 gallons of brackish water has at times 
sold for 8 annas. 

(4) Condensers. — Shortly before the opening of the Suez Canal, the 
Government foresaw the necessity of obtaining a plentiful and unfailing 
supply of good water, and in 1867 several condensers, on the most 
approved principle, were ordered from England. A brisk trade 'in 
distilled water sprang up, and six condensers are now worked by the 
Government and private companies, capable of yielding 52,000 gallons 
a day, or a sufficient supply for 10,400 Europeans at 5 gallons per 
head. In 1903-4 condensed water was sold at Rs. 1-8-5 P er 
100 gallons. The cost of working the condensers in that year was 
Rs. 54,871- 

The trade of Aden has immensely developed under British rule. From 
1839 to 1850 customs dues were levied as in India. In 1850 the 
Government of India declared Aden a free port, and 
thus attracted to it much of the valuable trade 
between Arabia and Africa, formerly monopolized by Mokha and 
Hodaida. Customs duties are levied on spirits, wines, &c, salt, and 
arms. A transhipment fee of Rs. 100 per chest is levied on all opium, 
other than of Indian growth, imported for transhipment or re-export. The 
value of imports and exports during the seven years preceding the 
opening of the port in 1850 averaged 18 lakhs; during the next seven 
years it averaged 60 lakhs, excluding inland traffic; in 1870 it rose to 
174 lakhs, and in 188 1-2 it reached 381 lakhs. For the year 1903-4 
the total value of the sea import trade, exclusive of treasure, was 
467 lakhs, and the total value of the sea export trade was 375 lakhs. 
The inland trade is also considerable, its total value in 1903-4, 
exclusive of treasure, being 43 lakhs. The opening of the Suez Canal 
has been mainly responsible for this increase in the trade of Aden, 
which in 1903-4 amounted to 1033 lakhs, by sea and land, exclusive of 
the value of goods transhipped and Government stores and treasure. 
The growing importance of the port may be inferred from the steamer 
traffic, which in thirty years has risen from 894 to 1,657 vessels. Of 
the 1,369 merchant steamers in 1903-4, 857 were British, 153 German, 
136 French, 97 Austrian, 83 Italian, 19 Russian, and 17 Dutch. 
During the sixty-three years of British rule in Aden the population has 
multiplied nearly sevenfold, and the trade has risen from less than one 
lakh per annum. Aden now not only forms the chief centre of the 
Arabian trade with Africa, but is an entrepot and place of transhipment 
for an ever-increasing European and Asiatic commerce. This comprises 
an extensive trade in coffee berries (the unhusking and cleaning of 
which form an important industry in Aden), skins, piece-goods, and 

c 2 

2o ADEN 

Aden is subject politically to the Government of Bombay. The 

administration of the settlement is conducted by a Resident, who has 

. , four Assistants. The Resident is also Military 

Administration. _ , , . „ „ . , . J 

Commandant, and is usually an officer selected from 

the Indian Army, as are also his Assistants. Three of these are 

stationed at Aden and one at Perim. The Resident has jurisdiction as 

a Judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court in matters connected with the 

slave trade ; his court is also a Colonial Court of Admiralty. The 

laws in force in the settlement are, generally speaking, those in force 

in the Bombay Presidency, supplemented on certain points by special 

regulations drawn up to suit local conditions. 

The total revenue receipts of the Aden treasury in 1903-4 under all 
heads — imperial, local, and municipal — amounted to 80 lakhs, compared 
with 18 lakhs in 1881 and 38 lakhs in 1891. The chief items are 
excise (one lakh), ' excluded ' funds, such as the Port Trust and Aden 
Settlement funds (6\ lakhs), municipal funds (2 lakhs), post office 
(6i lakhs), and local supply bills (50^ lakhs). The income of the can- 
tonment fund in 1903-4 was Rs. 9,730, and the expenditure the same. 

Land is not sold in Aden. Sites of buildings and gardens are 
granted in perpetuity, and sites for stacking coal or salt, for beaching 
boats, for slips, and for workshops, &c, are given on leases for a term 
of ninety-nine years on payment of quit-rent as follows : — 

In the peninsula : — 

On building sites . . .6 pies per sq. yard per annum. 
On land granted on leases . 2 pies per sq. yard per annum. 

In Shaikh Othman : — 

On building sites . . .2 pies per sq. yard per annum. 
On garden land . . . Rs. 6 per acre per annum. 

Sites granted for manufacture of 8 annas per ton on the quantity 
salt manufactured and exported. 

Funds for the maintenance of sanitary and conservancy arrangements 
within the settlement are raised by the levy of octroi, house tax, and 
other imposts. In 1903-4 the sum thus levied was about 2 lakhs. In 
place of a former municipal committee, an executive committee has 
been established under Regulation VII of 1904 for the management 
of local affairs, subject to the control of the Resident. This committee 
was credited with the balance of the municipal fund, now called the 
Aden Settlement fund. 

Up to April 1, 1889, the management of the port was under the 
direct control of the Port Officer, who received orders, when necessary, 
from the Resident. In that year, however, a Board of Trustees was 
formed under the provisions of Bombay Act V of 1888, which has since 
controlled the management of the harbour. The principal task of the 
Port Trust has been to make arrangements for the deepening of the 


harbour, so as to allow vessels of all sizes to enter and leave the inner 
harbour at all states of the tide. For this purpose a large and powerful 
dredger was purchased in 1890. Since that date the progress made 
with the dredging of the harbour has been satisfactory. In order to 
provide the necessary funds, the levy of tolls and wharfage fees on goods 
landed or shipped has been sanctioned by the Board. In 1903-4 
the receipts thus derived exceeded 4^ lakhs and the disbursements 
were 3^ lakhs. 

The garrison of Aden on March 31, 1904, comprised three com- 
panies of garrison artillery, two battalions of British infantry, a company 
of sappers and miners, and two native regiments. Exclusive of troops 
at Perim and in the interior, the garrison comprised 1,178 British and 
1,015 native troops. 

The police number 216, the cost being Rs. 59,571 in 1903-4, and the 
proportion one policeman to 204 of the population. The cost of the 
harbour police, numbering 42, was Rs. 13,515. The daily average 
number of prisoners in jail in 1903-4 was 31. 

In the settlement of Aden 18 per cent, of the total population 
(24-4 males and 3-2 females) were able to read and write in 1901. In 
1 88 1 Aden had only 4 Government schools with 427 pupils. In 1891 
the number had increased to 31, and in 1901 to 37 schools with 
1,503 pupils. In 1903-4 there were 45 schools with 2,172 pupils, 
including 295 girls. Of these institutions, 5 are English, 2 GujaratI, 
32 Urdu, and 3 Arabic. The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 
was Rs. 6,352. The Good Shepherd Convent, under a Mother 
Superior and a Roman Catholic clergyman, has established schools, 
both in Aden and at Steamer Point. 

Aden has two hospitals and three dispensaries. In 1903-4 the 
number of patients treated in these institutions was 34,982, of whom 
2,186 were in-patients, and 1,962 operations were performed. The total 
expenditure was Rs. 53,000. Separate military hospitals are main- 
tained for the garrison. Perim has two dispensaries, one military and 
one private, in which 1,035 patients were treated in 1903-4. Of these, 
219 were in-patients. The average number of persons successfully 
vaccinated in Aden is 54 per 1,000. 

Adichanallur. — Village in the Srivaikuntam taluk of Tinnevelly Dis- 
trict, Madras, situated in 8° 38' N. and 77 50' E., on the right bank of 
the Tambraparni river, 3 miles west of Srivaikuntam and 15 miles from 
Palamcottah. Excavations conducted by Mr. Rea, the Superintendent 
of the Archaeological Survey, in 1899 and the following years, have 
shown that this is the most extensive and important prehistoric burial- 
place as yet discovered in Southern India. Hundreds of ancient sepul- 
chral urns have been unearthed in a long piece of high ground on 
the south bank of the river, about 100 acres of which have new been 


marked off by Government and protected from molestation until the 
excavations shall have been completed. In this ground the urns are 
found at an average distance of only 6 feet apart, and at from 3 to 
10 feet or more below the surface. In the centre, about 3 feet of the 
surface soil is composed of gravel with decomposed quartz rock below. 
The rock has been hollowed out for the urns, a separate cavity being 
prepared for each and a band of rock left between it and the next. 
The chambers thus made have preserved their contents in an almost 
perfect condition ; and from those which have so far been opened, 
representing only a small fraction of the whole, have been taken, besides 
the bones and skulls of the dead, more than 1,200 objects, including 
many unique and curious specimens of work in bronze and iron, pottery, 
and some pure gold ornaments. The iron articles found comprise 
large bracketed and small hanging lamps, swords, spears, knives, adzes, 
celts, hammers, rings, bangles, beam rods, tridents, tripods, axes, arrows, 
chisels, &c, &c. Those made of bronze include small cups, moulded 
and ornamented jars, flat bowls and platters, and some curious lamps. 
Some of the pottery vessels are of exquisite shape and moulding, with a 
fine glaze. These finds have been deposited in the Madras Museum. 
A tradition asserts that near this site was a most extensive town, and 
the deposits above described seem to support it. Mr. Rea thinks that 
the place might have been a Pandyan town, as from many observations 
he has made this mode of urn-burial appears to have been that adopted 
by the Pallavas and Pandyas. Further excavations are still going 
on at Adichanallur, and they will probably lead eventually to more 
definite results. 

Adilabad District. — District in the north of the Warangal Division 
of the Hyderabad State, formerly known as the subdistrict of Sirpur 
Tandur, before the changes made in 1905. It is bounded on the north 
and north-east by Berar and the Chanda District of the Central Pro- 
vinces ; on the east by Chanda ; on the south by Kanmnagar and 
Nizamabad Districts ; and on the south-west by Nander and the Basim 
District of Berar. The river Penganga separates it from Berar on the 
west and north, and the Wardha and Pranhita from Chanda on the 
north-east and east. It has an area of 7,403 square miles. The 
Sahyadriparvat or Satmala range traverses the District from the 
north-west to the south-east, for about 175 miles. Hills of minor 
importance lie in the east 

The most important river, which drains its southern portion, is 
the Godavari, separating it on the south from Nizamabad and partly 
from Karlmnagar. The next in importance is the Penganga, which 
runs along the western and northern borders until it falls into the 
Wardha. The other rivers are the Waidha and the Pranhita, which 
run along the north-eastern and eastern borders of the 1 )istrict. The 


minor streams are the Peddavagu, the Kapnavarli, and the Amlun, 
the first an affluent of the Wardha, and the two latter of the Penganga. 

The geological formations include the Archaean gneiss, the Cud da 
pah, Sulla vai, and Gondwana series, and the Deccan trap. 

The District is covered to a large extent by forests, in which teak, 
ebony, bilgu (Chloroxylon Swietenta), jittigi {Dalbergia latifolia), mango, 
tamarind, and bijasdl (Pterocarpus Marsupiuvi) grow to a great height. 

The hills abound in large game, such as tigers, bears, leopards, 
hyenas, wolves, and wild dogs. In jungles on the plains, nilgai, 
sambar, and spotted deer are met with in large numbers. 

The District is the most unhealthy in the State, owing to the large 
extent of forests. The temperature rises in May to 1 05 and falls in 
December to 5 6°. The annual rainfall of the District averages about 
41 inches. 

The population, according to the Census of 1901, is 477,848. In its 
present form the District comprises eight taluks : Adilabad (or Edlabad), 
Sirpur, Rajura, Nirmal, Kinwat, Chinnur, Lakhsetipet, and Jangaon. 
The towns are Adilabad, the District head-quarters, Nirmal, and Chin- 
nur. About 80 per cent, of the population are Hindus, more than 10 
per cent, being Gonds, and about 6 per cent, are Musalmans. The revenue 
demand is about 6-5 lakhs. For further details see Sirpur Tandur. 

The District is divided into three subdivisions for administrative pur- 
poses : one consisting of the Adilabad (or Edlabad), Sirpur, and Rajura 
taluks, placed under a Second Talukdar, while the second, comprising 
Lakhsetipet, Chinnur, and Jangaon, and the third, consisting of Nirmal 
and Kinwat, are each under a Third Talukdar. 

The First Talukdar is the Chief Magistrate as well as the Civil Judge 
of the District, having a judicial assistant, called the Ada/at Madadgar, 
who is also a Joint Magistrate, exercising powers during the absence 
of the First Talukdar from head-quarters. The Second and Third 
Talukdars and the tahslldars exercise second and third-class magisterial 
powers. The Second and Third Talukdars have no civil jurisdiction, 
but the tahslldars preside over the tahsll civil courts. 

Local boards have recently been established in the District. 

Adilabad Taluk (or Edlabad). — Taluk in Adilabad District, Hyder- 
abad State, with an area of 2,220 square miles. The population in 1901, 
including Jagtrs, was 112,314, compared with 99,332 in 1891. The 
taluk contains one town, Adilabad (population, 6,303), the head- 
quarters of the District and taluk, and 420 villages, of which 30 are 
jagir. The land revenue in 1901 was 1-4 lakhs. In 1905 part of the 
taluk was transferred to the new taluk of Kinwat. Adilabad is very 
sparsely populated, containing extensive uncultivated wastes. 

Adilabad Town (or Edlabad). — Head-quarters of the District and 
taluk of the same name in Hyderabad State, situated in 19 4' N. and 


78 $$' E. Population (1901), 6,303. Besides the offices of the First 
Talukdar, the police Superintendent, the customs inspector, and the 
forest ddroga, a dispensary, a post office, and a school are situated here. 
Adilabad contains a Hindu temple, where an annual fair is held. It 
also has a busy grain market. 

Adirampatnam.— Town and port in the Pattukkottai taluk of 
Tanjore District, Madras, situated in io° 20' N. and 79 23' E., with a 
station on the District board railway. It is called after Adivlra Raman, 
the Pandya king (1562-1610). Population (1901), 10,494. It is the 
inmost and most protected point in the bay formed by the southern 
seaboard of the Tirutturaippundi taluk and the eastern seaboard of 
Pattukkottai. A brisk trade is carried on with Ceylon; rice and coco- 
nuts are the principal exports, and gunny bags, areca-nuts, grain, and 
treasure the chief imports. The Musalman tribe of Labbais, who are 
active traders, are a numerous community in the place. There is a salt 
factory here, and also an old Siva temple containing inscriptions. 

Adoni Subdivision. — Subdivision of Bellary District, Madras, 
consisting of the Adoni and Alur taluks. 

Adoni Taluk. — Northernmost taluk of Bellary District, Madras, 
lying between 15 30' and 15 58' N. and 76 56' and 77 38' E., with 
an area of 839 square miles. The population in 1901 was 178,784, 
compared with 160,795 in 1891. It contains three towns, Adoni 
(population, 30,416), the head-quarters, Yemmiganur (13,890), and 
Kosigi (7,748) ; and 191 villages. The demand for land revenue and 
cesses amounted in 1903-4 to Rs. 3,44,000. With the taluks of Alur, 
Bellary, and Rayadrug, Adoni forms the great level eastern plain of the 
District, most of which is covered with fertile black cotton soil and is 
broken only by a few scattered rocky eminences. Cotton, cholam 
{Sorghum vulgare), and korra (Selaria italica) are the principal crops, 
and the soil is the best in the District after Alur, the assessment on 
unirrigated land averaging 14 annas an acre. The crops are, however, 
almost entirely dependent upon rainfall, only 1 per cent, of the total 
area, most of which is supplied by wells, being protected from drought 
in all seasons. It is thus extremely liable to scarcity, and suffered very 
severely in the great famine of 1876-8, when one-third of the inhabi- 
tants perished from starvation or disease. 

Adoni Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Bellary District, Madras, situated in 15 38' N. and 77 17' E., on the 
road from Bangalore to Secunderabad, connected with Guntakal junction 
by the north-west line of the Madras Railway, and distant 307 miles from 
Madras city. It is the largest town in the District after Bellary, and is 
a steadily growing place with a population (1901) of 30,416, of whom 
60 per cent, were Hindus and as many as 37 per cent. Musalmans. 
Christians are very few. 


Adoni possesses a strong fort on the top of a precipitous cluster of 
rocky hills ; and, being the capital of an important frontier tract in the 
fertile doab of the Kistna and Tungabhadra, it played a conspicuous 
part in the intestine wars of the Deccan. In the fourteenth century it 
was perhaps the finest stronghold of the Vijayanagar kings, and Firishta 
says that they regarded it as impregnable, and had all contributed to 
make it an asylum for their families. Though several times threatened, 
it was never taken until after their final downfall at the battle of Talikota 
in 1565. In 1568 the Sultan of Bijapur at length captured it; and 
thereafter it remained a Muhammadan possession until it passed, with 
the rest of the Ceded Districts, to the British in 1800. One of the 
earliest of the Bijapur governors was Malik Rahman Khan (1604-31), 
whose tomb stands in a picturesque position on the cluster of rocks on 
which the fort is built, and is still maintained by a grant from Govern- 
ment. The best known of them is Sidi Masud Khan (1662-87), wn ° 
built the beautiful Jama Masjid, employing materials from several 
neighbouring Hindu temples which he had destroyed. This cost 2 lakhs 
and is one of the finest mosques in the Presidency. In 1686, when 
Aurangzeb marched south to annex the Bijapur dominions, he sent a 
general to take Adoni. Failing in other methods, and knowing Masud 
Khan's love for the mosque he had built, he trained his guns, says 
tradition, upon the building and threatened to fire upon it unless the 
fort was surrendered. Mastid Khan, who held the mosque dearer than 
his life, at once capitulated. In 1756 the Nizam granted Adoni as a 
idgir to his brother Basalat Jang, who made it his capital. Haidar All 
of Mysore twice attacked the fortress without success while it belonged 
to Basalat Jang; and, though in 1778 he defeated the Marathas under 
its walls and in the following year laid waste the country round, it did 
not surrender. Basalat Jang died in 1782, and lies buried in an 
imposing tomb to the west of the town, which is still carefully kept up. 
In 1786 Tipu, Haidar's son and successor, captured the place after a 
siege of one month, demolished the fortifications, and removed the 
stores and guns to Gooty. It formed part of the possessions of Tipu 
which were allotted to the Nizam at the partition of 1792, and in 1800 
the Nizam ceded it to the British. The remains of this famous fort 
stand on five hills, which are grouped in an irregular circle and enclose 
a considerable area. The two highest of the five are called the 
Barakhilla and the Talibanda, and on the top of the former are the old 
magazines and a curious stone cannon. The oldest antiquities in the 
place are some Jain figures cut on the rocks, which are now cared for by 
the Jains. The town below the fortress consists of nine pettahs or 
suburbs, and most of the streets are very narrow and crooked, though 
improvements have been made of late. 

Adoni is the chief centre of the cotton trade of the District and the 


commercial mart for all the north. It contains five factories for pressing 
and cleaning cotton, all worked by steam, which employ on an average 
500 hands in the season. The chief industries are the weaving of 
cotton and silk. The cotton carpets made here have a considerable 
reputation for both colour and durability, and are sold all over the 
Presidency as well as in other parts of India. Adoni was made a 
municipality in 1867. The municipal receipts and expenditure during 
the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 44,900 and Rs. 53,800 
respectively. In 1903-4 they were Rs. 56,500 and Rs. 50,000; the 
former consist chiefly of the proceeds of the taxes on houses and land, 
a contribution from Government, and the water rate. The town pos- 
sesses water-works, which were completed in 1895 at a total cost 
of Rs. 1,57,000. The annual cost of their maintenance amounts to 
Rs. 5,200. The water is obtained from a large artificial reservoir at the 
foot of the rocky hills on which the fort stands. This has been enlarged 
and improved, and fitted with filter-beds and settling-tanks. Its 
capacity is 45 million cubic feet, but the supply is very precarious, and 
it has already once been necessary to pump from wells sunk in its bed. 
The Ramanjala spring, at the foot of the hills near the reservoir, 
supplements the supply for four months in the year. This spring 
never dries up. 

Adrampet. — Town in Tanjore District, Madras. See Adirampatnam. 

Aeng. — Township of Kyaukpyu District, Lower Burma. See An. 

Afghanistan. — -The geographical designation popularly applied to 
the mountainous region between North-Western India and Eastern 
Persia, of which the Afghans are the predominant and most numerous 
inhabitants. This extensive application of the term is scarcely older 
than the short-lived empire founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in the 
middle of the eighteenth century, when the Punjab and Kashmir were 
also included in the Afghan sovereignty. The Afghans themselves do 
not use the term : an Afghan will speak of his home as being at Kabul, 
Herat, or elsewhere, but never as being in Afghanistan. For the 
purposes of this article, the term may be held to apply to the dominions 
under the actual sovereignty of the Amir. These dominions, which 
now form an independent State within the British sphere of influence, 
consist of a great quadrilateral between 29 23' and 3 8° 31/ N. and 
6o° 45' and 72 o' E., with a long narrow strip (Wakhan) extending to 
74 55' E. ; and its total area has been estimated by the Surveyor- 
General of India at about 246,000 square miles. 

In 1885, when the second edition of the Imperial Gazetteer was 
published, it was possible to state the boundaries of Afghanistan only 
in rough geographical outline ; to-day they are, except in a few 
localities, as well defined by international agreement and subsequent 
delimitation as those of a state in Europe. 


On the north Afghanistan is hounded by Russian territory, or 
territory under Russian influence. The whole of this northern frontier 
has been demarcated, from Zulfikar on the west to Lake Victoria mi 
the east. From the east end of this lake the boundary runs south to 
a peak on the Sarikol range, north of the Taghdumbash Pamir, where 
it strikes Chinese territory. This section has also been demarcated. 
The eastern frontier of Afghanistan marches with Chitral, and thence 
with territory occupied by trans-frontier tribes under British influence 
.to Domandi in the south-east. The eastern boundary has been defined, 
but in certain localities it has not been demarcated ; throughout its 
length it traverses a mountainous country. From Domandi to Koh i 
Malik-Siah, Afghanistan is bordered on the south by Baluchistan ; 
and its western frontier, from Koh-i-Malik-Siah in the south to Zulfikar 
in the north, marches with Persia. 

The following description of the natural divisions of Afghanistan is 
taken from a paper read by Sir Thomas Holdich before the Society of 
Arts {Society of Arts Journal of March 1 1, 1904) : — 

'Afghanistan is a long, oval-shaped country, stretching through 700 
miles of length from south-west to north-east, with a general breadth 
of about 350 miles, narrowing to a point on the 
north-east, where an arm is extended outwards to Physical 
the Pamirs. Right across it, from west to east (but 
curving upwards to touch this extended arm at its eastern extremity), 
is a band of mountains, which separates the basin of the Oxus on the 
north from that of the Indus and the Helmand on the south, but 
which still leaves space for a river (the Hari Rud, or river of Herat) 
to form a basin of its own on the north-west.' 

To the north of it lie Afghan-Turkistan and Badakhshan, in the basin 
of the Oxus and the fertile Herat valley. 

' A very large space of Central Afghanistan is occupied by the long 
spurs of the great mountain mass beyond Kabul, over which runs the 
high road to Bamian and the Oxus. These long spurs extend south- 
westwards till they reach Kandahar; and they enclose the valleys of 
the Helmand, the Arghandab, the Farrah, and other rivers, all of which 
drain to the Helmand lagoons. All the northern parts of them, about 
the highly elevated base from which they spring, possess a well-merited 
reputation for bleak, inhospitable, unproductive savagery. There is no 
more unpromising land in Asia than the wind-swept home of the 
Hazara tribes, over a great space of its northern surface.' 

South of Badakhshan, from which it is separated by the Hindu Kush, 

' The Kabul river basin includes the most beautiful, if not the most 
fertile, of the romantic valleys of Afghanistan. The great affluents 
from the north which find their way from the springs and glens of the 


Hindu Kush are as full of the interest of history, as they are of 
the charm which ever surrounds mountain-bred streams, giving life 
to the homes of a wild and untamed people. The valleys of the 
Ghorband and of the Panjshlr are valleys of the Hindu Kush, scooped 
out between the long parallel flexures which are the structural basis of 
the system. With Kohistani villages below and battlemented strong- 
holds above, breaking here and there into widened spaces where the 
ancient terraces of a former river-bed are streaked and lined with the 
artificial terraces of modern cultivation, and thick groves of apricot and 
walnut-trees are grouped round the base of the foothills and the walls of 
the scattered villages, there is no more enchanting scenery to be found 
in the [Swiss] Alps than in these vales.' 

With the exception of the deserts to the south and south-west of 
Kandahar, the lower part of the courses of the rivers Helmand and 
Hari Rud, and the plains which extend from the northern slopes of 
the Hindu Kush to the Oxus, Afghanistan has an elevation of more 
than 4,000 feet, and vast regions are upwards of 7,000 feet above 
the sea. It is intersected in all directions by massive ranges of moun- 
tains, which on the north and east form a series of natural barriers, 
and whose rugged peaks often rise to 15,000 and 20,000 feet above 

By far the most important of these ranges is the Hindu Kush. This 
range takes its origin at a point near 37 o' N. and 74 38'' E., where the 
Himalayan system finds its north-west termination in a mass of towering 
peaks ; and it extends in a south-westerly direction to about 34° 30" N. 
and 68° 15' E. Its peaks probably rise throughout to the region of 
perpetual snow, 15,000 feet above sea-level, while many of them are 
between 20,000 and 25,000 feet in altitude. 

Another important range is the Koh-i-Baba, which, starting from the 
western peaks of the Hindu Kush, runs in a westerly direction to the 
south of Yak Walang, where it breaks into three branches : namely, the 
Band-i-Turkistan, the Siah Bubak or Band-i-Baba, and the Band-i-Baian. 
This last, which is known at its western end as the Safed Koh, divides 
the drainage of the Hari Rud from that of the Helmand. The average 
elevation of the Koh-i-Baba is about 10,000 feet above the sea, but 
there are peaks of nearly 1 7,000 feet. This range forms the backbone 
of the Hazarajat. 

The most conspicuous range in Eastern Afghanistan is another 
Safed Koh, not to be confounded with the range above mentioned of 
the same name. This chain, reaching in its highest summit, Sikaram, 
a height of 15,620 feet, divides the valley of Jalalabad from the Kurram 
river and Afridi Tirah ; and among its northern and eastern spurs are 
those formidable passes, between Kabul and Jalalabad, which witnessed 
the disasters of 184 1-2, and the famous Khyber Pass between Jalalabad 
and Peshawar. An offshoot southwards terminates in a plateau con- 


sisting of the Psein Dag and Toba. This chain practically divides 

Afghanistan from the Indus valley. 

The plain region of Afghanistan is of but small extent. As aln 
stated, it is practically limited to the country between the foot of the 
northern spurs of the Hindu Kush and the Oxus (the great plain of 
Afghan-Turkistan), the lower part of the courses of the Hari Riid, 
Farrah, and the Helmand, and the desert to the south of Kandahar. 

Afghanistan may be divided into three great river basins : namely, 
those of the Oxus, the Helmand, and the Kabul. With the Oxus basin 
may be included those of the Murghab 1 and the Hari Rud, though 
neither of these rivers finds its way to the Oxus, both being lost in the 
great desert lying to the north-west of Afghanistan, the former near 
Merv and the latter in the Tejend oasis. 

The Oxus basin occupies the whole breadth of Northern Afghanistan 
from east to west. With its affluents it drains the Western Pamirs ; 
and its southern watershed is defined by the Hindu Kush, the Koh-i- 
Baba, and the Band-i-Baian, which separate it from the basins of the 
Kabul and Helmand. Numerous valleys contribute their snow-fed 
waters to form the great turbid river, which rolls sluggishly along 
between the ancient Bactria and the modern Bokhara until it empties 
itself into the Aral Sea. Its chief tributaries are the Kokcha and the 
Surkhab or Kunduz ; the Tashkurghan, the Band-i-Amir, the Sar-i-Pul, 
and the Kaisar or Maimana also belong to its basin. 

The Helmand [Etymander) river, with its tributaries, drains all the 
south-western portion of Afghanistan. It rises in the western slopes of 
the Paghman range, between Kabul and Bamian, and flows in a south- 
westerly direction through the Hazarajat, being joined about 35 miles 
south-west of Girishk by three great tributaries, the Arghandab, the 
Tarnak, and the Arghastan. From this junction its course continues 
south-west for 75 miles, when it turns west and finally loses itself in 
the Seistan Hamun. 

The basin of the Kabul river is divided from that of the Helmand 
by the Paghman range, an offshoot of the Hindu Kush. This river 
rises about 40 miles west of Kabul city, near the Unai pass, and flows 
in a general easterly direction to Dakka, where it turns northwards, 
forming a loop enclosing much of the Mohmand country. It then turns 
east and south again, and eventually joins the Indus at Attock. Its 
principal northern tributaries are the Panjshlr, Tagao, Alishang, Alingar, 
and Kunar. These rise in the mountainous region to the north and 
north-east of Kabul, and their valleys communicate with passes which 
lead into Badakhshan, Kafiristan, Chitral, and the Pamirs. The only 

1 To be distinguished from the Aksu-Murghab, which joins the Oxus at Kila 


important affluents from the south are the Logar and the Surkhab, 
whose valleys mark good natural roads. 

The south-eastern corner of Afghanistan is drained by the Gonial, 
which rises in the hills about 60 miles south-east of Ghazni. At 
Domandi it is joined by the Kundar, and it debouches into the valley 
of the Indus at Kajuri Kach. 

Excluding Lake Victoria in Eastern Wakhan, and the Seistan Hamun, 
the greater part of which lies in Persian territory, there is, strictly 
speaking, only one lake in Afghanistan, namely, the Ab-i-Istada. On 
most maps a large expanse of water known as the Nawar is shown west 
of Ghazni; but this is merely a valley 30 miles in length by 10 in 
breadth, which, owing to want of outlet, forms a great marsh during the 
spring and dries up in the autumn. The Ab-i-Istada lies about 65 miles 
south-west of Ghazni, and about 70 miles north-east of Kalat-i-Ghilzai. 
It is a shallow expanse of water, not more than 1 2 feet deep in the 
middle, with an extreme length and breadth of 17 and 15 miles. Its 
principal feeder is the Ghazni river. The water is so salt and bitter that 
fish on entering the lake sicken and die. The surrounding country 
is barren and dreary, and contains very few permanent inhabitants, 
though during the summer months it is a favourite grazing-ground of 
the Ghilzai tribes. 

Lake Victoria, also known as Wood's Lake and as the Sarikol, is 
situated in 37 28' 'N. and 73 40' E. This lake was discovered by 
Captain Wood in 1838. Its normal dimensions are about 10 miles by 
1^, which are, however, augmented by the annual inundation of a larger 
area on the melting of the summer snows. Lake Victoria is situated in the 
Great Pamir at an elevation of about 13,800 feet. It lies on the boundary 
between Afghanistan and Russian territory ; and from its western 
extremity flows the Pamir river, which joins the Ab-i-Panja at Kila Panja. 
A great part of Afghanistan is still a terra incognita to geologists. 
Only a small portion of the mountainous country which extends from 
the Sulaiman range to the Hazarajat on the north-west has been 
scientifically examined. The upper Hari Riid valley, most of the Flroz 
Kohi and Taimani country, the greater part of the Hazarajat, and North- 
Eastern Badakhshan have yet to be explored. Mr. C. L. Griesbach, 
late Director of the Geological Survey of India, visited Afghan-Turkistan 
and the Kandahar-Kabul country, and the following account is taken 
from notes recorded by him. 

The older rocks (palaeozoic and mesozoic) are met with chiefly along 
the main mountain axis of Afghanistan. Strips of these rocks occur also 
in a few localities north of the main axis, and some doubtful and 
unfossiliferous rock-groups in the Kabul district may also, possibly, be 
of older date than Cretaceous. Beds with true carboniferous forms have 
been found from the Araxes in Armenia to Central Afghanistan. They 


form narrow strips at the base of the old mesozoics, and have been 
traced in a more or less uninterrupted zone along the Central A iian 
watershed. Above the carboniferous system, and closely connected 
with it, is an extensive and continuous series of strata. Whereas the 
carboniferous system consists entirely of marine deposits, these overlying 
strata would seem to have been precipitated close to a coast-line, marine 
beds alternating with purely fresh-water beds, or with littoral formations 
containing plant remains and coal seams. The uppermost of the series 
may be regarded as of Upper Jurassic and neocomian age. 

The Cretaceous system forms widespread deposits in Afghanistan. A 
large portion of Afghan-Turkistan, with the Band-i-Turkistan, Koh-i- 
Baba, &c, is formed of cretaceous rocks, while west and north-west the 
system extends in strips throughout the Herat province. Cretaceous 
rocks also occur in great force in the section between the Hindu Kush 
and Peshawar, while the south-western extensions of the Central Afghan 
ranges — the spurs which ex-tend to Kandahar, the Khojak range, and 
Quetta — are also of Upper Cretaceous composition. 

Along its southern and south-western, and partly on its western 
boundaries, Afghanistan is skirted by Tertiary and sub-recent deposits, 
which form most of the deserts and great plains of the lower Helmand 
drainage. Tertiary deposits also fill the Herat valley. Badghis, the 
Maimana district, and the greater part of Afghan-Turkistan form a 
portion of the enormous Aralo-Caspian basin, which is, for the most 
part, filled with Tertiary and later deposits. In the Herat valley, 
Maimana, and Turkistan, the great divisions of the Tertiary series are: — 

Upper pliocene . 5. Blown sands and recent alluvium. 
[ 4. Loess deposits and old fans. 

Lower pliocene . \ 3. Fresh-water deposits, with plants and land 


Miocene . . 2. Estuarine miocene beds. 

Eocene . . 1. Marls and limestone. 

The eocene division of the Tertiary system closely follows the 
distribution of the Upper Cretaceous beds, and represents one of the 
most widespread of all deposits known to occur in Afghanistan. The 
salt-bearing formations, which are extensively met with in Northern 
Afghanistan and Turkistan, are believed to belong to the miocene 

The flora is a reflection of the climatic extremes to which the country 
is subject. The bitterly cold and snowy winter, the damp raw spring, 
the excessively hot summer and dry autumn render Afghanistan suitable 
for a vegetation that is mainly annual or, if perennial, is largely composed 
of species with buried rootstocks that send up annual leafy shoots 
during spring and early summer. The general aspect of the country, 
save where artificial irrigation is possible and extensive cultivation is 


carried on, is that of a desert, and the plants that are met with are 
mainly of Persian and Arabian types. On the southern slopes of the 
Hindu Kush, where the greater elevation induces rather more humidity, 
there is a forest belt of oaks and conifers, the latter including several 
species of Finns, fir, yew, and cedar : of these the cedar appears to 
be the most plentiful. The oak is chiefly Quercus Ilex ; with it are 
associated walnut, wild almond, and myrtle. A similar forest tract 
occurs on the northern slopes of the Safed Koh. This forest zone, 
between 6,000 and 10,000 feet, includes also the majority of the ferns 
and mosses to be met with. Lower than this, between 3,000 and 
6,000 feet, the wild olive, privet, several Mimoseae, Rhamneae, 
and some Astragali are to be found. The still lower zone 
which skirts this region is marked by scattered trees of Fistacia, with 
patches of Celtis and Dodonaea. In the upper portions of the Herat 
valley, the plane, the hawthorn, the maple, and the juniper are fre- 
quently met with. Poplars, willows, mulberries, walnuts, apricots, apples, 
pears, and peaches are often planted ; and in Southern Afghanistan the 
date-palm is sometimes cultivated. The vine is abundant and wide- 
spread. Plants belonging to several genera of the natural orders 
leguminosae, Compositae, Cruciferae, Umbelliferae, labiatae, Boragineae, 
and Solanaceae are grown ; and in all districts where there is extensive 
cultivation there is a rank vegetation of weeds, including the dandelion, 
buttercup, mouse-ear, chickweed, larkspur, fumitory, caper-spurge, wild 
chicory, hawkweeds, ragwort, thistle, scurvy grass, shepherd's purse, 
wild mustard, wild turnip, wild carrot, dwarf mallow, dock, sorrel, 
datura, deadly nightshade, and the like. Rushes, sedges, duckweeds, 
&c, abound in the stagnant wet ditches, where also the fool's parsley, 
hemlocks, and other U?nbelliferae, with some Ranunculi, are to be found 1 . 
In the desert wastes the vegetation is very scanty, a stunted brush- 
wood, and this only at rare intervals, taking the place of trees. In 
sandy spots the brushwood is mainly dwarf tamarisk and camel's-thorn ; 
elsewhere its composition is more varied. Among its constituents the 
genus Astragalus is perhaps the most strongly represented ; a number 
of these yield the coarse tragacanth known as katlra. Great Umbelliferae 
are also striking objects; of these the species that yields asafoetida is the 
most important. The plant from which this gum resin is obtained 
grows wild, often in company with those that yield galbanum and 
ammoniacum gums, in all the sandy and gravelly plains of the western 
portion of the country. The sap is collected between April and June, 
and is taken by the Kakars, who carry on the industry, to Kandahar, 
whence the bulk of it is exported to India; for though asafoetida is 
commonly used by Muhammadans throughout India as a condiment, 
it is not an article of general consumption in Afghanistan itself. 

1 Contributed by Major Prain, I. M.S., Director, Botanical Survey of India. 



One of the most striking features of Afghanistan, which it shares with 
Persia and other lands of the Orient, is the change that takes place in 
the aspect of the country in spring. Wide stretches of what in summer 
and autumn were arid wastes are then clothed with sheets of red, 
white, and yellow tulips, lilies, hyacinths, daffodils, and irises, as with 
a many-hued carpet. 

Tigers and leopards are found in the jungles of the Hari Rod and 
Murghab ; the former are also, but rarely, to be met with in a few other 
parts of the country, while leopards are more generally distributed. 
The wolf, hyena, and fox are common in all localities, and hog in many; 
the otter is found in most of the rivers ; the Persian lynx is met 
with at Kandahar and in Western Afghanistan, where the wild ass 
and gazelle also abound. The brown bear, the wild dog, and the 
snow ounce are not uncommon in the Hindu Kush, which also contains 
the ibex {Capra sibirica) and the markhor {Capra falconeri). In other 
mountain regions the black bear, the markhor, and the urial {Ovis 
vignei) are to be found. Marmots of large size swarm in the highlands 
of the Hazarajat. 

Snakes abound all over Afghanistan. The commonest kind is 
a russet-green thick-bodied snake, about i^ feet long, quite harmless 
and an inveterate foe to white ants. In the Registan, a horned viper 
of a deadly variety is common. Another species frequently met with 
is Vipera obtusa, known to natives as the shutarmar, an ugly reptile 
of a slate colour, fortunately more terrible in appearance than in the 
venom of its bite, though this is not infrequently fatal. Of the more 
deadly of the Indian snakes, the cobra is found in most of the warmer 
districts, and Echis carinata in the desert to the south-west. 

The climate of Afghanistan is as diversified as its physical configura- 
tion, such diversities being almost entirely due to difference of elevation 
rather than of latitude. Its remarkable feature is the extreme range 
of temperature within limited periods. The cold in the winter season 
is everywhere intense above an elevation of 5,000 feet. At Ghazni 
(7,280 feet) the snow lies for three months, during which period the 
inhabitants seldom leave their houses, the thermometer sinking io° to 
1 5° F. below zero. In the Hazarajat the winter is equally severe, and 
at Kabul only slightly less so. During the winters of 1884-5 tne 
Afghan Boundary Commission experienced 44 of frost in their winter 
quarters north of Herat. Nevertheless, the winter at Herat is mild as 
compared with Ghazni or Kabul ; at Kandahar it is milder still, snow 
falling on the plain only in exceptional seasons, while at Jalalabad the 
temperature is scarcely colder than that of Northern India. Owing to 
the general aridity of the climate, the heat in summer is almost every- 
where great, except in the very elevated parts of the mountain ranges. 
At Kabul, though at an elevation of 5,780 feet, the thermometer 

vol. v. v>. 


sometimes ranges from 90 to roo° in the shade, and for many weeks 
hot winds and dust-storms are of daily occurrence. At Kandahar the 
thermometer frequently records over no° in the shade; and a similar 
temperature is experienced in Farrah, in the valley of the Oxus, and 
in parts of Afghan-Turkistan. The Herat summer is milder as a 
rule, though great heat is often experienced in the valleys. In the 
confined valley of Jalalabad the temperature is sometimes as high 
as at the hottest stations in India. Afghanistan is quite beyond the 
influence of the south-west monsoon, and rainfall in summer is of rare 

Meteorological observations taken at Kabul for about eight years 
prior to 1901 give the average annual rainfall for that period at 
ir inches, of which the greater part falls in March and April, while the 
average mean temperature for four representative months was as follows : 
January, 31-4°; May, 67-4°; July, 72-2°; November, 51-2°. 

The modern Afghanistan comprises in the north the ancient geogra- 
phical areas of Aria or Hari Rfid, and Bactria (capital Bactra, the 
modern Balkh), and on the south Drangiana and 
Arachosia, while the region of the Paropamisus corre- 
sponds with the tract north of the Kabul river. All these lands were 
included in the Persian empire, and were directly ruled by Iranian 
chieftains. The population in the north was Iranian, tempered in the 
south by a large Indian element \ Alexander's campaigns in Afghanistan 
are well-known, and the cities of Herat {Alexandria Arion) and 
Kandahar (Alexandria Arachoton) probably owe their foundation or 
rebuilding to him. After his death the eastern portion of his empire 
passed to Seleucus Nicator, the founder of the Seleucid dynasty, 
with the exception of the Indian provinces, including probably the 
Kabul valley, which were absorbed in the kingdom of the Mauryas 
founded by Chandragupta, the grandfather of Asoka. The decline 
of the Seleucid power was marked by the establishment of a separate 
Greek kingdom in Bactria, the first beginnings of which go back to 
about 246 B.C. 2 , and which about fifty years later made large conquests 
in India. The Afghan cradle of the extended kingdom broke off from 
the Indian accretions ; part of it fell to the Parthians, and the rest was 
conquered about 130 B.C. by the Sakas, a tribe from Central Asia whose 
name is preserved in Seistan (Sakastene). Less than two centuries 
afterwards the Yueh-chi, another horde from the same locality, crushed 
out the last remnants of Greek rule, and also expelled the Parthians. 
Kanishka, the greatest of their kings (the ' Kushans '), ruled up to 
Benares on the east and Malwa on the south. He stands next to Asoka 

1 Pak/yike,tht Pashtu country, is a term used by Herodotus (iii, 102) for Arachosia. 

2 Western Afghanistan remained longer in Seleucid hands, and then passed succes- 
sively to the Parthians, the Sassanids, and the Arabs. 



in the legends of Buddhism as a protector and spreader of the faith, 
a builder of stufias, and the convener of a great council which laid down 
the sacred canon of Northern Buddhism. The empire of Kanishka till 
to pieces not long after his death ; hut Turki kings of his race reigned 
for several centuries after in the Kabul valley 1 , and the Chinese pilgrim 
Hiuen Tsiang (seventh century A. D.) found them still professing Buddh 
ism. About the end of the ninth century the Turk! Shahis gave place 
to Hindu rulers, who finally disappeared before the onslaught of the 

The Arabs, after overthrowing the Persian empire of the Sassanids at 
the battle of Nehawend (642), occupied Western Afghanistan, and Herat 
became one of the principal cities of the Muhammadan world ; but their 
efforts to add Kabul to their territories were foiled by the resistance 
of the Shahi kings. On the break-up of the Khalifat, the Persian 
Saffarids (ninth century) ruled for a short time in Herat and Balkh, and 
were succeeded by the more powerful Samanids, and they in turn by the 
Turkish house of Ghazni. The greatest of the Ghaznivids was Mahmud 
the Iconoclast (998-1030), who ruled over Afghanistan, Trans-Oxiana, 
Western Persia, and the Punjab, and made many expeditions farther into 
India, which served the double purpose of spreading the faith and afford- 
ing plunder from the unbeliever. Mahmud was, however, much more than 
an ordinary Asiatic conqueror. ' He founded and endowed a university 
at Ghazni, and his munificence drew together perhaps the most splendid 
assemblage of literary genius, including the poet FirdausI, that any 
Asiatic capital has ever contained. Ghazni was enriched with palaces 
and mosques, aqueducts and public works, beyond any city of its age ; 
for Mahmud had known how to learn from India as well as to plunder 
it V After his death his outlying possessions in the west and north fell 
into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, while the Afghan house of Ghor 
finally dispossessed his descendants first of their remaining Afghan, 
and then of their Indian, dominions. 

The greatest of the Ghorids was Shahab-ud-din Muhammad (1 173— 
1 206), who conquered the whole of Northern India and was the virtual 
founder of the first Muhammadan empire of Delhi. On his death this 
empire started into independent existence under his Turkish viceroy, 
the founder of the Slave-King dynasty, and the Ghorids sank back into 
insignificant Afghan princes. After a brief epoch of incorporation in 
the short-lived empire of Khwarizm (Khiva), Afghanistan was overrun 
by the Mongol hordes of Chingiz Khan ; and the greater part of it 
remained under his descendants till the advent of that other great 

1 The recent researches of Dr. Stein have thrown light on this dynasty, which 
adopted the Persian title of Shahi. 

2 S. Lane-Poole, Mtihammadati Dynasties, p. 288. Mahmud's Ghazni was destroyed 
by the Ghorids in 1153. 

D 2 


scourge of Asia, Tlmur Lang, who subdued the whole country and then 
passed on to sack Delhi (1398). After his death (1405) his mighty 
empire soon fell to pieces, but his descendants continued to rule in 
Herat, Balkh, Ghazni, Kabul, and Kandahar. One of them — Babar, 
then king of Badakhshan, Kabul, and Kandahar — descended upon 
India at the head of a Turki-Afghan army in 1525, and in 1526 over- 
threw Sultan Ibrahim Lodi of Delhi (himself of Afghan descent) at 
Panlpat, and thus laid the foundation of the Mughal empire in India. 
Babar did not, however, live long enough to consolidate his Indian 
conquests, which were confined to the Punjab and Hindustan proper ; 
and his son Humayun was driven from India by Sher Shah, possibly 
a descendant of the house of Ghor, and only returned shortly before his 
death. The real builder of the mighty Mughal empire which dominated 
the greater part of India was Babar's grandson, Akbar (1 556-1605). 
From this time the Afghan possessions of the dynasty became of 
secondary importance. Badakhshan had been occupied by the Uzbegs ; 
Herat, and later Kandahar, fell under the Persian dynasty of the 
Safavids ; and Ghazni and the Kabul province were all that were left in 
undisputed Mughal possession. 

In 1708 the Ghilzais of Kandahar threw off the Persian yoke, and 
a few years after defeated the Safavids in Persia itself, while the Abdalis 
(Durranis) took Herat and overran Khorasan. Both clans were expelled 
from Persia by the great Nadir Shah, who followed them up into 
Afghanistan, and by 1738 was master of the whole country, including 
the remaining Mughal possessions. Thence he made the celebrated 
expedition which resulted in the sack of Delhi (1739), but did not 
extend his permanent conquests beyond the Indus. On his assassina- 
tion in 1747 Afghanistan became, for the first time for many centuries, 
a national monarchy under Ahmad Shah, the Sadozai chief of the 
Abdali or Durrani tribe. Ahmad Shah, who reigned till 1773, extended 
his sway over Khorasan, Kashmir, Sind, and the Punjab. He is best 
known in Indian history by his famous victory over the Maratha hosts 
at Panlpat (1761), which dissipated their dream of universal dominion 
in India and indirectly paved the way for British supremacy. 

Ahmad Shah was succeeded by his son Tlmur, during the twenty 
years of whose reign Sind was lost to the Durrani kingdom \ Balkh and 
other districts in Afghan-Turkistan became virtually independent, and 
the foundation of revolt was laid in Khorasan and Kashmir. On the 
death of Tlmur Shah in 1793, his son Zaman succeeded, and during 
the short term of his troubled reign the Punjab east of the Indus was 
lost. In 1799 Mahmud, another son of Tlmur, seized the throne, which 
in 1803 passed, as the result of a conspiracy, to his brother Shuja Mirza, 
henceforward known as Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk. In 1809, in consequence 
1 It was again occupied, but for a very short time, by vShah Shuja. 


of the intrigues of Napoleon in Persia, Mr. Mountstuart Elphinstone 
was sent as envoy to Shah Shuja at Peshawar, without any profitable 
result ; for while the British mission was at Peshawar grave events were 
occurring in Afghanistan. Shah Shuja's administration was unpopular ; 
the flower of his army was engaged in crushing a rebellion in Kashmir ; 
and the opportunity was taken by the ex-king, Mahmud Shah, to strike 
a blow for himself. Shah Shuja was defeated and fled, and Mahmud 
was (1809) for a second time proclaimed king. Six years later Shah 
Shuja arrived, a refugee, at the British station of Ludhiana, in the 
Punjab. Mahmud reigned nine years ; but the real power was in 
the hands of his able Wazlr, Fateh Khan, the eldest son of Paindeh 
Khan, Barakzai, who expelled the Persians from Herat, which they had 
seized. In 18 17 Fateh Khan was blinded by his jealous sovereign, an 
act which sealed the fate of the Sadozai dynasty. Muhammad Azlm, 
the full brother of Fateh Khan, and Dost Muhammad, his half-brother, 
took the field to avenge the Wazlr's wrongs, with the result that Mahmud 
fled from Kabul and was deposed in 1818, having first caused Fateh 
Khan to be murdered. 

For some years there was now no settled ruler in Afghanistan. 
Muhammad Azlm held Kabul and was the principal administrator of 
the kingdom ; but he was neither king nor Amir, and his brothers, who 
were governors of provinces, and other Afghan chiefs could scarcely be 
said to obey him. Meanwhile the kingdom was falling to pieces. Herat 
was alienated; Afghan-Turkistan and Badakhshan were lost; and Ranjit 
Singh had conquered Kashmir, Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan, and Attock, 
and was threatening Peshawar, which he secured after defeating the 
Afghan army at Naushahra in 1823. Muhammad Azlm died in the 
same year ; civil war ensued between the remaining Barakzai brothers. 
In 1826 Dost Muhammad made himself lord of Kabul and Ghazni, to 
which he soon after added Jalalabad. In 1835, after defeating an 
attempt by Shah Shuja to regain his lost kingdom, he assumed the title 
of Amir. 

At the end of 1836 the proceedings of Russia and the relations between 
the Amir and Ranjit Singh created uneasiness, which induced the British 
Government to depute Sir Alexander Burnes to the Amir's court. The 
mission, professedly a commercial one, had also in view the checking of 
the advance of Persia on Herat and the establishment of peace between 
the Amir and Ranjit Singh. Burnes was well received, but the Amir's 
demand that the British should help him against Ranjit Singh was 
rejected. While communications were still in progress, a Russian 
officer, Captain Vikovitch, arrived in Kabul. Lord Auckland demanded 
his dismissal, and the renunciation on Dost Muhammad's part of all 
claim to the former Afghan provinces in the possession of Ranjit Singh. 
These conditions were refused, and the rash resolution was then taken 


to re-establish Shah Shuja on the Afghan throne. A treaty was con- 
cluded with Ranjit Singh, under which he obtained from Shah Shuja 
the formal cession of all the territory he had acquired from the Afghans, 
and agreed to co-operate cordially with the expedition about to be 
dispatched to Kabul to dethrone Dost Muhammad. In spite of this 
treaty, Ranjit Singh eventually declined to let the British expedition 
cross his territories, though a Sikh force, with Sir Claud Wade and 
a small British detachment, advanced through the Khyber Pass. The 
'Army of the Indus,' amounting to 21,000 men, assembled in Upper 
Sind (1838), and advanced through the Bolan Pass, under the command 
of Sir John Keane. Kandahar was occupied in April, 1839, and Shah 
Shuja was crowned in his grandfather's mosque ; Ghazni was captured 
in July. Dost Muhammad, finding his troops deserting, crossed the 
Hindu Kush and Shah Shuja entered the capital (August 7). The war 
was thought to be at an end, and Sir John Keane returned to India, 
leaving behind at Kabul 8,000 men, besides Shah Shuja's force, with 
Sir William Macnaghten, assisted by Burnes, as special envoy. 

During the two following years Shah Shuja and his allies remained in 
possession of Kabul and Kandahar. Dost Muhammad surrendered in 
November, 1840, and was sent to India. From the beginning, however, 
insurrection against the new government had been rife. In November, 
1841, revolt broke out violently at Kabul with the massacre of Burnes 
and other officers. Disaster after disaster occurred. At a conference 
with Dost Muhammad's son, Akbar Khan, who had taken the lead of 
the Afghans, Sir William Macnaghten was murdered by that chiefs 
own hand. On January 6, 1842, after a convention to evacuate the 
country had been signed, the British garrison, still numbering 4,500 
soldiers, of whom 690 were Europeans, with some 12,000 followers, 
marched out of the camp. The winter was severe, the troops demoral- 
ized, the march a scene of confusion and massacre, and the Afghans 
made hardly a pretence of keeping the terms of the convention. On 
January 13 the last survivors of the force mustered at Gandamak only 
twenty muskets. Of those who left Kabul, Dr. Brydon alone reached 
Jalalabad, wounded and half-dead, but ninety-two prisoners were after- 
wards recovered. The garrison of Ghazni had already been forced to 
surrender; but General Nott held Kandahar with a stern hand, and 
General Sale, who had reached Jalalabad from Kabul at the beginning 
of the outbreak, maintained that important point gallantly. 

To avenge these disasters and recover the prisoners, preparations 
were made in India on a fitting scale. In April, 1842, General Pollock 
relieved Jalalabad, after forcing the Khyber Pass, and in September 
occupied Kabul, where Nott, after retaking and dismantling Ghazni, 
joined him. The prisoners were recovered from Bamian ; the citadel 
and central bazar of Kabul were destroyed ; and the army finally 



evacuated Afghanistan in December, 1842. Shah Shuja had been 
assassinated in April, 1842; and Dost Muhammad, released by the 
British, was able to resume his position at Kabul, which he retained till 
his death in 1863. 

In 1848, during the second Sikh War, Dost Muhammad, stimulated 
by popular outcry and by the Sikh offer to restore Peshawar to him, 
crossed the frontier and took Attock. An Afghan cavalry force was 
sent to join Sher Singh against the British, and was present at the 
battle of Gujrat (February, 1849). T ne Afghans were ignominiously 
routed and hotly pursued to the passes. The Peshawar territories were 
then annexed to British India, and all hope of recovering them for the 
Afghan dominion was lost. 

In 1850 Dost Muhammad reconquered Balkh ; and in 1855 the 
renewal of friendly intercourse between the Amir and the British 
Government led to the conclusion of a treaty at Peshawar, while in the 
same year the Amir made himself master of Kandahar. The year 1856 
witnessed a new Persian advance to Herat, ending in its capture, and 
the British expedition to the Persian Gulf which resulted in its relinquish- 
ment to an independent ruler. In January, 1857, the Amir had an 
interview at Peshawar with Sir John Lawrence, Chief Commissioner of 
the Punjab, at which he was promised arms and a subsidy for protection 
against Persia. In consequence of this treaty, a British mission under 
Major Lumsden proceeded to Kandahar. The Indian Mutiny followed, 
but in spite of Afghan excitement the Amir remained faithful to the 
British alliance. 

In 1863 Dost Muhammad captured Herat after a ten months' siege. 
He died there thirteen days later, and was succeeded by his son, Sher 
All Khan. The latter passed through many vicissitudes in rivalry with 
his brothers and nephews, and at one time (1867) his fortunes were 
so low that he held only Balkh and Herat. By the autumn of 1868, 
however, he was again established on the throne of Kabul, and his 
competitors were beaten and dispersed. In April, 1869, Sher All 
Khan was received at Ambala by the Earl of Mayo, who had shortly 
before succeeded Sir John Lawrence as Viceroy. Friendly relations 
were confirmed, and the Amir received the balance of a donation of 
£120,000 which had been partly paid by Sir John Lawrence. A present 
of artillery and arms was also made to him, followed by occasional 
pecuniary aid. 

In the early part of 1873 a correspondence between the Governments 
of Russia and Great Britain resulted in a declaration by the former that 
Afghanistan was beyond the field of Russian influence, while the Oxus, 
from its supposed source in Lake Victoria to the western limit of Balkh, 
was recognized as the frontier of the State. The principal events that 
followed were the Amir's efforts (1873) to secure a British guarantee for 


his sovereignty and family succession, and Lord Lytton's endeavours 
(1876-7) to obtain his consent to the establishment of British agencies 
in Afghanistan. The failure of these negotiations led to estrangement 
between the two Governments; and in July, 1878, a Russian mission 
was received with honour at Kabul, while Sher All shortly afterwards 
refused permission for a British mission to cross his frontier. 

After some remonstrance and warning, an ultimatum was dispatched, 
and, no reply being received up to the last date allowed, the Amir's 
attitude was accepted as one of hostility to the British Government. 
In November an invasion of Afghanistan was decided upon, and within 
a few days the British forces were in full occupation of the Khyber Pass 
and the Kurram valley, after inflicting severe defeats on the Afghan 
troops. Kandahar was occupied in January, 1879, an d Kalat-i-Ghilzai 
and Girishk a few weeks later. The Amir fled from Kabul in Decem- 
ber, 1878, accompanied by the members of the Russian mission, and 
died, a fugitive, at Mazar-i-Sharlf in Afghan-Turkistan three months 
later. His second son, Yakub Khan, who had been kept a close 
prisoner at Kabul, but was released before his flight, was recognized by 
the people as Amir. In May, 1879, Yakub voluntarily came into the 
British camp at Gandamak and signed the treaty which bears the name 
of that place. By its terms the Amir ceded the Kurram valley, Pishln, 
and Sibl, while the control of the Khyber and Michni Passes, and of 
relations with the independent tribes in their neighbourhood, was re- 
tained by the British Government. The Amir also agreed to the 
appointment of a British Resident at Kabul, and to the complete sub- 
ordination of the foreign relations of Afghanistan to British influence. 
Major Sir Louis Cavagnari was shortly afterwards appointed Resident, 
and was received at Kabul with great apparent cordiality by the Amir. 
Owing, however, to intrigues, which will probably never be unravelled, 
the fanatical party was allowed to gain head. In September, 1879, the 
Residency was attacked by a rabble of townspeople and troops, and 
the Resident and his escort were murdered after a valiant defence. 

The Kandahar force, which had not at this time entirely evacuated 
Afghanistan, was ordered to concentrate at Kandahar. Simultaneously, 
a force under General (now Lord) Roberts marched by the Kurram 
route, and after routing an Afghan army in the neighbourhood of 
Charasia, took possession of Kabul in October, 1879. Yakub Khan, 
who had come into the British camp, now abdicated, and was removed 
to India, where he has since resided. The Bala Hissar at Kabul was 
partially destroyed, and the city remained under British occupation for 
nearly a year. During the winter of 1879-80 the British force at the 
capital was for a time in no little danger, owing to a general tribal rising 
which was not suppressed without severe fighting. A new Amir, Abdur 
Rahman Khan, a grandson of Dost Muhammad and nephew of Sher 

HISTOR V ., , 

AH, was recognized by the British Government in July, [880 ; and the 
punitive purpose of the expedition having been accomplished, the 
British troops were withdrawn from Kabul in August of that year. 

Meanwhile Sardar Sher All Khan, a Barakzai of Kandahar, had been 
formally installed by the British as independent Wall of the Kandahar 
province in May, 1880. In July, Sardar Muhammad Ayub Khan, a 
younger brother of Yakub Khan, who had advanced from Herat, in- 
flicted a crushing defeat on a brigade of British troops at Maiwand and 
invested Kandahar. A relieving force under General Roberts left Kabul 
on August 8, arrived at Kandahar on the 31st, and on September r 
totally defeated Ayub Khan, whose camp, artillery, and baggage were 
captured, the Sardar escaping with a handful of followers. This victory 
immediately quieted the country, and the last of the British forces evacu- 
ated Southern Afghanistan in April, 1881. Sher All Khan had found 
himself too weak to maintain the position conferred on him, and had 
retired, at his own request, to India, where he ended his days as a 
British pensioner. Within three months of the British withdrawal, 
Ayub Khan, who had been maintaining himself with spirit at Herat, 
again took the field, and, after defeating Amir Abdur Rahman's troops, 
occupied Kandahar. He was, however, utterly defeated by the Amir 
in September, 1881, and fled towards Herat; but that city had, mean- 
while, been occupied by one of the Amir's lieutenants, and the Sardar 
had to seek refuge in Persia. He came to India in 1888, and has 
since resided there. 

The position originally offered by the Government of India to Abdur 
Rahman Khan was that of Amir of Kabul only. As shown above, the 
course of events placed him in possession of Kandahar and Herat, in 
addition to the Kabul province, within a year of his ascending the 
throne. In the agreement entered into with the Amir there was no 
attempt to fetter his independence, except with regard to external 
relations, and these, it was stipulated, must be conducted subject to the 
control of the Government of India. The Amir accepted this stipula- 
tion, which has ever since been the main condition of the relations 
between the British Government and Afghanistan. 

After the defeat of Ayub Khan and the capture of Kandahar, Abdur 
Rahman Khan returned to Kabul, and proceeded to establish his rule 
on a firm basis. The Sardars from whom he had most to fear had been 
defeated, deported to India, or disposed of in other methods consistent 
with Afghan custom. There were still refractory tribes to be dealt with, 
but sundry risings were suppressed without much difficulty. In 1883 
a personal subsidy of 12 lakhs of rupees a year was granted to the 
Amir by the Government of India, on the understanding that it was 
to be devoted to the payment of his troops and to other measures 
required for the defence of his north-west frontier. 


Early in 1884, on the Russians occupying Merv, the necessity for 
demarcating the northern boundaries of Afghanistan from Persia to the 
Oxus became apparent. After an exchange of communications between 
the British and Russian Governments, it was arranged, with the Amir's 
concurrence, that a Joint Commission should meet at Sarakhs in the 
autumn of 1884 and proceed to delimitate the boundary on the spot. 
Sir Peter Lumsden, the British Commissioner, duly arrived on the 
frontier, but the Russian Commissioner failed to put in an appearance ; 
and in March, 1885, while negotiations were still in progress between 
the British and Russian Governments, a Russian force attacked and 
defeated the Afghans at Panjdeh. Fortunately, at this critical moment, 
the Amir was in India on a visit to the Viceroy, with the result that 
war was averted and negotiations were resumed in London. It was 
not, however, until the following September that final arrangements for 
demarcation were agreed to between the British and Russian Govern- 
ments. Work was commenced in November, 1885 ; and by June, 1886, 
the frontier had been definitely fixed and boundary-pillars constructed 
from Zulfikar to the meridian of Dukchi, within 40 miles of the Oxus. 
The Joint Commission found it impossible to come to an agreement as 
to the point at which the frontier line should meet the Oxus; but in 
the following year, at St. Petersburg, a settlement was arrived at by 
mutual concession, and demarcation was completed on the ground in 
July, 1888. 

Simultaneously with the return to India of the Afghan Boundary 
Commission in 1886, several important sections of the Ghilzais, 
alienated by the oppressive measures of the Amir, threw off their 
allegiance, and for a time matters looked serious. In the end the ill- 
armed and undisciplined tribesmen were defeated ; and though the 
rebellion broke out afresh in 1887, it was effectually crushed before 
the end of that year. 

In 1888 Abdur Rahman Khan had to meet the most serious revolt 
against his authority experienced during his reign. His cousin, Muham- 
mad Ishak Khan, who had maintained a semi-independent position 
as governor of Afghan-Turkistan, suddenly threw off all semblance of 
allegiance and caused himself to be proclaimed Amir. At one time the 
revolt nearly succeeded, the Amir's troops having met with a sharp 
reverse ; but the fortune of war changed, and the rebels were com- 
pletely defeated at Ghazni Ghak. Muhammad Ishak Khan escaped to 
Bokhara, where he has since remained, in receipt of a pension from 
the Russian Government. The year 1890 saw a disturbance in the 
Flroz Kohi country, the Shinwaris in rebellion, and operations in pro- 
gress against the Hazaras. The Amir's military measures in connexion 
with all these matters were successful, though the campaign in the 
Hazarajat was not brought to a conclusion until a year or two later. 


In 1891 the boundary between Persia and Afghanistan in the vicinity 
of Hashtadan, which had been under discussion for four years, was 

demarcated by Major-General C. S. Maclean. 

In 1893 negotiations were carried on between the British and Russian 
Governments concerning the Pamirs and the Afghan frontier on the 
Upper Oxus ; and it became necessary to depute an officer to Kabul to 
explain to the Amir the terms of the agreement concluded between the 
two powers, which involved his withdrawal from trans-Oxus territory. 
Sir Mortimer Durand, Foreign Secretary to the Government of India, 
was selected for this mission, and he was instructed at the same time 
to endeavour to come to an understanding with the Amir in regard to 
the boundary between Afghanistan and India and tracts within the 
British sphere of influence. The Amir agreed to withdraw from the 
territory which he was occupying beyond the Oxus, and received in 
exchange the cis-Oxus district of Darwaz, at that time belonging to 
Bokhara. A boundary line between British and Afghan territory was 
at the same time agreed upon ; and the Government of India, to mark 
its sense of the friendly spirit in which the Amir had entered into the 
negotiations, raised his subsidy to 18 lakhs of rupees a year. 

The delimitation of the British-Afghan boundary was divided into 
sections, and was carried out by joint commissions during the years 
1894-6, the only portion remaining undemarcated being a small section 
in the vicinity of the Mohmand country and the Khyber Pass. In 1895, 
the British and Russian Governments having concluded an agreement 
defining their respective spheres of influence east of Lake Victoria, the 
Afghan boundary line betw r een that lake and the Chinese frontier on 
the Taghdumbash watershed was demarcated by British and Russian 
Commissioners, and the Amir undertook the administration of Wakhan. 
The Amir's operations for establishing his suzerainty over Kafiristan 
were concluded in 1896. 

Abdur Rahman Khan died at Kabul in October, 1901, after reigning 
twenty-one years, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Habib-ullah 
Khan. The late Amir, though ruthless, was a great and powerful ruler, 
and possessed administrative talents of a very high order. He gave 
Afghanistan what it had never possessed since the days of its indepen- 
dence — a strong central government, supported by an army of which 
the organization and equipment have recently been improved ; and the 
peaceful succession of his son furnishes the strongest evidence of his 
success in this direction. 

During the five years which have passed since Amir Habib-ullah 
Khan succeeded his father, there have been no disturbances of any 
importance in Afghanistan. The new ruler has introduced a few 
internal reforms, including the reduction of taxes, and has paid much 
attention to military organization. A British mission under Major 


(now Sir) A. H. McMahon was dispatched to Seistan in January, 1903, 
to settle a boundary dispute which had arisen between the Afghans and 
Persians consequent on a change in the course of the Helmand ; 
and in the following year Major McMahon delivered his award, which 
was accepted by both States. In December, 1904, Sardar Inayat-ullah 
Khan, eldest son of the Amir, paid a state visit to the Viceroy at 
Calcutta, returning to Kabul in the following month. In March, 1905, 
as the result of the deputation to Kabul of a British mission under 
Mr. (now Sir) Louis Dane, Foreign Secretary to the Government of 
India, a treaty between the British Government and Habib-ullah Khan 
was signed, continuing the agreements and engagements which had 
existed with Abdur Rahman Khan. The Amir himself visited India 
in 1907. 

The various influences evident in the antiquities of Afghanistan are 
Persian, Greek, Indo-Buddhist, and Muhammadan. The basin of the 
Kabul river abounds in remains of the period when Buddhism flourished. 
In the Koh-i-Daman, north of Kabul, are the sites of several cities, the 
greatest of which, called Beghram, has furnished coins in thousands, 
and has been supposed to represent Alexander's Nicaea. The Muham- 
madans, however, have overturned and demolished every kind of 
Buddhist or Hindu monument that they found, and the only remains 
left are those that have in the course of ages been earthed up or 

North of the Koh-i-Baba, but in the Kabul province, the most 
remarkable of the remaining relics of a bygone period are the famous 
colossi at Bamian, with the adjoining caves, and the remains of the 
mediaeval city of Bamian, which was destroyed by Chingiz Khan. 
In the same locality are the great fort called Saiyidabad and the ruins 
of Zohak. At Haibak in Afghan-Turkistan are numerous caves like 
those of Bamian. Balkh seems to have little or nothing to show on 
the surface, though excavation might be richly rewarded. The little- 
known valleys of Badakhshan and Kafiristan contain remains of 
interest, but our information regarding this region is exceedingly scanty. 

The tombs, minarets, and mosques erected by Mahmud at Ghazni in 
the eleventh century are now in a ruinous state, but when covered with 
the richly coloured Saracenic tiles of that period must have presented 
a handsome appearance. The Taimani country, once the seat of a 
powerful kingdom, contains many ruins of historical and archaeological 
interest. The most important are those at Yakhan Pain, south-west of 
Taiwara in the Ghorat. Here are the remains of an ancient city, 
covering a large extent of ground and comprising massive ruins of forts 
and tombs. This was probably the Ghor taken by Mahmud of Ghazni, 
and afterwards the seat of the brilliant but short-lived Ghorid dynasty. 
In the valley of the Tarnak are the ruins of a great city (Ulan Robat), 


supposed to be the ancient Arachosia. Near Girishk, on the Helmand, 
are also extensive mounds and other traces of buildings, and the remains 
of several great cities exist in the plain of Seistan. The hitter ruins, 
including those of Pulki, Kila-i-Fateh, Nadali, Chakansur, Zahldan, 
Dushak, Peshawaran, and Samur, mark the ravages of Tumir Lang 
(1383-7). At Nadali the outlines of an extensive circuit of massive 
walls are still visible; at the present time the high mound inside, on 
which the ancient citadel stood, is surmounted by a mud fort occupied 
by 100 Afghan khasadars. Local legend has it that Nadali was the 
capital of Nimrod. 

Major A. H. McMahon, while on duty in Seistan in the spring of 
1903, was allowed to visit the famous ruins of Sar-o-Tar, about 20 miles 
east of the Helmand in Afghan-Seistan. He is probably the first 
European to see the ruins, and has recorded the following interesting 
note about them : — 

' We found Sar-o-Tar to consist of a huge mass of ruins, marking an 
old fortified city, with three lines of massive walls in eccentric circles 
round a high citadel. Nothing but the citadel and the walls are now 
left standing. All are of mud brick, on burnt brick foundations. The 
greater part of the ruins is now buried in sand, and, from the rate at 
which the invading lines of sandhills are advancing, little will soon be 
left uncovered. The ground, not only among the ruins, but for miles 
around, is thickly strewn with broken pottery, bits of glass vessels and 
bangles, and broken brick. Treasure-seekers come to these ruins after 
rain and pick up seals and coins, and occasionally jewellery. Sar-o-Tar 
is only one of innumerable massive ruins which stretch on either side 
as far as the eye can see. These present an almost continuous line of 
ruins from Kila-i-Fateh to Amiran and Chahil Burj — a distance of some 
40 miles. Marks of old canals and watercourses are abundant among 
the sandhills, showing that this tract, now a waste of desert and sand, 
was once cultivated. Sar-o-Tar is said to have been the capital of the 
country before its devastation by Tlmur Lang.' 

Another interesting place is Takht-i-Rustam, in the hills two miles 
west of Haibak, where General Maitland, in 1886, found carefully cut 
caves, containing large arched chambers, of undoubted Buddhist origin. 
One of these chambers measures 37 feet square, its domed roof rising 
to a height of 38 feet, while light is afforded by a window cut in the 
side of the hill. Babar's tomb at Kabul, built about the middle of the 
sixteenth century, is a plain domed building of the Delhi-Pathan out- 
line. Babar's mosque, in front of his tomb, is a small marble building 
with no pretensions to beauty. Ahmad Shah's tomb at Kandahar 
(1773), a domed octagonal building overlaid with coloured porcelain 
tiles, forms a remarkable object in the midst of the city. 

The inhabitants of Afghanistan consist of different races and 
nationalities, with rival interests and antagonistic ambitions. The 


only common bond of union is that of religion, but even this is 
weakened by the distribution of the people between the two great 
. hostile sects of Islam, the Sunni and the Shiah. The 

latter, of whom the Kizilbashis and the Hazaras are 
the chief representatives, are greatly in the minority, and are from time 
to time subjected to persecution by the dominant Sunnis. 

In the absence of anything approaching an accurate census, it is only 
possible to form a rough estimate of the total population subject to the 
Amir. A figure between 4^ and 5 millions may be taken as fairly near 
the mark. It is impossible to say what may have been the number in 
ancient times ; but in view of the ruins of the great cities found in 
different parts of the country, compared to which the Kabul of to-day is 
insignificant, the probability is that the population in bygone centuries 
was considerably larger. 

The races of Afghanistan may be classed as Afghan and non- Afghan, 
of whom the former predominate in power and character, if not in 
actual numbers. The Afghans claim to be Bani-Israil, and insist on 
their descent from the tribes who were carried away from Palestine to 
Media by Nebuchadnezzar. This theory is, however, regarded by 
modern ethnologists as a mere legend. There is good reason to 
suppose that the Afghans are mainly TurkoTranian, the Turk! element 
predominating, while there must have been some infusion of Semitic 
blood, at any rate after the early Islamic conquests. 

The Durranis or Abdalis are the ruling race, and with the other 
great Afghan clan, the Ghilzais, probably number a million and 
a half. The country of the Durranis may be regarded as comprising 
the whole of the south and south-west of the Afghan plateau, and 
mainly the Kandahar province and the tract between Kandahar 
and Herat. 

The Ghilzais, with whom may be grouped the Shinwaris, are the 
strongest of the Afghan clans and perhaps the bravest. They occupy 
the high plateau north of Kandahar, and extend, roughly speaking, east 
to the western ranges of the Sulaiman mountains and north to the 
Kabul river. They are also to be found in Herat, Kabul, and Farrah. 
A popular theory of the origin of the Ghilzais traces them to the Turkish 
tribe of KhiljT, once occupying districts bordering the upper course of 
the Jaxartes, and affirms that they were brought into Afghanistan by 
Sabuktagin, father of Mahmud of Ghazni, in the tenth century. They 
themselves claim descent from Ghal-zoe, ' thief s son,' the result of a 
prenuptial connexion between Shah Husain, a Ghorl whose ancestors 
came from Persia, and Bibl Mato, granddaughter of Kais Abdur Rashid, 
who is alleged to have been thirty-seventh in descent from Malik Talut 
(King Saul). Major McMahon, who has made a special study of the 
question, says that he has never heard any doubt cast on this origin of 


the clan, which is, however, in no way inconsistent with subsequent 
Turk! accretions. 

Of the non-Afghan races the most numerous arc the Tajiks 
('strangers'), estimated at 900,000. They are intermingled with the 
Afghans throughout the country, though their chief localities arc in the 
west, especially in Herat. They are regarded as the descendants of 
the old Iranian race, the original occupants of that part of the country ; 
they call themselves Parsiwan and speak a dialect of Persian. They 
are chiefly agriculturists, accept the Afghans as their masters, and aspire 
to no share of the government. In the towns they follow mechanical 
trades and the like, which the Afghan seldom does. 

Next in numerical importance are the Hazaras, numbering about half 
a million. They are mainly descended from Mongol tribes, though 
other races may be represented among them, but they generally speak 
a Persian dialect. Their habitat, known as the Hazarajat, may be 
described as the tract south of the Band-i-Baba, bounded by the 
Wardak country on the east and the Taimani plateau on the west. On 
the south their country is bounded by Zamindawar and other districts 
of Kandahar. The Hazaras, who are Shiahs, are a sturdy race of 
mountaineers, many of whom seek employment on Indian railways 
during construction ; of recent years a few have also been enlisted in 
the Indian army. 

The Chahar Aimaks — the collective name given to the Jamshedls, 
Firoz Kohis, Taimuris, and Taimanis — belong to the Herat province, 
and number close upon 180,000. All are semi-nomadic in their habits, 
and all speak dialects of Persian. The majority of the Taimuris have, 
however, now migrated to Khorasan. 

The Uzbeg population is estimated to number about 300,000, chiefly 
in Afghan-Turkistan ; about one-third are to be found in Kataghan 
and as many more are scattered in parts of Badakhshan. 

An important class, though numbering less than 50,000, are the 
Kizilbashis, Persianized Turks, whose immigration into Afghanistan 
dates from the time of Nadir Shah (1737). They are chiefly to be 
found in Kabul (though none of the large cities is without them), 
employed as traders, doctors, writers, and latterly as clerks in the offices 
of the Amir's government. They are Shiahs, but, in spite of this 
drawback in the eyes of the Afghan, frequently rise to high office in 
the civil administration of the country. 

The Hindu population of Afghanistan, with whom the few Sikhs 
scattered through the country may be included, numbers about 35,000. 
They are, on the whole, well treated, though subject to special taxation 
which is not levied from other classes. 

The rest of the population comprises Safis ; Kashmiris ; settlers from 
Hindustan ; Laghmanis, Arabs, Saiyids, Parachas ; and last, for they 


have only recently come under the acknowledged sovereignty of the 
Amir, the Kafirs. The tract of country inhabited by these, known as 
Kafiristan, is situated due north of Jalalabad, extending to the snows 
of the Hindu Kush. Their total number probably does not exceed 
60,000. They have recently accepted Islam with little demur, their 
previous religion having been a somewhat low form of idolatry, with an 
admixture of ancestor cult and some traces of fire-worship. 

The national tongue of the Afghans is Pashtu (or Pakhtu, as it is called 
by the tribes in the north-east of the country), classed by the most com- 
petent critics as an Aryan or Indo-Iranian language. Hence the name 
Pathan (Pakhtan, Pakhtuti), which is sometimes used in India as a 
synonym for Afghan. Persian is the vernacular of a large part of the 
non-Afghan population, and its use is spreading rapidly among the 
Afghans even in the country districts. It is the language in which all 
official correspondence is carried on ; it is mainly employed in the 
towns, and, in its classical form, is familiar to all educated Afghans. 
Turk! is the vernacular of the indigenous population north of the Hindu 
Kush. A Persian dialect is used in Badakhshan, and various dialects 
are spoken in the Upper Oxus districts. In Laghman and parts of the 
Jalalabad district, a dialect known as Laghmani is generally spoken by 
the non-Afghan population ; in Kafiristan several distinct languages are 
found ; and in the south-western corner of Afghanistan, and on the 
Afghan-Baloch border, Baluch! is the common language. 

The oldest work in Pashtu is a history of the conquest of Swat by 
Shaikh Mali, a chief of the Yusufzais and leader of the conquest (1413— 
24). Afghan literature is rich in poetry, Abdur Rahman (seventeenth 
century) being the best-known poet. 

As a race the Afghans are handsome and athletic, often with fair 
complexion, the features highly aquiline. Their step is full of resolution,- 
their bearing proud and apt to be rough. Inured to bloodshed from 
childhood, they are familiar with death, audacious in attack, but easily 
discouraged by failure. They are treacherous and passionate in revenge, 
which they will satisfy in the most cruel manner, even at the cost of 
their own lives. Nowhere is crime committed on such trifling grounds, 
in spite of the extreme severity with which crimes are punished when 
brought home to the offenders. The women have handsome features of 
Jewish cast, fair complexions, sometimes rosy, especially in early life, 
though usually sallow. They are rigidly secluded ; but in spite of this, 
and of the fact that adultery is almost invariably punished by death, 
intrigue is frequent. 'The pride of the Afghans,' says Bellew, 'is a 
marked feature of their national character. They eternally boast of their 
descent and prowess in arms and their independence. They despise all 
other races; and even among themselves, each man considers himself 
equal to, if not better than, his neighbour.' They enjoy a character for 


liberal hospitality; guests and strangers arc fed free of charge in the 
village guest-houses ; and by the law of honour known as ndnawafai, 
the Afghan is expected, at the sacrifice of his own life and property if 
necessary, to shelter and protect any one, even an enemy, who in 
extremity may seek an asylum under his roof. This protection, however, 
extends only to the limits of the premises ; and once beyond this, the 
host himself may be the first to injure his late protege. Badal, or 
retaliation, must be exacted for the slightest personal injury or insult, or 
for damage to property. Where the avenger takes the life of his victim 
in retaliation for the murder of one of his relatives, the act is termed 

The Afghans are ignorant of everything connected with their religion 
beyond its most elementary doctrines. In matters of faith they confine 
themselves to the belief in God, the Prophet, a resurrection, and a day 
of judgement. They are much under the influence of their Mullas, 
especially for evil. They are very superstitious in regard to charms, 
omens, astrology, and so forth, and are greatly addicted to the worship 
of local saints, whose shrines (ziarats) are found on every hill-top, some- 
times in the form of a domed tomb, sometimes as a mere heap of stones 
within a wall. In the mind of the tribesman the saint or plr is invested 
with the attributes of a god. It is he who can avert calamity, cure 
disease, procure children for the childless, or improve the circumstances 
of the dead ; the underlying feeling, apparently, being that man is too 
sinful to approach God direct, and that the intervention of some one 
more worthy must therefore be sought. 

The burial ceremonies do not differ from those of other Muham- 
madans. A man in his last moments is attended by a Mulla ; he repeats 
appropriate prayers, and expires with his face towards Mecca. When 
he is dead, the corpse is washed, wrapped in a shroud, and buried, after 
the usual prayers have been said by a Mulla. Coffins are not ordinarily 
used, but among the well-to-do substantial white marble headstones 
are erected over the grave. 

The Afghans purchase their wives, the price varying according to the 
circumstances of the bridegroom. A husband can divorce his wife 
without assigning any reason, and the wife may sue for divorce on good 
grounds before the Kazi, but this procedure is little resorted to. If the 
husband predeceases the wife, his relations, in the event of a second 
outside marriage, receive the price that was paid for her. But the 
brother of the deceased has a preferential claim on the widow, and it is 
a mortal affront to him for any other person to marry her without his 
consent. The widow is, however, not compelled to take a second 
husband against her will ; and if she has children, it is thought most 
becoming that she should continue in the state of widowhood. The 
common age for marriage is twenty for the man and fifteen or sixteen 

VOL. V. E 


for the woman ; and, as a general rule, it may be said that a man 
marries as soon as he has the means to purchase a wife and maintain a 
family. The rich sometimes marry before the age of puberty ; in the 
towns people marry earlier than in the villages ; and in Eastern 
Afghanistan boys of fifteen are married to girls of twelve, when the 
family can afford the expense. In general, men marry among their own 
clan, but Afghans often take Tajik, and even Persian, wives. In the 
towns men have no opportunities of seeing women, and matches are 
made from considerations of expediency and through the agency of 
female relatives. A contract is drawn up and must be agreed to by the 
woman as well as the man, the consent of relatives being of no validity. 
In the country, where there is less restraint in the intercourse between 
the sexes, the match frequently originates in attachment. Polygamy is 
allowed by Muhammadan law, but the majority cannot afford to avail 
themselves of the permission. The rich occasionally exceed the legal 
number of four wives, and maintain concubines and female slaves as 
well ; but the present Amir has forbidden his subjects to take more 
than four wives, and, as an example to his people, he publicly divorced 
all but four of his own wives in 1903. Polyandry is unknown. Slavery 
in the strict sense of the term no longer prevails in Afghanistan. 
Formerly every man of importance possessed slaves, chiefly Hazaras ; 
but the practice of buying and selling slaves was declared unlawful by 
the late Amir, and any such transaction now meets with severe 

Necessity compels the Afghans to live soberly and frugally, and they 
subsist on fruit nearly half the year. Meat, unless swimming in grease, 
is not approved ; and no meat may be eaten unless it is halal — that is to 
say, the animal must have its face turned towards Mecca and its throat 
must be cut in a particular part, to the accompaniment of certain words 
of prayer. Rice and wheaten bread are consumed by the well-to-do, 
the former generally cooked with meat and fat in the shape of pilao. 
The principal food of the villagers and nomads, out of the fruit season, 
is krut, a kind of porridge made of boiled Indian corn, bruised between 
two stones ; or simply unleavened bread, with which rancid grease is 

The upper clothing of men consists of two large robes, worn one over 
the other and known as the kamls and the choga — very ample, and made 
of cotton or of camel's-hair cloth (barak). For summer wear these are 
made without lining ; for the winter they are wadded with cotton or 
lined with fur. The under-garment is confined by a piece of muslin or 
longcloth which is wound round the body ; the outside one, and some- 
times a third robe, is used as a cloak. The shirt {kamls) is very full, 
and the sleeves particularly so. It is open at the side from the neck to 
the waist and falls over the trousers. The latter are excessively full, 


open at the foot and drawn in at the waist by a string. The head is 
covered with a large white or blue turban. The garments of the upper 

classes differ only in material, which is of silk or wool. During tin- 
winter almost every man wears a postln or coat of sheepskin. Of recent 
years the tendency among the Sardars and the officials at Kabul 1ms been 
to adopt European clothing, and this fashion is spreading. Afghan 
women, when appearing in public, are clothed in the yashmak or burka, 
a cotton garment which covers the entire body. Small latticed holes 
for the eyes are left in the hood over the head. 

The Afghans seem to have followed the same system for ages in the 
construction of their houses, sun-dried bricks being the material ordi- 
narily used. Scarcity of wood has obliged the builders to construct 
vaulted roofs, in which art they excel. The houses are generally of one 
floor only, and the interior is concealed by a high external wall. At 
Kandahar the buildings are of a more showy description than else- 
where, considerable taste being displayed in the embellishment of those 
belonging to the Sardars and the wealthier classes. 

The favourite amusement is the chase, which includes shooting, 
coursing with dogs, and hawking. Races are not uncommon, especially 
at marriages ; wrestling and other trials of strength and skill are popular; 
while fighting quails, rams, and even camels, are kept for the sport 
which they show. Chess is played throughout the country, and games 
of marbles are indulged in by old as well as young. 

The chief diseases attributable to the climate are fevers, principally 
intermittent and remittent, and their sequelae ; rheumatism and catarrhs 
are generally prevalent. In the winter months acute pulmonary affec- 
tions prevail, especially among the poor, who are unable to protect 
themselves against the severity of the season. From July to October 
bowel complaints, induced by the consumption of the fruits which grow 
in much profusion, claim many victims. 

Syphilis, scrofula, stone in the bladder, skin complaints, and diseases 
of the eye are exceedingly common. Small-pox, though rarely epidemic, 
is always present in a sporadic form. Only three serious epidemics of 
cholera have been recorded during the past twenty years ; and plague, 
which has prevailed in India since 1896. has not so far appeared 
anywhere in Afghanistan. 

The great variety of climate and elevation enriches Afghanistan with 

the products alike of the temperate and tropical zones. In most parts 

of the country there are two harvests — one sown in . . ,. 
, , . . , , Agriculture, 

late autumn and reaped in summer, the other sown 

in spring and reaped in autumn. The first consists mainly of wheat, 

barley, and a variety of lentils ; the second of rice, millet, Indian corn, 

and dal. The higher regions have but one harvest, which is sown in 

spring and reaped at the end of autumn. Wheat is the staple food over 

E 2 


the greater part of the country. Cultivated land is of two kinds, abi 
and /a/mi. Abi is land irrigated by artificial means ; /a/mi is the term 
applied to land dependent solely on the rainfall. Artificial irrigation is 
very efficiently carried on by means of canals taking off from the rivers ; 
by kdrez, or subterraneous aqueducts, uniting several wells and con- 
ducting their water in one stream to the earth's surface at lower levels ; 
and by surface channels leading the waters of natural springs from their 
source to the cultivated area. The latter are generally seen in the hilly 
districts, where the channels often run for miles along the slopes of 
intervening hills on their way to the fields. Kdrez are very common 
in the southern and western portions of Afghanistan, where they have 
redeemed large tracts from the desert. 

Besides the various grains above enumerated, Afghanistan produces 
most European vegetables, especially in the vicinity of the large towns. 
Peas, beans, carrots, turnips, beetroot, cabbages, onions, lettuces, 
cucumbers, and tomatoes are all grown where the soil is favourable. 
Potatoes are raised in small quantities in certain localities, but in many 
parts of the country they are unknown. Lucerne and clover are every- 
where grown as fodder-crops. A small amount of sugar-cane is cultivated 
in the eastern districts ; but most of the sugar used is imported. 

Opium is produced in the Herat valley, and at Kabul, Kandahar, 
and Jalalabad ; but not to any great extent. Cotton is grown in large 
quantities in the Herat valley, and in a less degree in the Jalalabad 
district. Tobacco is grown generally wherever the climate is favour- 
able. Almond-trees and the castor-oil plant are common over a great 
part of the country, and furnish most of the oil used by the people, 
though sesamum and mustard and other oil plants are abundant. 
Madder abounds all over the west, and is largely exported to India. 

The fruits of Afghanistan have a well-deserved reputation and are very 
abundant. Apples, pears, almonds, peaches, quinces, apricots, plums, 
cherries, pomegranates, grapes, figs, and mulberries are grown in all the 
well-cultivated districts. Chief among these is the grape, of which there 
are over forty recognized varieties, many of surpassing excellence. 
Immense quantities of grapes and apricots are dried and exported 
to India. The fruit of the mulberry is dried and powdered, and is 
made into a palatable unleavened cake, which is largely consumed 
by the poorer classes in the Kabul district during the winter season. 
The walnut and the chi/goza, or edible pine, are found wild in the 
northern and eastern highlands ; the pistachio also grows wild in 
the hills on the northern border of the Herat province and in the Flroz 
Kohi country and Kila Nao ; and all are largely exported. The list of 
the fruits of Afghanistan may conclude with a reference to the melons, 
the varieties of which are almost as numerous, and quite as excellent, 
as the grapes. 


Among other branches of industry introduced by the late Amu 
the manufacture of wine. Contrary though this is to the principles of 
the Muhammadan religion, wine of excellent quality was being made 
in 1 90 1 by an Austrian employe of the Amir who has since left 
Afghanistan. In view of the unlimited quantity of grapes available, 
there is no reason why wine should not, in years to come, form one of 
the principal exports of Kabul. 

Horses, camels, cows, sheep, and goats constitute the main wealth of 
the major portion of the inhabitants of Afghanistan. Till lately horses 
formed one of the principal exports ; but before Abdur Rahman Khan 
died, orders were issued forbidding their being sent out of the country, 
and though these injunctions are not strictly obeyed, there has been 
a very large falling off in the trade. Even carrying animals are 
registered and security taken from the owners that they will return. 
The indigenous species is theyd/w, a hardy and somewhat heavily built 
animal of about 14 hands, used mainly as a baggage animal, but also 
for riding. Amir Dost Muhammad took considerable pains to diffuse 
Arab horse blood throughout his territories. Abdur Rahman Khan 
did still more to improve the breed, importing several English 
thoroughbred and Arab sires, and placing his stud under the manage- 
ment first of an English veterinary surgeon, and subsequently of one 
of his principal Sardars. In 1893, when the Durand mission was at 
Kabul, there were no less than 3,000 registered brood mares in the 
villages within a 25-mile radius. Similar studs are maintained at 
Balkh and Akcha. Bullocks are generally used in the plough and for 
treading out corn, and also employed as beasts of burden. Cows are 
usually of a small breed, with the exception of those of Kandahar and 
Seistan, which resemble the English animal in both size and the quality 
of milk they yield. The sheep, which are almost entirely of the fat-tailed 
race, are of two kinds, the one having a white and the other a brown or 
black fleece. The exports of wool from Herat and Kandahar are very 
large, much of it finding its way to the English market. Mutton forms 
the main animal food of the Afghans. An extensive trade is done in 
the Herat province and in Afghan-Turkistan in the skin of the unborn 
lamb, known to Europeans as Astrachan. The camel of Afghanistan 
is of a more robust and compact breed than the tall, leggy animal 
commonly used in India ; the double-humped Kuchi or Bactrian camel 
is common in the north. The average load carried by an Afghan 
camel is about 400 lb. 

There are five classes of cultivators in Afghanistan : (1) proprietors 
who cultivate their own land; (2) tenants who pay a rent in money or 
a fixed proportion of the produce ; (3) bazgars, who are small farmers 
paying a share of the produce; (4) hired labourers; (5) serfs who 
cultivate their lord's land without wages. 


On the whole, the land is more equally divided in Afghanistan than 
in most countries. A great number of small proprietors cultivate their 
fields themselves, assisted by their families and sometimes by hired 
labourers. This system seems to have been general in former times 
and to have been disturbed by various causes. Extravagance or 
misfortune compels many to sell their lands ; quarrels, or a desire 
for change, induce others to part with them ; and the division of every 
man's estate among all his sons, which is enjoined by the Muhammadan 
law, soon renders each lot too small to maintain its proprietor, who con- 
sequently either gives it up to one of his brothers or sells it. Purchasers 
are found among those who have been enriched in the Amir's service, 
by war, and by successful agriculture or commerce. Much land has 
likewise been brought under cultivation by individuals or communities 
who have taken measures to procure water for irrigation, on which so 
much depends in Afghanistan, and the soil thus reclaimed becomes the 
private property of the adventurers. Finally, some individuals have 
received large grants directly from the crown. 

The number of tenants, in the common acceptation of the word, 
is not great ; and of those who rent land a great portion are middle- 
men, who let it out again to bazgars. The commonest term for a lease 
is one or two years ; the longest period is five. Where land is cultivated 
by bazgars, the landlord generally provides the whole of the seed, cattle, 
and implements of husbandry, the bazgar supplying nothing but labour. 
In some cases, however, the bazgar has a share in the expenses men- 
tioned, and in others he supplies everything but the seed. The share 
of the bazgar varies : there are cases where he receives no more than 
one-tenth of the produce, and others where he is entitled to one-half. 
Agricultural labourers are employed principally by the bazgar ; they are 
paid by the season, which lasts for nine months, beginning from the 
vernal equinox. They are fed, and in many places clothed, during this 
period by their employers, and they receive besides a quantity of grain 
and a sum of money. 

In towns the common wage of a labourer is ioo dinars (about 4^d.) 
a day, with food. In Kandahar it amounts to 3 shahis, 12 dinars 
(between 6\d. and id.). To show the value of this wage, it may be 
stated that in the towns wheat-flour can be purchased at 16 seers 
per rupee (about 24 lb. for a shilling), while in the country still cheaper 
rates prevail. 

The reports of valuable minerals supposed to occur in Afghanistan 

have not generally been made by experts, and the identification of the 

minerals may thus sometimes be in doubt. But the 

following occurrences are probably well authenticated- 

Impure graphite occurs in altered rocks of the palaeozoic age on the 
1 Contributed by Mr. T. II. Holland, Director, Geological Survey of India. 



north slope of the Ak-Robat Kotal, and on the Koh-i-Daman in the 
Kabul district. The Lower Tertiary rocks in Afghanistan, as in North- 
western India, contain seams of coal, while thicker and better seams 
are known among the older rocks having an age approximately 
corresponding to that of the Gondwana system of India. East of 
Herat there occurs a little coal of Permian age, while at Chahil, north 
of the Kara Koh, in Afghan-Turkistan, excellent and thick seams of 
-Triassic coal are known. At Shisha Alang, west of Chahil, some 50 
million tons of coal are within workable distance of the surface, while 
a few instances of anthracitic and graphitic material are reported from 
other localities. Bitumen occurs 10 miles north of Ghazni, and at 
several places north of Kandahar in the Cretaceous limestones. Oil- 
shales are found among the eocene rocks on the northern slope of the 
Band-i-Turkistan, near the village of Fanghan. Antimony, in two or 
three forms, is found abundantly on the Toba plateau, and has been 
reported from other localities, about which some doubt exists. Gold 
occurs three miles north of Kandahar city, at the zone of contact 
between the hippuritic (Cretaceous) limestones and the intrusive trap. 
It is also obtained in small quantities from the north side of the Hindu 
Kush, and is said to occur in the alluvial deposits of the streams drain- 
ing the Koh-i-Baba. Other reported localities are the streams in 
Kohistan, and above Laghman and Kunar. The silver mines which 
once existed near the head of the Panjshir valley in the Hindu Kush 
are well-known, and silver deposits were also formerly worked near 
Herat. Copper ores were formerly worked in the Shah Maksud range, 
and rich ores are also reported to occur at Nesh, 60 miles north of 
Kandahar. Minerals containing this metal are still more plentiful in 
Northern Afghanistan, especially in the country about Tezln, east of 
Kabul. At Musye in the Shadkani pass, on the right bank of the 
Sagur river, copper ores crop out at the surface. Copper pyrite occurs 
in the Silawat pass, and at further points to the north-east along the 
strike of the same band of metamorphosed rocks. Some of these places 
have been worked. Lead ores are found at a large number of places, 
one of the best known being an old mine at Frinjal in the Ghorband 
valley ; the ore, found in an altered calcareous rock, has yielded on 
assay 58 per cent, of lead and 2 ounces of silver to the ton. Nickel in 
small quantities accompanies the gold-bearing lodes of Kandahar. Iron 
has been manufactured from magnetic sand, as in India ; large deposits 
of iron ores are found near the passes leading to Bamian and in other 
parts of the Hindu Kush. Rubies are obtained from a crystalline 
limestone, at Kata Sang, near Jagdalak, between Kabul and Jalalabad ; 
specimens of these were at one time mistaken for spinel, but there is no 
doubt about the reality of the one in the Calcutta Museum. Alum is 
manufactured from decomposed sulphurous shales in Zamindawar, 


Gypsum occurs largely in all the younger Tertiary deposits, and in 

miocene strata it is sometimes accompanied by salt, as in the Herat 

province and in Badakhshan ; rock-salt is mined largely at Khanabad 

in Badakhshan. The alleged occurrence of asbestos in Afghanistan 

requires confirmation ; a fibrous hydrate of magnesia, nemalite, which 

is found in quantity, superficially resembles asbestos. Lapis lazuli is 

found near Firgamu in the Kokcha valley, where mining is still carried 

on. An excellent white marble is quarried at Kot-i-Ashru at the head 

of the Maidan valley, and a green marble at Khwaja Bogirar near 


Good silk is produced along the Oxus in Afghan-Turkistan. Most of 

it is taken to Bokhara and Meshed, and from it are made the best of the 

manufactured silks for which those cities are famous. 

a e . an 5 A considerable quantity of silk is also produced in 
communications. . , , . . v 

Herat and Kandahar, but it is not of the same quality 

as that of Afghan-Turkistan. Of this silk only a small proportion is ex- 
ported in the raw state, the bulk of it being manufactured locally into silk 
cloth, which finds a ready market. The carpet industry of Afghanistan 
has no longer the importance it used to possess, though a fairly large 
number of carpets are still made in the Herat province. They are 
known as Adraskan and Sabzawar carpets, and are sold in Seistan, 
Quetta, and Peshawar. Namads, felt floor-coverings of gay design, are 
also made throughout the Herat province. Postlns, coats made from the 
dressed skin of the sheep, are produced throughout the country, those 
of Kabul being held in highest repute. Enormous numbers are sold in 
Afghanistan itself, and large consignments are sent to the Punjab, 
Baluchistan, and Sind. Kakma, barak, and kurk are chiefly manu- 
factured in the Herat province, and by the northern Hazaras. The 
first is a cloth woven from the soft hair of the camel, and is very 
expensive ; the two others are soft, warm cloths woven from the wool of 
the sheep and the mountain goat. Kurk is far finer in texture than 
barak, but both realize high prices, and are consequently beyond the 
reach of the poor. Rosaries are extensively manufactured at Kandahar 
from chrysolite, and vary in price from R. i to Rs. ioo. They are 
largely exported, Mecca being one of the principal markets. 

Important workshops on British lines, with modern machinery under 
European superintendence, have been established during recent years 
at Kabul City, chiefly for the manufacture of arms and ammunition. 

No statistics are available for the trade of Afghanistan as a whole. 
The export trade between the Herat province and Russian territory, and 
between Afghan-Turkistan and Bokhara, is fairly extensive. The import 
into North- Western Afghanistan of Russian goods, chiefly textile fabrics, 
is on the increase, but has not yet assumed any large proportions. The 
value of exports to Khorasan and Seistan in 190 1-2 is estimated at 


ioi lakhs, more than 40 per cent, being represented by wool, the 
bulk of which is re-exported to Russia, France, and America. Imports 
from Khorasan are insignificant. 

The value of British Indian trade with Afghanistan for the yeai 
ending March 31, 1904, was about 150 lakhs, of which about 85 lakhs 
represented imports from India. These figures, if compared with those 
of the three previous years, indicate an upward tendency ; but unless a 
-radical change is introduced in the fiscal policy of the Afghan State, it 
will be long before we see a return to the figures of twenty years ago, 
when the trade with India was estimated at i| millions sterling. The 
present Amir is said to have promised to make considerable reductions 
in the rates of dues and tolls which were levied during the previous 
reign on goods passing into Afghanistan ; but, except on through trade 
from India to Bokhara, no reductions have been actually announced. 
As an instance of the crushing nature of these imposts, it may be 
mentioned that a duty of from 250 to 360 Kabuli rupees is charged on 
a camel-load (400 lb.) of indigo, and about 330 rupees on a camel-load 
of tea. 

The chief imports from India are English and Indian piece-goods, 
twist and yarn, tea, indigo, sugar, hardware, and leather. A large 
business in wearing apparel has sprung up in recent years. The chief 
exports are asafoetida, dried and fresh fruits, ghl, silk, wool, postins, 
hides and skins, carpets and druggets. Formerly several articles of 
trade were monopolized by the Amir ; but this practice has been 
discontinued, except, it is believed, as regards opium, timber, and the 
products of all mines, including salt. This timber monopoly forms the 
only approach to state interference in the matter of forests. There is 
no system of forest conservancy. 

A relic of the old methods of Asiatic trade continues to the present 
day in the habits of the class of Afghans commonly called Powindas, 
who spend their lives carrying on traffic between India, Afghan- 
Khorasan, and Bokhara. These men, with their strings of camels and 
ponies, banded in large armed caravans for protection against the 
exactions of the tribesmen through whose territories they pass, push 
their way twice a year between Bokhara and the Indus. Their summer 
pastures are in the highlands of Ghazni and Kalat-i-Ghilzai. In the 
autumn they descend the Sulaiman passes, and enter India, their 
principal route being through the Gomal. At the Indus they have to 
deposit their arms until they return, for once in British territory they no 
longer require weapons for their protection. They leave their families 
and camels in the plains of the Punjab, and take their goods by rail 
to Bengal, Karachi, and Bombay, returning in the spring with goods 
purchased for the Afghan market. The name 'l'owinda' does not 
apply to a special tribe or race, but to any, be he Ghilzai, Lohani, 


Waziri, or Kakar, who temporarily or permanently takes part in this 
singular community of wandering traders. 

The principal trade routes of Afghanistan are the following: (i) 
From India to Kabul, by the Khyber Pass and Jalalabad ; (2) from 
India, by the Gonial Pass, to Ghazni and Kandahar ; (3) from India, 
by Quetta, to Kandahar; (4) from Badakhshan, by Chitral, to Bajaur 
and Jalalabad ; (5) from Bokhara, by the Oxus ferries and Tashkurghan, 
to Kabul ; (6) from Bokhara, by Merv, to Herat ; (7) from Persia, by 
Meshed, to Herat, Kandahar, and Kabul. Of these, the Khyber and 
Quetta roads are excellent ; the latter is fit for wheeled traffic the whole 
distance, and the former for most of the way. There is, however, 
practically no wheeled carriage proper in the country, and merchandise 
is still transported on camels and ponies. Timber is the only article of 
commerce that is conveyed by water. 

A somewhat primitive postal system prevails, and there has been little 
improvement since it was introduced by Amir Sher All in 1870. For 
two years after its introduction, stamps were not used on letters, the 
postal fee being collected in cash from the sender. The first issue of 
impressed stamps was in 1872, the face value being 1 shahi (= i anna), 
1 abbdsi ( = § Kabuli rupee), 2 abbasis, and 1 Kabuli rupee. These 
stamps are rare and much prized by philatelists. Until within the last 
few years, nothing in the shape of a post-mark was used for the deface- 
ment of stamps, the tearing off of a small piece denoting that a stamp 
had been used. Towards the end of the late Amir's reign, the practice 
of using a seal for obliterating purposes was introduced. The stamps 
used in the time of Abdur Rahman Khan were of the same values as in 
Sher All's reign, except that the 1 shahi stamp was abolished. The 
supply of stamps was exhausted at the end of 1902, and Hablb-ullah 
Khan is said to intend adopting a stamp on European lines. Pending 
a decision as to this, no stamps are now used, the original arrangement 
of 1870 having been reverted to. Small parcels are carried through the 
post. Letters, as a rule, can be posted or delivered only at the larger 
towns, but an exception is made in favour of state officials, whose letters 
are delivered wherever they may be temporarily staying. There is no 
daily delivery, even at the capital, and postal daks are limited to two 
dispatches a week. There are no telegraphs in any part of Afghanistan, 
but the Amir's principal garden-houses are connected by telephone 
with his palace at the Ark. 

Afghan-Turkistan suffered very much in 1872 from famine, followed 
by an outbreak of cholera ; but severe famines have been unknown in 
recent times in Afghanistan proper. Between 1895 and 1904 there 
were two periods of scarcity when the poorer classes suffered a good 
deal from high prices, but serious mortality from failure of crops has 
not occurred. During the periods of scarcity referred to the Amir took 


measures to increase the grain supply, in the localities most affected, 
by importation from Turkistan. 

By agreement between the late Amir and the Government of India, 
the foreign relations of Afghanistan are controlled by the British Govern- 
ment. In all other respects the State is independent. 
Succession to the throne generally falls to the strong mims ra lon - 
hand, the recent accession of HabTb-ullah Khan being the first instance 
-of the crown peacefully devolving from father to son since the death of 
Dost Muhammad. Prior to 1880 the power of the reigning monarch, 
though nominally absolute, was only so in the region which he himself 
administered. The outlying provinces were generally ruled by members 
of the reigning family, or other powerful Sardars, only too apt to resent 
interference or to create disturbances when opportunity offered. Each 
governed after his own fashion ; there was no unity or permanence ; in 
peace or in war, chiefs and soldiers were ever ready to pass from one 
service to another. All this was changed under the iron rule of Abdur 
Rahman Khan. From the first the key-note of his policy was central- 
ization : he reduced the powers of the provincial governors, and created 
additional minor governorships having direct relations with Kabul. He 
deported many leading Sardars who might have proved formidable 
opponents ; not a few were executed or imprisoned ; and at the time of 
his death in 1901, with the single exception of Afghan-Turkistan, which 
was nominally administered by his younger son, Sardar Ghulam All 
Jan, each provincial governorship was in the hands of men of his 
own making. 

In pursuance of this policy of centralization, large government offices 
have been established at Kabul, and the different departments are at 
present apportioned among the Amir's brothers under his own general 
supervision. It is not too much to say that no question of the smallest 
importance can be settled in the present day by even the most trusted 
of the provincial governors without previous reference to Kabul. 

For administrative purposes, Afghanistan is divided into six provinces : 
namely, Afghan-Turkistan, Badakhshan (including Wakhan), Herat, 
Kandahar, Farrah, and Kabul. Kabul is generally administered by the 
Amir himself, but has recently been made over to a naib-ul-hukuma or 
governor ; the other provinces by governors who exercise judicial, as 
well as civil, functions therein. Each province is subdivided into 
districts, some small and insignificant, others (such as Jalalabad) so 
large as almost to rank with the provincial governorships. 

The Amir's own court, which is held in the Hall of Audience at 
Kabul, is at once the supreme court of appeal for all Afghanistan and 
a court of original jurisdiction. In every province and district the 
Hakim, or governor, has both civil and criminal powers, and holds a 
court known as the Mahka>na-i-H<ikim. Below these superior courts 


are the courts of the Kazls, known as the Mahkama-i-Shara. Each 
KazI is assisted by Muftis, the numbers varying according to the extent 
of the Kazl's jurisdiction. Questions upon which the Kazls and Muftis 
cannot agree are referred to the Khan-i-Mulla at Kabul, and, if he is 
unable to decide, to the Amir. Codes of procedure for the courts 
were laid down by Abdur Rahman Khan, and have been continued in 
force by the present Amir. The code for the superior courts is styled 
the Kitabcha-i-Hukumati ; that for the guidance of Kazls and Muftis, 
the Asas-ul-Kuzzat. The latter is mainly based on Muhammadan law 
(Shard). As a general rule, the Hakims refer to the Kazl's court cases 
of every description governed by Muhammadan law or by the codes. 
Cases involving treason, rebellion, embezzlement of state funds, forgery, 
bribery on the part of officials, and all classes of offence against the 
state or members of the reigning family, are dealt with by the Amir 
himself. These cases are not provided for in the codes ; they are 
disposed of entirely at the Amir's discretion, and, in the event of proof 
being forthcoming, sentence of death is usually passed. Whereas in the 
outlying provinces, cases of adultery, theft, and even murder, are decided 
by the Hakims and Kazls according to Shara law, at Kabul these are 
heard by the Amir. Thefts by habitual offenders are punished with the 
utmost severity, amputation of the hands or feet, and even death, being 
frequently decreed in such cases. Sentences of death passed by local 
Hakims or Kazls, even if in accordance with the Shara, require to be 
confirmed by the Amir. Disputes between traders are not decided 
according to the Shara ; these and most civil suits are referred by the 
Hakims of districts to a panchayat (council of elders). At Kabul the 
following courts have recently been established : the court of the Naib- 
us-sultanat ; the court of the Muin-us-sultanat \ the court of Shariat 
(religious law) ; and Kolwali (police court). Appeals against the orders 
of a Hakim lie only to the Amir. The use of stamped paper has 
recently been prescribed in the case of civil suits and petitions intended 
for submission to the Amir. 

The income of the Afghan State is derived principally from land 
revenue ; import and export duties ; taxes on fruit gardens ; a grazing 
tax, usually levied at the rate of one animal in forty and known as 
chahal-o-yak or zakat ; the sale of stamps ; government monopolies ; 
fines ; jazia or poll-tax levied from non-Muslims ; and an annual 
subsidy of 18 lakhs of rupees paid by the Government of India. The 
presents sent annually to the Amir by the provincial governors also 
bring in a considerable amount. According to the best information 
available, the revenue has quadrupled during the last half-century. In 
1856 it was estimated at about 30 lakhs of British rupees, and Dost 
Muhammad himself, in the following year, at the Peshawar conference, 
estimated it at 35 lakhs. By 1869, in the reign of Sher All, it had risen 


to 70 lakhs (British), and five years later to roo lakhs of Kabuli rupees, 
exclusive of the revenue from Turkistan. In 1885 Abdur Rahman Khan 
estimated his total revenue at about 100 lakhs (British), of which one- 
half was derived from the Kabul province, Turkistan contributing 14 
lakhs, Kandahar 13^, Herat n|, and Badakhshan nearly 5 lakhs. At 
the present day, including the subsidy paid by the Indian Government, 
the total revenue is probably between 120 and 130 lakhs (British). 
.Expenditure is kept well within income ; the surplus revenues of the 
different provinces are sent annually to Kabul, where there is believed 
to be a very large accumulation of treasure. 

The land revenue consists largely of payments in kind, calculated on 
an average year's produce, and does not depend on the actual harvest. 
The rate varies according to the amount of water which irrigates a 
locality, the race by whom it is inhabited, or for other reasons. As a 
general rule, land irrigated by water taken from rivers is assessed at 
one-third of the gross produce, and land irrigated by springs at one- 
fifth ; where irrigation is supplied by a karez, the assessment is one-tenth, 
unless the karez happens to be the property of the State, when a much 
heavier demand is made. Lands dependent on the rainfall pay one- 
tenth of the produce. Fruit and vegetable gardens in the vicinity of 
the large towns are taxed at a rate equivalent to about Rs. 7^ and Rs. 9 
respectively per tanab, an area of about 60 yards square. If the payment 
of these taxes guaranteed the cultivator protection from further exactions, 
he would be well off; but shoals of hungry soldiers and followers of 
chiefs are periodically let loose on the villages to gather for themselves 
what they can pick up. Arbitrary exactions of this nature amount in 
the aggregate to nearly as much as the fixed revenue. The people of 
the towns are less oppressed in this way ; but they are subject to a host 
of taxes, direct and indirect, which they have much difficulty in meeting. 
Generally speaking, taxation presses heavily on the population. The 
present Amir recognizes this, and, in one of his earliest public utterances 
after his accession, promised to consider the possibility of effecting 
reductions, which he subsequently carried out to some extent. 

Little or no gold coinage is current in Afghanistan. A few gold 
mohurs were struck by Abdur Rahman Khan, but they have not passed 
into circulation. The Russian gold Imperial, and Bokhara, Kashgar, 
and Khokand Mas, pass current at varying rates. A mint on English 
lines, capable of turning out 40,000 silver coins a day, was established 
at Kabul in 1 890-1. The old silver coinage of the country has been 
Called in, and is being gradually replaced by the new issue. Very little 
Kabul coin is in circulation at Kandahar, the ratio between the Kabuli 
rupee and the Persian krd?i, which is there current, being as one 
to three. 

The following represents the currency at the present day ; 5 pice = 


i shdhi (copper) ; 2 shdhis = 1 sanndr (silver) ; 2 sanndrs = 1 abbdsi or 
tango, ; 3 sanndrs = 1 £ra# ; 2 krdns = 1 rupee ; 1 5 rupees = 1 Kabuli 
gold tila (this is the nominal rate, but the value of the tila fluctuates 
between 15 and 18 rupees). 

A large silver coin of the value of 5 Kabuli rupees was struck in the 
reign of Abdur Rahman Khan, but is not in general use. 

The exchange value of the Kabuli rupee has fallen in late years from 
13^ to 8 annas of Indian money, and measures are being adopted by 
the Amir to prevent further depreciation. 

The ordinary system of weights is as follows : — 

At Kabul : 16 khurds = 1 chdrak ; 4 chdraks = 1 seer (7 seers 13 1 
chittacks of British Indian weight) ; 8 seers = 1 man ; 10 mans = 1 
kharwar (15 maunds 27^ seers, British). 

At Kandahar : 2 miskdls = 1 seer (8| tolas of British Indian weight) ; 
40 seers = 1 man (4 seers 25 tolas, British) ; 100 mans = 1 kharwar 
(10 maunds 31 seers 10 tolas, British). 

The weights used in the Herat province are practically the same as 
at Kandahar. In Afghan-Turkistan, Kabul weights are in common use 
as far as Haibak : beyond that place local weights are used, which vary 
greatly in different districts. Those of Mazar-i-Sharlf are in most 
general use. They are : — 

1 Mazar seer = i| Kabuli seers (14 British seers); 16 seers = 1 Mazar 
?nan (5 maunds 24 seers, British); 3 mans = 1 Mazar kharwar (16 
maunds 32 seers, British). 

The standard measure of length at Kandahar is the gaz = 1 yard, 
of which there are two kinds, the gaz-i-shdhi and the gaz-i-raiati, the 
former used for the measurement of goods and woodwork, the latter for 
masonry and land measurement. The tandb or jarib = 60 x 60 gaz- 
i-raiati. In Herat land is measured by the jarib = 60 x 60 gaz, and 
a gaz is generally taken as about a yard. The larger division of land is 
a zauj. This, like the gaz, varies; some contain 80 jaribs, some 100 
and even more. The long measure of Afghan-Turkistan is 16 taste 
(of i| inches) = 1 kadam (a pace of 28 inches) ; 12,000 kadam = 1 sang 
or farsakh (5 miles 533^ yards). Another common measure of length 
is the kuldch = 6 feet. A land measure general throughout Afghanistan 
h the kulba, measuring as much land as can be cultivated by one 
plough and one pair of bullocks. The farsakh ordinarily represents 
4 miles ; but this again varies in different parts of the country, being 
6 miles in Seistan and 5^ in Afghan-Turkistan. 

In the first half of the last century the Afghan forces were entirely 
composed of the ulus, or tribesmen of the chiefs, who were supposed 
to hold their lands on condition of service, but who, as frequently as 
not, went over to the enemy in the day of need. As a counterpoise, 
Amir Dost Muhammad began to form a regular army, which, in 1858, 


comprised 16 infantry regiments of nominally 800 men each, 3 regi 
ments of cavalry, and about 80 field-pieces. Slier Ali Khan improved 
on this in 1869, by introducing an organization based on the British 
model ; but on his flight and death this fell to pieces, and it was left to 
Abdur Rahman Khan again to introduce a regular system. This he 
did with marked success, and the army is now composed of divisions, 
brigades, regiments, batteries, troops, and companies. In the infantry 
and artillery a very large proportion of the troops are Ghilzais and 
Durranis ; in the cavalry many Parsiwans are employed. The Turkistan 
army is, as far as possible, recruited locally, deficiencies being made up 
by voluntary enlistment in the Kabul province ; no leave is granted to 
men in this force, unless very heavy security is found. Elsewhere there 
appears to be no fixed period of service, the men being discharged, if 
they wish to go and can be spared, at any time after enlistment. As 
a rule, they serve until incapacitated by age or ill-health. The officers, 
who are often men of inferior birth, have little control over their men, 
and insubordination, in spite of the extreme severity with which it is 
punished, is rampant. Promotion up to the rank of daffadar (sergeant) 
is given by general officers ; promotions in, or appointments to, the 
commissioned ranks are now conferred by the Amir. Though breech- 
loading weapons have been served out only to a minority of regiments, 
there are supplies of such arms at Kabul ready for issue in time of 
need to a much larger force. The strength of the regular army is 
considerably augmented by local mounted and foot levies, known 
respectively as mulki soivdrs and khasdddrs. The mounted levies are 
the retainers of great chiefs, or of their wealthier vassals ; a fixed 
annual sum of about 200 Kabuli rupees is allowed for each horseman, 
who is required to turn out for service whenever called upon. The 
payment is generally made by remission of revenue, and the privilege of 
supplying the men is one much prized by the chiefs. The foot levies 
are permanently embodied, and, while they are usually employed in 
military police duties at the disposal of the civil authorities, they are 
regarded as an auxiliary to the regular infantry. An attempt to 
introduce a system of military conscription, of one man in seven, 
towards the end of the reign of Abdur Rahman Khan, and in the first 
year of his successor, led to a serious rising in Khost, which had to be 
put down by a military expedition. Similar disturbances threatened on 
the attempt being made elsewhere, and practically no progress has been 
made, if the scheme has not been altogether abandoned. The strength 
of Afghanistan as a military power cannot, however, be judged by the 
number of the regular troops or auxiliaries. Every adult Afghan is 
a fighting man ; and if provided with a rifle and allowed to fight in his 
own way, and on his own ground, he is as redoubtable an enemy as 
his fellow countryman who has undergone a military training. The late 


Amir in his autobiography, published shortly before his death, stated 
that he already possessed arms and war material for 300,000 men, 
should necessity arise. 

Afghans enlist in the Indian army ; but recruiting therefor is not 
carried on in Afghanistan, the men coming down to British territory 
and offering thenselves for service of their own accord. 

Police arrangements in Afghanistan are under the control of the 
kohvals of the large towns. The subordinate duties are carried on by 
selected men from the regular army. It is calculated that about 2,500 
men are so employed. The jails are also under the management of the 
kotwals. Long-term sentences are seldom given, serious offences being 
otherwise dealt with ; nevertheless there is always a large jail population. 
Only prisoners who are fed at the expense of the State are set to work ; 
those who can afford to pay for their food are merely kept in close 
confinement. Escapes are numerous, notwithstanding the severity of 
the punishment invariably inflicted on the guards in such cases. 

The education of the people is of a very primitive character, and is 
conducted by the Mullas, themselves an ignorant and bigoted class. 
The method of teaching is that common in Indian village schools — the 
repetition of the lesson aloud by the whole class, accompanied usually 
by the swaying of the body from the waist upwards in time with the 
monotonous sing-song. The Koran is the universal textbook; and 
the scholastic course seldom advances beyond the elements of reading, 
writing, and the religious creed, though some of the more advanced 
Mullas are able to teach a certain amount of mathematics. There are 
no schools or colleges for higher education, but many of the Sardars 
prove, as the result of private tuition, to be men of culture and good 
manners. The present Amir has recently turned his attention to this 
important question. He has ordered the introduction of something 
like compulsory education among the children of the masses, and is 
engaging native scholars from India with a view to the establishment of 
a superior Madrasa (college) at Kabul for those who can afford to avail 
themselves of higher education. At present English is not taught in 
Afghanistan, though it is to be included in the curriculum of the new 
Madrasa ; and with the exception of the few foreigners in the Amir's 
service, and Indians employed as translators, there are probably not fifty 
men in the country who can speak or understand a word of the language. 

Of the medical attainments of the Afghan hakim there is unfortunately 
no reason to alter what was written by Bellew over a quarter of a century 
ago. 'They know nothing either of anatomy, or the pathology of disease, 
and their acquaintance with surgery is even less than that with medicine, 
and often really dangerous.' Very much the same opinion was formed 
by Dr. J. A. Gray, who spent four years in the employ of the Amir, 
between 1889 and 1893. He writes: 'The hakims practise according 

AFGHAN- TURK IS 1 '. / \ 65 

to the Yunani or ancient Greek system of medicine. . . . They know 
nothing whatever about anatomy, physiology, or pathology. The treat 
ment of disease is entirely empirical.' An Fnglish lady doctor, Mis-, 
Hamilton, was attached to the Amir's court for some years prioi to 
1896, and another lady doctor resided there between 1896 and 1903. 
The present Amir employs a lady doctor and a staff of qualified Indian 
hospital assistants. 

[Sir J. Kaye : History of the War in Afghanistan^ 3 vols. (1878). — 
Colonel G. B. Malleson : History of Afghanistan (1879).— 11. W. Bellew : 
Afghanistan (1862). — H. \V. Bellew : Afghanistan and the Afghans 
(1879).— H. w - Bellew: The Races of Afghanistan (Calcutta, 1880).— 
S. E. Wheeler: The Ameer Abdur Rahman (1895). — The Life of Amir 
Abdur Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan, 2 vols. ; edited by Munshi Sultan 
Muhammad (1900). — Dr. J. A. Gray : My Residence at the Court of the 
Amir (1895). — The Right Hon. George N. Curzon : The Pamirs and 
the Source of the Oxus (1896). — Sir T. H. Holdich : Tlie Indian Border- 
land, 1 880- 1 900 (1901). — Sir G. S. Robertson : The Kafirs of the Hindu 
Kush (1896).— Major A. C. Yate : England and Russia face to face 
in Asia: Travels with the Afghan Boundary Commission (1887). — 
Lieutenant-Colonel C. E. Yate : Northern Afghanistan, or Tetters from 
the Afghan Boundary Commission (1888). — C. L. Griesbach : Field 
Notes from Afghanistan, Records, Geological Survey of India, vol. x.\, 
Parts i and ii. — C. Masson : Narrative of Journeys in Baluchistan, 
Afghanistan, and the Punjab (1842). — Captain J. Wood : A Journey to 
the Source of the River Oxus (1872). — Sir H. Rawlinson : England and 
Russia in the East (1875). — Lieutenant A. Burnes : Travels into 
Bokhara, containing an Account of a Journey from India to Cabool, 
Tartary, and Persia, 3 vols. (1835). — Sir A. Burnes : Cabool : being 
a Personal Narrative of a Journey to, and Residence in, that City, in the 
Years 1836-8 (1842). — J. P. Ferrier : Caravan Journeys and Wanderings 
in Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, &-r. (1856). — J. P. Ferrier: History 
of the Afghans (1858). — Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone : An Account 
of the Kingdom of Caubul and its Dependencies, 2 vols, (third edition, 
1839). -James Uarmesteter : Chants Populaires des Afghans (Paris, 
1888-90). — Angus Hamilton: Afghanistan (1906).] 

Afghan-Turkistan. — The name applied of late years to the terri- 
tories in the basin of the Oxus which are subject to the Amir of Afghan 
istan. Badakhshan, with Wakhan and Kataghan, now forms a separate 
province, the head-quarters of which are at Mazak-i-ShakIf. It should 
be mentioned that this country is not called Afghan-Turkistan either by 
the Afghans or by the people who inhabit it, but simply 'Turkistan.' 
The province, as now constituted, includes the divisions ami districts 
known as Haibak, Mazar-i-Sharlf, Akcha, Shibarghan, Sar-i-Pul, Maimana, 
Andkhui, Dara YQsuf, Kamard, Balkh-ab, and Sangcharak. 


Afghan-Turkistan, as thus constituted, is bounded on the north by 
Bokhara, from which it is separated by the Oxus, and by Russian terri- 
tory. Its eastern extremity abuts on Badakhshan. On the south the 
same range divides Afghan-Turkistan from the Kabul province. On 
the south-west Afghan-Turkistan is bounded by Bamian in the Kabul 
province, and by districts of the Herat province, which also form its 
western boundary. 

The towns of Afghan-Turkistan are Akcha, Maimana, Mazar-i- 
SharIf, Haibak, Shibarghan, Sar-i-Pul, Andkhui, and Khanabad. A 
peculiarity common to nearly all these is that they cover an extensive 
area, owing to the mass of orchard suburbs which surround them. 

The province is divided into two distinct regions : the one moun- 
tainous, the other consisting of a great plain stretching from the foot 
of the hills to the Oxus. Along the whole southern 

Physical boundary, including Wakhan and Badakhshan, is 
aspects. ... . . 

a region of lofty mountain country. In the east we 

have the Hindu Kush rising far into the region of perpetual snow. 

One great spur of this range, the Changur Koh, divides Badakhshan 

and Afghan-Turkistan proper. From this spur stretches a large plateau, 

extending north from the Koh-i-Baba for 140 miles in the direction 

of the Oxus, with a breadth of about 80 miles and an elevation of about 

7,000 to 10,000 feet. It terminates in a range, the Shadian Koh, which 

falls almost precipitously to the plains of Turkistan. South of Balkh 

is the western prolongation of the Hindu Kush, the great range of 

mountains known as the Koh-i-Baba. From a point south of Yak 

Walang (in the Kabul province) these mountains fork into three 

branches. The northern branch strikes north-west, enclosing the basin 

of the Upper Murghab, and dividing it from that of the Band-i-Amlr. 

Branching right and left, it forms a mass of mountains which are the 

natural boundary of this part of Afghan-Turkistan. The western half 

of these mountains is known as the Band-i-Turkistan ; its elevation 

is about 11,000 feet. The eastern range has no one name; its height 

is about 10,000 to 12,000 feet. There is a well-marked, and for the 

most part an abrupt, transition from the hill country to the plains. The 

breadth of the latter is variable, owing to the curves of the Oxus and its 

northward trend, but the average is between 40 and 50 miles. The 

principal tributaries of the Oxus which drain the province are the 

Kokcha and the Kunduz or Surkhab. The Tashkurghan, the Band- 

i-Amlr, the Sar-i-Pul, and the Kaisar or Maimana belong to the Oxus 

basin, but are either expended in cultivation or lost in the plains before 

reaching the Oxus. 

The climate varies considerably with the locality. The winter, even 

in the plains, is cold ; spring is a season of heavy rain, the amount 

of which appears to depend upon the nature of the previous snowfall ; 


from May to November the weather is dry. The heat of the u lei 

in the plain country resembles that in the plains of India, but is not ;o 
great, nor does it last so long. The hill districts enjoy a temperati 
cool climate, varying with the elevation. During the summer months 
a detestable, large light-coloured fly makes its appearance. Its bite- 
is noxious, and horses sometimes die from it; camels also suffer, but 
not to the same extent. This fly may be the same as that which is so 
troublesome in Badghis ; but General Maitland is disposed to identity 
it with the Seistan fly. 

Ancient Balkh, or Bactra, was probably one of the oldest capitals in 
Central Asia. There Persian tradition places the teaching of Zoroaster. 
Bactriana was a province of the Achaemenian empire, 
and was probably occupied in great measure by a race 
of Iranian blood. About 246 B.C. Theodotus, governor of Bactra under 
the Seleucidae, declared his independence and commenced the history, 
so dark to us, of the Graeco-Bactrian dynasties, whose dominions at one- 
time or another — though probably never simultaneously — reached from 
the Jaxartes to the Gulf of Cutch. Parthian rivalry first, and then a 
series of nomad movements from Inner Asia, overwhelmed the isolated 
dominions of the Greeks (about 130 B.C.). Powers rose on the Oxus 
known to the Chinese as Yueh-chi, Kweshwang, Yetha, Tukhara; 
dimly identified in Western Asia and Europe as Kushans, Haiathala, 
Ephthalitae or White Huns, and Tochari. Buddhism, with its 
monasteries, colossi, and gilded pagodas, spread over the valley of the 
Oxus. We do not know what further traces of that time may yet be 
revealed, but some may be seen in the gigantic sculptures of Bamian. 
The old Arab historians of the Muhammadan conquest record a heathen 
temple at Balkh, called by them Naobihar, which Sir Henry Rawlinson 
points out to have been certainly a Buddhist monastery (>icm>a vihara). 
The name Naobihar still attaches to a village on one of the Balkh 
canals, thus preserving through many centuries the memory of the 
ancient Indian religion. The memoirs of the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen 
Tsiang, in the first part of the seventh century, give many particulars 
of the prevalence of Buddhism in the numerous principalities into which 
the Tukhara empire had broken up; and it is remarkable how many 
of their names are identical with those which still exist. This is not 
confined to what were once great cities like Balkh and Bamian : it 
applies to Khulm (Tashkurghan), Baghlan, Andarab, and many more. 

The country long continued to be known to Muhammadans as 
Haiathala, or Tukharistan. Its political destiny generally followed that 
of Khorasan. It bore the brunt of the fury of Chingiz Khan ; and the 
region seems never to have recovered from the devastations and 
massacres which he began, and which were repeated in degree by 
succeeding generations. For a while these Oxus provinces were 

F 2 


attached to the empire of the Delhi Mughals, and then fell into the 
hands of the Uzbegs. In the eighteenth century they formed a part 
of the dominion of Ahmad Shah Durrani ; but during the reign of his 
son Timiir they again passed under the independent rule of Uzbeg chiefs. 
Among them, those of the Kataghan or Kunduz were predominant ; and 
Murad Beg (1815 to about 1842) for some time ruled Kolab beyond 
the Oxus, and all south of it from near Balkh to the Pamirs. Then for 
a few years the country round Balkh passed under the sway of the Amir 
of Bokhara. In 1850 the Afghans recovered Balkh and Tashkurghan ; 
by 1855 they had gained Akcha. and the western districts ; in 1859 
Kataghan ; and in the same year the Mir of Badakhshan agreed to pay 
homage and tribute. The last signs of independence in Badakhshan 
were abolished by the late Amir in 1881, and by 1884 the whole 
of Afghan-Turkistan was effectually subjugated. The only notable 
event in recent years was the revolt of Sardar Ishak Khan, the late 
Amir's cousin, when governor of the province. The rebellion was, 
however, successfully overcome ; and Ishak and his principal supporter, 
Murad Beg of Kataghan, were obliged to fly from the country. 

At Takht-i-Rustam, in the hills about two miles west of Haibak, 
General Maitland, in 1886, found carefully cut caves containing arched 
chambers of large dimensions of undoubted Buddhist origin. One 
of these chambers measures 37 feet square, its domed roof rising to a 
height of 38 feet ; light is afforded by a window cut in the side of the 
hill. Balkh seems at present to have little or nothing to show in the 
way of antiquities, though excavation would probably be rewarded. 

The population of Afghan-Turkistan is small in comparison with its 

area. This is partly due to devastating wars and to the chaotic con- 

_ , . dition of the country before it came under Afghan 

Population. . , . , . . . 

rule, but also in a great degree to famine and 

pestilence. The 'Persian' famine of 1872 was terribly severe in Herat 
and Afghan-Turkistan. It was followed by a serious outbreak of 
cholera, which is said to have depopulated several districts. About half 
the population consists of Uzbegs and Turkomans, whose language 
is TurkI, while the other half are Hazaras, Tajiks, and Arabs, who speak 
Persian. The Tajiks, or people of Iranian blood, probably represent 
the oldest surviving race of the region. The Afghan element is still 
insignificant, though there is a steady influx from the neighbourhood 
of Kabul. It is doubtful if the total population of Afghan-Turkistan 
exceeds three-quarters of a million. 

There are no manufactures of special note. The chief trade centres 
are Maimana, Akcha, Mazar-i-Sharlf, Tashkurghan, and Faizabad ; and 
the local industries consist of barak and kurk (both woollen fabrics), 
and coarse cotton cloth. With the exception of Badakhshan, few dis- 
tricts of Afghan-Turkistan are known to possess much mineral wealth. 


Some coal is found at Chahil, north of the Kara Koh ; and at Shlsha 
Alang, west of Chahil, Mr. Griesbach estimates that 50,000,000 tons 
are available. 

Afridis. — A tribe of Pathans inhabiting the mountainous country on 
the north-west frontier, south of the Khyber Pass, which is commonly 
called Tirah. 

The chief subdivisions of the Afridi tribe are as follows : — 

Section. Habitat. 

Kambar Khel . . \ *£****>?**■ Vallc >' 

' Kajun Valley . 

Kuki Khel . 

Malik Din Khel 
Sepaiah Sipah 
Zakka Khel . 

Bara Valley . 

Khyber .... 
Ali Masjid, Jamrud 

Marrlan .... 

Kara Valley and Kajfiri Plain 

Khyber. Bazar, and Bara Valley 4,500 

Strength [estimated) 

" I 4,500 fighting men. 

600 ,, ,, 

•} 4,ooo „ 

. 5,000 ,, ,, 

1,200 .. „ 

Afsar (Aphsanr, also called Jafarpur). — Village in the Nawada suo, 
division of Gaya District, Bengal, situated in 25 4' N. and 85 40' E. 
Population (1901), 1,022. A statue found here of the Varaha or boar 
incarnation of Vishnu, apparently of the Gupta period, is of exquisite 
workmanship and one of the finest in India. A valuable inscription, 
giving a long genealogy of the later Guptas, now lost, was also dis- 
covered at this place. But the most interesting object is the buried 
temple, the ruins forming a mound sharply conical and nearly 60 feet 
high. This is one of the earliest Gupta temples ; and besides its age, 
the disposition of its parts, its terraces on terraces, its quaint pillars, 
pilasters, and niches, and the charming variety in its ornamentation, 
render it by far the most interesting temple in Bihar. Archaeologically, 
it is of great interest as a Hindu relic of a period of which Brahmani- 
cal remains are few. Architecturally, it is second in importance only 
to the Buddh Gaya. temple. 

[J. F. Fleet, Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings and their Successors 
(Calcutta, 1888).] 

Afzalgarh. — Town in the Naglna tahsll of Bijnor District, United 
Provinces, situated in 29 24' N. and 78 41' E., 34 miles east of 
Bijnor town. Population (1901), 6,474, The place was founded by 
one Afzal Khan about the middle of the eighteenth century. It lies 
low, and is very unhealthy owing to the dampness of the neighbourhood. 
The fort built by Afzal Khan was dismantled after the rebellion of 
1857. The town is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an 
income of about Rs. 1,100. Excellent cotton cloth is made here by 
Julahas (Muhammadan weavers). There is a primary school with 
100 pupils. 

Agar. — Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay. 

7 o AGAR 

Agar. — Town and British military station in the Shajapur district of 
the Gwalior State, Central India, situated in 23 43' N. and 76 1' E., 
1,765 feet above sea-level, 41 miles by metalled road from Ujjain. 
Population (1901), 10,442, of whom 3,990 persons reside in the military 
station. The town is picturesquely placed between two large lakes, and 
is surrounded by a battlemented wall built in the eighteenth century. 
Agar takes its name from one Agra Bhll, who founded a settlement on 
this site in the tenth century. It was seized almost immediately by the 
Jhala Rajputs, who continued in possession until the eighteenth century, 
when it fell to Jaswant Rao Ponwar of Dhar. In 1801 the district was 
overrun by Bapuji Sindhia, who devastated the town, but it was restored 
by Daulat Rao Sindhia a few years later. Until 1904 Agar was the 
head-quarters of a district of the same name. A considerable traffic in 
grain and cotton is carried on, and two ginning factories are at work. In 
the Madhoganj quarter, outside the town, are situated the public offices, 
the Karnasdar's court, a school, a State post office, and a hospital. 

The military station lies to the north of the native town, from which 
it is separated by the Rataria Talao (or lake), being picturesquely 
situated beside the lake and surrounded by fine trees. It was first 
occupied in 1844 as a cantonment for the local corps. In 1857 it was 
held by the 3rd Regiment of Infantry, Gwalior Contingent, and some 
guns from the Mehidpur Contingent. On July 4 the troops mutinied, 
killing some of their officers ; but a party of six men, four women, and 
three children escaped, and, after many hardships, finally reached 
British territory south of the Narbada 1 . Since 1858 Agar has been 
garrisoned by the Central India Horse, one of the new local corps raised 
in place of those which had mutinied. From i860 to 1895 Agar was also 
the head-quarters of the Western Malwa Agency, the commandant of the 
regiment holding collateral political charge. On the creation of the 
present Malwa Agency, certain minor jurisdictional powers were 
assigned to the commandant, who exercises the powers of a second-class 
magistrate within the station limits. 

Agartala. — Capital of the Hill Tippera State, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam, and the residence of the Raja, situated in 23 51' N. and 
91 21' E. Population (1901), 9,513. The old town is built on the left 
bank, and the new town on the right bank of the river Haora. Near the 
palace in the old town is a small temple much venerated by the Tipperas, 
which contains fourteen heads wrought in gold and other metals, which 
represent their tutelary deities. A municipality was constituted in 
1874-5. The income during the decade ending 1901 averaged 
Rs. 1,100, and the expenditure Rs. 3,800. In 1903-4 the total income, 
including grants, was Rs. 6,700, of which Rs. 720 was derived from a 
municipal tax ; and the expenditure was Rs. 7,400. The town possesses 
1 Times of India, August I, 1S57. 


an Arts college, an artisan school, a Sanskrit /<>/, a dispensary, and 
a jail. 

Agashi. — Port in the Bassein taluk of Thana District, Bombay, 
situated in 19 28' N. and 72 47' E., 10 miles north of Bassein and 
3^ miles west by a metalled road from Virar on the Bombay, Baroda, 
and Central India Railway. Population (1901), 8,506. The town 
contains a school with 217 pupils. In the early part of the sixteenth 
century Agashi was a place of some importance, with a considerable 
timber and ship-building trade. It was twice sacked by the Portuguese — 
in 1530 and again in 1531. In 1530 as many as 300 Gujarat vessels 
are said to have been taken; and in 1540 the Portuguese captured a 
ship on the stocks at Agashi in which they afterwards made several 
voyages to Europe. Agashi carries on a trade with Bombay, worth 
annually about Rs. 4,000, in plantains, its dried plantains being the best 
in the District. There is a Portuguese school here, and a large temple 
of Bhavanlshankar, built in 1691. The bathing-place close to the 
temple has the reputation of effecting the cure of skin diseases. 

Agastyamalai (or Agastya-kutam).—A. conical isolated mountain 
peak in the southern portion of the Western Ghats, situated in 8o°37'X. 
and 77 15' E., in the Neyyattinkara taluk of Travancore State, 
Madras. It is locally known as the Sahya Parvatam and is 6,200 feet 
high. The boundary between Travancore and Tinnevelly District runs 
over it. It was formerly an important astronomical station, where two 
series of observations were taken by Mr. Broun between 1855 and 1865. 
Two rivers rise from this hill, the sacred Tambraparni running east 
through Tinnevelly District, and the Neyyar flowing west through the 
Neyyattinkara taluk of Travancore. The orthodox believe that the sage 
Agastya Maharshi, regarded by modern scholars as the pioneer of Aryan 
civilization in Southern India and the name-father of the hill, still lives 
on the peak as & yogi in pious seclusion. 

Agra Province. — The Sitbah or province of Agra was one of twelve 
into which the Mughal empire was originally divided by Akbar. It took 
its name from Agra City, the imperial capital, and both city and 
province were subsequently called Akbarabad. The Subah is described 
in the Ain-i-Akbari as 175 kos long from Palwal (now in Gurgaon 
District) to Ghatampur (Cawnpore District), and 100 kos broad from 
Kanauj (Farrukhabad District) to Chanden (Gwalior State). It thus 
included, in the present United Provinces, the whole of the Agra 
Division, with Aligarh and half Bulandshahr District to the north, and 
most of Cawnpore, Jalaun, and Jhansi District to the east and south. 
On the west it extended over parts of the present States of Jaipur, Alwar, 
Bharatpur, Karauli, and Dholpur in Rajputana, and Gwalior in Central 
India. The province nominally survived till the end of the eighteenth 
century, though Rajputs, Jats, Marathas, and the Pathans of Farrukhabad 


had been the actual rulers for nearly a hundred years. The eastern 
portion, which is now British territory, was acquired, partly by cession 
from the Nawab of Oudh in 1801, and partly 'by conquest from the 
Marathas in 1803, and was at first included, with other areas acquired 
at the same periods, in the Presidency of Bengal. Administrative 
difficulties arose, owing to the distance of these outlying tracts from the 
seat of Government at Calcutta ; and, after various temporary measures, 
a Board of Revenue and a Sadr Dlwani and Nizamat Adalat (Chief 
Civil and Criminal Courts) were constituted in 1831 for the so-called 
Western Provinces,, entirely independent of the Board and Courts at 
Calcutta. A few years later a Presidency of Agra was formed by the 
statute 3 and 4 William IV, cap. 85, which comprised the whole of the 
present United Provinces, except Oudh and parts of Bundelkhand, 
and a Governor was appointed. The scheme was, however, never 
completely carried out ; and a Lieutenant-Governor of the North- 
western Provinces, which included the same area, was appointed in 
1836 under the statute 5 and 6 William IV, cap. 52. By Act VII of 
1902 a change was made in designation, and the North- Western 
Provinces and Oudh became the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. 
The term ' Agra ' is now applied (section 4 (4), United Provinces Act I of 
1904) to the territories formerly known as the North-Western Provinces. 
Agra Division. — A Division in the United Provinces, lying between 
26 22' and 28 2' N. and 77 17' and 8o° i' E., with an area of 
10,078 square miles. It is situated in the west of the Provinces, and 
the greater portion forms the central part of the Doab or area between 
the Ganges and Jumna rivers. On the north lie Allgarh District in the 
Meerut Division, and the Punjab District of Gurgaon, while the Ganges 
forms most of the eastern boundary, dividing the Agra from the Bareilly 
Division and from Oudh. The southern border meets the Allahabad 
Division and the States of Gwalior and Dholpur, while the western 
frontier marches with Bharatpur State. The head-quarters of the 
Commissioner are at Agra City. The population of the Division 
has fluctuated considerably, as shown by the figures of the last four 
enumerations: (1872) 5,039,247, (1881) 4,834,064, (1891) 4,767,375> 
and (1901) 5,249,542. In 1877-8 the Division suffered from famine, 
and between 1881 and 1891 from floods. During the last decade the 
eastern Districts recovered rapidly. The density is 521 persons per 
square mile, compared with 445 for the Provinces as a whole. The 
Division is smaller than any other in the Provinces except Gorakhpur, 
but ranks seventh in population. In 1901 Hindus formed 90 per cent, 
of the total and Musalmans 9 per cent., while among the followers of 
other religions were Jains (28,205), Christians (10,875, °f whom 9,847 
were natives), and Aryas (10,736). The Division comprises six Districts, 
as shown in the table on the next page. 



Area in 
square miles. 


Land revenue 
and 1 ■ 

in thou 

of nip 

Muttra .... 

Agra .... 



Etawah .... 




i» 8 45 
i ,685 

1 > r >75 


7 r »3,099 






The Districts of Muttra, Agra, and Etawah lie on both sides of the 
Jumna, and a small portion of Farrukhabad extends east of the Ganges, 
while Etah and Mainpuri are situated entirely in the Doab. The 
Division contains 62 towns and 8,043 villages. The largest towns are 
Agra (population, 188,022 with cantonments), Farrukhabad (67,338 
with Fatehgarh and cantonments), Muttra (60,042 with cantonments), 
Etawah (42,570), and Brindaban (22,717). The chief places of 
commercial importance are Agra, Farrukhabad, and Mainpuri. Muttra 
and Brindaban are important centres of Vaishnava religion, being con- 
nected with the life of Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu. 
Kanauj was the chief town of several great dynasties in Northern India 
before the Muhammadan invasion. Agra was the capital of the Mughal 
empire during the sixteenth and part of the seventeenth centuries, and 
successive emperors have left memorials of their rule in stone and 
marble which are unrivalled throughout India. 

Agra District. — District in the Division of the same name in the 
United Provinces, lying between 26 45' and 27 24' N. and 77 26' 
and 78 51' E., with an area of 1,845 square miles. It is bounded on 
the north by Muttra and Etah, and on the east by Mainpuri and 
Etawah; on the south lie the Native States of Gwalior and Dholpur, 
and on the west Bharatpur. The District is divided into four distinct 
tracts by the rivers Jumna, Utangan or Banganga, and 
Chambal. North-east of the Jumna, which crosses the aspects 

District with a very winding course from north-west to 
south-east, lie two tahsils with an upland area of productive loam, separated 
from the river by a network of ravines which are of little use except 
for grazing. Three smaller streams— the Jhirna (or Karon), Sirsa, and 
Sengar— cross this tract. The greater part of the District lies south- 
west of the Jumna and north of its tributary the Utangan. This tract 
is remarkable for the uniformity of its soil, which is generally a fertile 
loam, with little clay or sand. The ravines of the two great rivers, 
and of the Khari Nadl, which flows into the Utangan, arc the chief 


breaks, while in the west of Fatehpur Sikri a few ranges of low rocky 
hills appear. South of the Utangan lie two smaller tracts of markedly 
different appearance. In the south-west a low range and numerous 
isolated hills are found, and the country is traversed by many water- 
courses. The south-east of the District consists of a long strip of land, 
wider in the centre than at the ends, lying between the Utangan and 
Jumna on the north, and the Chambal on the south. Half of this area 
is occupied by the deep and far-spreading ravines of the rivers. 

The District is almost entirely occupied by the Gangetic alluvium, 
which conceals all the older rocks, except in the west and south-west, 
where ridges of Upper Vindhyan sandstone rise out of the plain. 
Several divisions appear to be represented, from the lowest, known as 
the Kaimur group, to the highest, known as the Bhander. A boring 
at Agra was carried to a depth of 513 feet before striking the under- 
lying rock. 

The flora is that of the Doab north of the Jumna, while south of the 
great river it resembles that of Rajputana. The former area is fairly 
well wooded, while in the latter trees are scarce. 

Leopards and hyenas are found in the ravines and in the western 
hills, while wolves are common near the Jumna, and ' ravine deer ' 
(gazelle) frequent the same haunts. Antelope are to be seen in most 
parts of the District. Fish are plentiful in the rivers and are eaten by 
many classes. 

Owing to its proximity to the sandy deserts on the west, Agra District 
is very dry, and suffers from greater extremes of temperature than the 
country farther east. Though cold in winter, and exceedingly hot in 
summer, the climate is not unhealthy. The mean annual temperature 
is about 75 ; the lowest monthly average being about 59 in January, 
and the highest 95 or 96 in May and June. 

The annual rainfall averages about 26 inches. There is not much 
variation in different parts, but the tract near the Jumna receives the 
largest fall. Great variations occur from year to year, the amount 
ranging from n to 36 inches. 

The District of Agra has scarcely any history, apart from the city. 
Sikandar Lodi, king of Delhi, had a residence on the left bank of the 
__. Jumna, which became the capital of the empire 

about 1 50 1. It was occupied by Babar after his 
victory over Ibrahim Khan in 1526, and its foundations are still 
to be seen opposite the modern Agra. Babar fought a decisive 
battle with the Rajputs near Fatehpur Sikri in 1527. His son, 
Humayun, also resided at Old Agra, until his expulsion in 1540. 
Akbar lived in the District for the greater part of his reign, and 
founded the present city of Agra on the right bank. The town of 
Fatehpur Sikri, which owes its origin to the same emperor, dates from 


1569 or 1570. A tank of 20 miles in circumference, which he con- 
structed in its neighbourhood, can now be traced in the fragmentary 
ruins of the embankment. The mausoleum at Sikandra, 5 miles from 
Agra, marks the burial-place of the great Mughal emperor. It was 
built by his son, Jahangir, and has a fine entrance archway of red sand- 
stone. Jahangir, however, deserted Agra towards the close of his reign, 
and spent the greater part of his time in the Punjab and Kabul. Shah 
Jahan removed the seat of the imperial court to Delhi, but continued 
the construction of the Taj and the other architectural monuments to 
which the city owes much of its fame. The success of Aurangzeb's 
rebellion against his father was assured by the victory gained at 
Samogarh in this District in 1658, and the deposed emperor was then 
confined in the fort. From the year 1666 the District dwindled into 
the seat of a provincial governor, and was often attacked by the Tats. 
During the long decline of Mughal power, places in this District were 
constantly the scene of important battles. On the death of Aurangzeb 
his sons fought at Jajau near the Dholpur border. Early in 17 13 the 
fate of the Mughal empire was again decided near Agra by the victory 
of Farrukh Siyar over Jahandar. The importance of the District then 
declined; but in 1761 Agra was taken by the Jats of Bharatpur under 
Suraj Mai and Walter Reinhardt, better known by his native name of 
Sumru. In 1770 the Marathas overran the whole Doab, but were 
expelled by the imperial forces under Najaf Khan in 1773. The Jats 
then recovered Agra for a while, and were driven out in turn by Najaf 
Khan in the succeeding year. After passing through the usual con- 
vulsions which marked the end of the eighteenth century in Upper 
India, the District came into the hands of the British by the victories of 
Lord Lake in 1803. The city was the capital of the North- Western 
Provinces from 1843 until the events of 1857, and still gives its name 
to the Province of Agra. 

The story of the outbreak of the Mutiny at Agra in May, 1857, is 
related under Agra Citv. As regards the District, the tahsils and 
thanas fell into the hands of the rebels, after the defection of the 
Gwalior Contingent on June 15. By July 2 the Nlmach and Naslrabad 
mutineers had reached Fatehpur Slkri, and the whole District became 
utterly disorganized. On July 29. however, an expedition from Agra 
recovered that post, and another sally restored order in the Itimadpur 
and Firozabad parganas. The Raja of Awa maintained tranquillity in 
the north, and the Raja of Bhadawar on the eastern border. But after 
the fall of Delhi in September the rebels from that city, joined by 
bands from Central India, advanced towards Agra on October 6. 
Four days later Colonel Greathed's column from Delhi entered Agra 
without the knowledge of the mutineers, who incautiously attacked the 
city and hopelessly shattered themselves against his well-tried force. 



They were put to flight easily and all their guns taken. The rebels still 
occupied Fatehpur Sikri, but a column dispatched against that place 
successfully dislodged them. On November 20 the villages remaining 
in open rebellion were stormed and carried; and on February 4, 1858, 
the last man still under arms was driven out of the District. 

Fragments of Hindu buildings have been discovered at a few places, 
but none of any importance, and the archaeological remains of the 
District are chiefly those of the Mughal period. Among these must be 
mentioned the magnificent fort, with the buildings contained in it, and 
the beautiful Taj at Agra ; the tomb of Akbar at Sikandra ; the 
buildings near Agra on the opposite bank of the river; and Akbar's city 
at Fatehpur Sikri. The preservation and restoration of these splendid 
memorials has been undertaken by Government, and large sums have 
been spent, especially in recent years. 

The District contains 1,197 villages and 9 towns. The population 
fell considerably between 1872 and 1881, owing to famine, and has not 
yet recovered its former level. The number at the 
last four enumerations was: (1872) 1,076,005, (1881) 
974,656, (1891) 1,003,796, and (1901) 1,060,528. The District is 
divided into seven tahslls — Itimadpur, Firozabad, Bah, Fatehabad, 
Agra, Kiraoli, and Khairagarh — the head-quarters of each being 
at a place of the same name. The principal towns are the municipali- 
ties of Agra, the administrative head-quarters of the District, and 
Firozabad ; and the 'notified area' of Fatehpur Sikri. The following 
table gives the chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 



c — 



Number of 



4J • 


= 'c 


— S3 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 








Bah . 





District total 


34 1 





II 9»775 
I2 3,59 I 
123,81 2 


+ 4-0 
+ 6-8 
- 1.9 

+ 5-8 
+ 6.7 

+ 15-7 

+ 3- 1 








+ 5- 6 

4 2 ,303 

Hindus form 86 per cent, of the total, and Musalmans 1 2 per cent., 
while the followers of other religions include 12,953 Jains, 5,522 Chris- 
tians, and 2,354 Aryas. The density is above the Provincial average, 
and the rate of increase during the last decade was also high. More 
than 99 per cent, of the population speak Western Hindi, the prevailing 
dialect being Braj. 



The most numerous caste is that of Chamars (leather-workers and 
labourers), 175,000. Next come Brahmans, 110,000; Rajputs, X<;,ooo ; 
Jats, 69,000; Banias, 65,000; Kachhls (cultivators), 53,000 ; and Koris 
(weavers), 32,000. Gadarias (shepherds), Ahirs (cowherds), Gujars 
(graziers), Lodhas (cultivators), and Mallahs (boatmen and fishermen) 
each number from 30,000 to 20,000. More than a quarter of the 
Musalmans call themselves Shaikhs, but most of these art: descended 
from converts. Pathans number 11,000; and Bhishtis (water-carriers), 
Saiyids (converted Rajputs), Bhangls (sweepers), and Fakirs ea< h 
number from 8,000 to 6,ooo. About 48 per cent, of the population 
are supported by agriculture, 10 per cent, by general labour, and 8 per 
cent, by personal services. Rajputs, Brahmans, Banias, Jats, and 
Kayasths are the principal landholders, and Brahmans, Rajputs, 
Jats, and Chamars the principal cultivators. 

Out of 2,343 native Christians in 1901, r,i58 were Methodists, 
774 Anglicans, and 346 Roman Catholics. The Roman Catholic- 
Mission has been maintained continuously since the sixteenth century, 
while the Church Missionary Society commenced work in 1813 and the 
American Methodist Mission in 1881. 

The quality of the soil is generally uniform, and the relative facility 

of irrigation is the most important agricultural factor. Along the rivers 

there is usually a rich tract of low alluvial soil called . ,. 

7 , , - , , • 11 L Agriculture. 

kacnhar ; but the area is very small, except on the 

bank of the Chambal. On the Gwalior border is found a black soil, 
resembling the mar of Bundelkhand and called by the same name. In 
the tract north of the Jumna there has been some deterioration owing 
to the spread of the weed baisuri {Pluchea lanceolata), which is yet more 
common in Muttra District. The west of the District is subject to 
considerable fluctuations, owing to excessive or deficient rainfall, and 
was formerly ravaged by wild cattle from Bharatpur, which are now- 
kept out by a fence and ditch made in 1893. 

The tenures found in the District are those common elsewhere. 
Zamindari mahdls number 2,111, perfect pattiddri 1,824, and imperfect 
pattiddri 1,668. The last mentioned also include bhaiydchara or, as 
they are called here, kabzaddri ma/id/s. There are a few talukdari 
estates, but none of importance. The main agricultural statistics for 
1903-4 are given in the table on the next page, in square miles. 

The staple food-crops, and the areas under each in 1903-4, are : 
bdjra (283 square miles), gram, (237), jowdr (179), wheat (176), and 
barley (192). Cotton covered 118 square miles, being grown in all 
parts of the District. 

There have been no improvements in agricultural practice of recent 
years. Since the last settlement, despite a slight increase in canal- 
irrigation, cultivation has fallen off. A steady demand exists for 



advances under the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans 
Acts, which amounted to more than a lakh under each Act during the 
ten years ending 1900, including sums of Rs. 42,000 and Rs. 28,000, 
respectively, advanced in the famine year 1896-7. In 1903-4 the 
advances were Rs. 5,000. 








Bah .... 


Agra .... 

Kiraoll .... 








2 3 





No indigenous breed of cattle is found, and the best animals are 
imported from Central India or the Punjab. An attempt has been 
made to improve the breed of horses, and two stallions are maintained 
by Government. A fair is held at Batesar about November, to which 
large numbers of cattle, horses, and camels are brought by dealers 
from distant parts. 

In 1903-4 the area irrigated was 368 square miles, out of a cultivated 
area of 1,272 square miles. Canals supplied 68 square miles and wells 
299. The Upper Ganges Canal served about 5 square miles in the 
tract north of the Jumna, while the Agra Canal supplied the area 
between the Jumna and Utangan. The two tracts south of the Utangan 
are entirely dependent on wells, which are very deep and in places 
yield brackish water. The Utangan was once used as a source of 
irrigation ; but in 1864 the works were closed, as the alterations in the 
natural channel had caused much damage. 

The most valuable mineral product of the District is sandstone, which 
is quarried in the western tahslls of Kiraoll and Khairagarh, and is 
extensively used for building, while millstones and grindstones are also 
largely made. Block kankar is found in the Chambal ravines, and 
nodular kankar is common everywhere. 

Agra city is the most important centre of arts and manufactures in 

the District. It is especially celebrated for marble articles beautifully 

inlaid with precious stones, and for the carving of 

«^«,«.t«f:^!j^«- stone or marble into screens of delicate pierced 
communications. l 

tracery. Cotton and woollen carpets are manufac- 
tured, and the silk and gold and silver embroidery of the city have 
some reputation. Hnkka stems are also made, but the trade is 
decreasing. There were 8 cotton gins and presses in the District in 


1903, employing 1,192 hands, and 3 spinning mills employing 1,562. 
Smaller industries include a flour-mill, a bone-mill, and a few indigo 

The city likewise monopolizes the greater part of the trade. It is a 
centre for the collection of grain, oilseeds, and cotton for export ; and also 
a distributing centre from which cotton goods, metals, sugar, and salt are 
sent to the surrounding tracts. Rajputana and Central India supply 
cotton, oilseeds, stone, and salt, taking in return sugar, grain, cotton goods, 
and metals. Grain and cotton are exported to Bombay and Calcutta. 

Agra is well supplied with railways. The East Indian Railway passes 
through the tract north of the Jumna, and is connected by a branch 
from Tundla to Agra city with the Midland section of the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway. The narrow-gauge Rajputana-Malwa line runs west 
from Agra, and a branch from this at Achhnera joins Muttra and Hathras. 
A new broad-gauge line from Agra to Delhi has recently been completed. 
The total length of metalled roads is 177 miles, of which 70 are main- 
tained at the cost of Provincial revenues, while the remainder and also 
434 miles of unmetalled roads are maintained from Local funds. 
Avenues of trees are kept up on 232 miles. An old imperial route from 
Delhi to the east passed through Agra, and other roads lead towards 
Bombay through Dholpur, to Rajputana, and to the Doab. 

The District has suffered much in periods of drought, and famines 
occurred in 1783, in 1813, in 1819, and in 1838. In the last-named 
year as many as 113,000 paupers were relieved in 
Agra city alone, while 300,000 starving people immi- 
grated into the District. In 1 860-1 the District was again visited by 
severe scarcity, though it did not suffer so greatly as the country 
immediately to the north. In July, 1861, the daily average of persons 
on relief works rose to 66,000. Distress was felt in 1868-9, but did 
not deepen into famine. In 1877-8 the failure of the autumn crops 
following high prices in the previous year caused famine, and relief 
works were opened on the Achhnera-Muttra Railway and on the roads, 
the highest number employed at one time being 28,000. The last 
famine was in 1896-7, when distress was felt throughout the District, 
most severely in the Bah and Khairagarh tahslls, which are not 
protected by canals and have exceptionally poor means of irrigation. 
The labouring classes were the chief sufferers, and the number on relief 
rose to 33,000, but many of these were the wives and children of 
persons employed in the city who added to the family income by 
working on the new park at Agra. 

The District staff includes, besides the Collector, one or two members 
of the Indian Civil Service and five Deputy-Collectors recruited in India. 
A tahslldar resides at the head-quarters of each of the seven tahslls. 
There are two District Munsifs and a Judge of the Small Cause 




Court. The Subordinate Judge and the District and Sessions Judge 
have jurisdiction throughout the two Districts of Agra and Muttra. 
Serious crime is not uncommon, and the District 
is noted for the large number of robberies and 
dacoities which occasionally take place. Cattle-thefts are also frequent, 
and the difficulty in detecting these offences is enhanced by the prox- 
imity of the borders of Native States. Infanticide was formerly 
prevalent, and the inhabitants of a few villages are still proclaimed and 
kept under observation. 

After the acquisition of the District in 1803, settlements were made 
for short terms, the demand being fixed on a consideration of the offers 
made by persons for whole parganas ; but after the first year or two 
the demand was distributed over individual villages. The Bah tahsll 
was, however, farmed for some time. The first regular settlement was 
completed between 1834 and 1841, on the basis of a professional 
survey. Soils were classified and rent rates applied, which were derived 
by selection from actual rates ; and the revenue was fixed at two-thirds 
of the ' assets ' so calculated, but the estimates were also checked by 
comparison with the earlier assessments. The revenue demand 
amounted to 16-2 lakhs. In 1872 a revision was commenced. The 
valuation was based, as before, on rent rates actually paid ; but several 
difficulties arose in fixing standard rates. Rents were usually paid in 
the lump, without any differentiation for different classes of soil. One- 
quarter of the cultivation was in the hands of the landlords, and in half 
the area rents had remained unchanged since the last settlement. The 
1 assets ' calculated were revised by a comparison with the actual rent- 
rolls, but the assessment provided for prospective increases. The 
revenue fixed amounted to 18 lakhs, representing 50 per cent, of the 
'assets'; the incidence fell at Rs. 1-7 per acre, varying from Rs. i-i in 
Bah to Rs. 2 in the Itimadpur tahsll. Extensive reductions of revenue 
were made in 1886 and 1891 in the Agra and Kiraoli tahsils owing to 
deterioration and a high assessment, but these tracts are now recovering. 
In 1903 it was decided that the settlement, which would ordinarily 
expire in 1907-9, should be extended for a further period of ten years. 
The receipts from land revenue and from all sources have been, in 
thousands of rupees : — 

1 880- 1. 




Land revenue 
Total revenue 


1 7,40 

2 7,49 


l J»SS 


Besides the two municipalities of Agra and Firozabad, and the 
' notified area ' of Fatehpur SIkri, there are six towns administered 


under Act XX of 1856. The income and expenditure of the District 
board is about 1-5 lakhs. The income is chiefly derived from 
and nearly half the expenditure is on roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police usually has 2 Assistant Super- 
intendents and 9 inspectors working under him, and in 1904 he had a 
force of 158 subordinate officers and 840 men. There are also about 
90 municipal and town police, and 2,300 rural and road police. The 
District contains thirty-three police stations, and a District ami also a 
' Central jail. 

Agra takes a fairly high place in the United Provinces as regards 
literacy. At the Census of 190 1 4 per cent, of the people (7 males and 
0-5 females) were returned as able to read and write. The number of 
schools recognized as public fell from 245 in 1880-1 to 192 in 1 900-1, 
but the number of pupils rose from 7,683 to 9,322. In 1903-4 there 
were 266 public institutions with 13,911 pupils, of whom 1,513 were 
girls, besides 102 private schools with 2,099 pupils. Of the public in- 
stitutions, five are managed by Government, and the rest chiefly by the 
District and municipal boards. There are three Arts colleges in Agra 
City, in two of which law classes are held, and also a normal school and 
a medical school. Out of a total expenditure on education in 1903-4 
of 2 -4 lakhs, Rs. 67,000 was received from fees. 

The District contains 16 hospitals and dispensaries, with accom- 
modation for 333 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated 
was 178,000, of whom 5,000 were in-patients, and 8,000 operations were 
performed. The expenditure amounted to Rs. 58,000, chiefly from 
Local and municipal funds. The Thomason Hospital is one of the 
finest in the United Provinces. 

About 35,000 persons were vaccinated in 1903-4, representing ^ 
per 1,000 of the population. Vaccination is compulsory only in the 
municipalities and the cantonment. 

[H. F. Evans, Settlement Report (1880); H. R. Nevill, District 
Gazetteer (1905).] 

Agra Tahsil.— North central tahsil of Agra District, United Pro- 
vinces, conterminous with ftiepargana of the same name, lying between 
27 3' and 27 17' N. and 77 51' and 78 13' E., with an area of 
202 square miles. Population increased from 272,718 in 1891 to 
29r,o44 in 1901. There are 140 villages and one town, Agra City 
(population, 188,022), the District and tahsil head-quarters. The 
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,24,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 30,000. The density of population, 1,441 persons per square mile, 
is more than double the District average, owing to the inclusion of the 
city. On the north and east the Jumna forms the boundary, bordered 
by a fringe of ravines, usually extending a mile from the river. The 
ravines, though barren, produce valuable grass used for making thatch 

vol. v. (; 


and rope, and also form grazing-grounds. In the lowlands near the 
river, melons and other vegetables are grown. The greater part of the 
tahsll is a level upland, with a well-marked depression in the west. In 
1903-4 the area under cultivation was 151 square miles, of which 60 
were irrigated. The Agra Canal supplies about one-third of the 
irrigated area, and wells serve most of the remainder. In a few places 
the subsoil water is brackish. 

Agra City. — Administrative head-quarters of Agra District, United 
Provinces, situated in 27 io' N. and 7 8° 3' E., on the right bank of 
the river Jumna, 843 miles by rail from Calcutta and 839 miles from 
Bombay. The city is the fourth in size in the United Provinces and is 
growing rapidly in population. The number of inhabitants at the four 
enumerations was as follows: (1872) 149,008, (1881) 160,203, (1891) 
168,622, and (1901) 188,022. The figures include the population of 
the cantonment, which amounted in 1901 to 22,041. Hindus numbered 
121,249, and Musalmans 57,760. 

Before the time of Akbar Agra had been a residence of the Lodi 
kings, whose city, however, lay on the left or eastern bank of the Jumna. 
Traces of its foundations may still be noticed opposite 
the modern town, and a flourishing suburb has grown 
up on part of the ancient site. Babar occupied the old palace after 
his victory over Ibrahim Khan in 1526; and when a year later he 
defeated the Rajput forces near Fatehpur Sikri and securely established 
the Mughal supremacy, he took up his permanent residence at this 
place. He died at Agra in 1530; but his remains were removed to 
Kabul, so that no mausoleum preserves his memory here. His son, 
Humayun, was for a time driven out of India by Sher Shah, the 
Afghan governor of Bengal, and after his re-establishment on the 
throne he fixed his court at Delhi. Humayun was succeeded by his 
son Akbar, the great organizer of the imperial system, who removed the 
seat of government to the present Agra, which he founded on the right 
bank of the river, and built the fort in 1566. A second name of the 
city, Akbarabad, is still used by natives. Four years later he laid the 
foundations of Fatehpur Sikri, and contemplated making that town 
the capital of his empire, but was dissuaded apparently by the superior 
situation of Agra on the great waterway of the Jumna. From 1570 to 
1600 Akbar was occupied with his conquests to the south and east ; but 
in 1 60 1 he rested from his wars and returned to Agra, where he died 
four years later. During his reign the palaces in the Fort were com- 
menced, and the gates of Chitor were set up at Agra. Jahanglr built 
his father's mausoleum at Sikandra, and also erected the tomb of his 
father-in-law, Itimad-ud-daula, on the left bank of the river, as well as 
the portion of the palace in the Fort known as the Jahanglr Mahal. In 
1 6 18 he left Agra and never returned. Shah Jahan was proclaimed 


emperor at Agra in 1628, and resided here from [632 to 1637. It is to 
his reign that most of the great architectural works in the Fort mu 
referred, though doubtless many of them had been commenced 
earlier date. The Moti Masjid or 'pearl mosque,' the fama Masjid or 
'great mosque,' and the Khas Mahal were all completed under this 
magnificent emperor. The Taj Mahal, generally allowed to bi 
most exquisite piece of Muhammadan architecture in the world, com 
memorates his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. In 165S Shah Jahan's third sou, 
-Aurangzeb, rebelled and deposed him; but the ex-emperor wa 
mitted to live in imperial state at Agra, though in confinement, until his 
death seven years later. Agra then sank for a while to the position of 
a provincial city, as Aurangzeb removed the seat of government per 
manently to Delhi. It had often to resist the attacks of the turbulenl 
Jats during the decline of the Mughals ; and in 1761 it was actually 
taken by the Bharatpur forces under Suraj Mai and Walter Reinhardt, 
better known by his native name of Sumru. In 1770 the Marathas 
ousted the Jats, but were themselves driven out by the imperial troops 
under Najaf Khan four years later. Najaf Khan then resided in the 
city for many years with great state as imperial minister. After his 
death in 1779 Muhammad Beg was governor of Agra ; and in 17X4 he 
was besieged by the forces of the emperor Shah Alam and Mahadji 
Sindhia. Sindhia took Agra, and held it till 1787, when he was in turn 
attacked by the imperial troops under Ghulam Kadir and Ismail Beg. 
The partisan, General de Boigne, raised the siege by defeating them 
near Fatehpur Slkri in June, 1788. Thenceforward the Marathas held 
the fort till it was taken by Lord Lake in October, 1803. From this 
time it remained a British frontier fortress ; and in 1835, when the new 
Presidency of Agra was founded, this city was chosen as the se.u of 
government, though the Board of Revenue and the principal courts 
remained at Allahabad till 1843, when they were moved to Agra. 

British rule continued undisturbed until the Mutiny in 1857. Nev 
of the outbreak at Meerut reached Agra on May 11, and the fidelity of 
the native soldiers at once became suspected. On May 30 two com 
panics of native infantry belonging to the 44th and 67th Regiments, 
who had been dispatched to Muttra to escort the treasure into Agi •. 
proved mutinous and marched off to Delhi. Next morning their 
comrades were ordered to pile arms, and sullenly obeyed. Most of 
them then quietly retired to their own homes. The mutiny at Gwalior 
took place on June 15, and it became apparent immediately that the 
Gwalior Contingent at Agra would follow the example of their eomrades. 
On July 3 the British officials found it necessary to retire into the ton. 
Two days later the Nlmach and Naslrabad rebels advanced towards 
Agra, and drove back the small British force at Sucheta after a brisk 
engagement. The mob of Agra rose at once, plundered the city, and 

c 2 


murdered every Christian, European or native, upon whom they could 
lay their hands. The mutineers, however, moved on to Delhi without 
entering the city ; and on July 8 partial order was restored in Agra. 
During the months of July and August the officials remained shut up in 
the fort, though occasional raids were made against the rebels in different 
directions. The Lieutenant-Governor of the North-Western Provinces 
(John Colvin) died during those months of trouble, and his tomb now 
forms a graceful specimen of Christian sculpture within the fort of the 
Mughals. After the fall of Delhi in September, the fugitives from that 
city, together with the rebels from Central India, unexpectedly advanced 
against Agra on October 6. Meanwhile, Colonel Greathed's column 
from Delhi had entered the city without the knowledge of the mutineers. 
Neither force knew of the presence of the other till the attack took 
place, but the rebels were repulsed after a short contest, which com- 
pletely broke up their array. Agra was henceforth relieved from all 
danger, and the work of reconstituting the District went on unmolested. 
The provisional Government continued to occupy the former capital 
until February, 1858, when it removed to Allahabad, which was con- 
sidered a superior military position. Since that time Agra has become 
for administrative purposes merely the head-quarters of a Division and 
a District. But the ancient capital still maintains its natural supremacy 
as the finest city of Upper India, while the development of the railway 
system, of which it forms a great centre, is gradually restoring its 
commercial importance. 

The city of Agra stretches inland west and south from the Jumna, 
forming a roughly equilateral triangle, with its base running west from 

_ . .. the river. The cantonments lie beyond the southern 

Description. . , . , . , / m _ 

point, and include a large rectangular area. Most of 

the civil station is surrounded by portions of the native city, but the 
Judge's court and the jails lie north of it. The bazars are better built 
than those of most towns in the Provinces, and contain a large propor- 
tion of stone houses. The Mughal buildings for which the place is 
famous lie on the edge of the city or some distance away. The Jama 
Masjid or ' great mosque ' stands at the centre of the south-eastern face, 
separated from the river by the vast pile of buildings included in the 
Fort. From the north angle of the Fort the Jumna curves away to the 
east, and on its bank at a distance of a mile and a half rises the lovely 
marble building famous as the Taj. The space between, which was 
formerly an unsightly stretch of ravines, is now occupied by the 
MacDonnell Park, commenced as a famine work in 1897, which 
occupies about 250 acres. The tomb of Itimad-ud-daula and the 
Chini-ka-rauza are situated on the left bank of the river ; and the 
magnificent tomb of Akbar is at Sikandra, 5 miles north-west of 
the city. 


The main building of the Jama Masjid, 130 feet in length bj 100 in 

breadth, is divided into three compartments, each of which op< 

the courtyard by a fine archway, and is surmounted 

by a low dome built of white and red stone in oblique , . 1 , s J t P ric 
, . . } buildings, 

courses, producing a singular, though not unpleasmg, 

effect. The work has all the originality and vigour of the early Mughal 
style, mixed with many reminiscences of the Pathan school. The inscrip- 
tion over the main archway sets forth that the mosque was constructed 
by the emperor Shah Jahan in 1644, after five years' labour. It was 
built in the name of his daughter, Jahanara, who afterwards devotedly 
shared her father's captivity when he had been deposed by Aurangzeb. 
This is the noble-hearted and pious princess whose modest tomb lies 
near that of the poet Khusru, outside Delhi. 

Opposite to the Jama Masjid, across an open square, stands the Fort, 
whose walls are 70 feet high and a mile and a half in circuit ; but as 
they are only faced with stone and consist within of sand and rubble, 
they have no real strength, and would crumble at once before the fire 
of modern artillery. A drawbridge leads across the deep moat which 
surrounds the crenelated ramparts, giving access through a massive 
gateway and up a paved ascent to the inner portal. The actual 
entrance is flanked by two octagonal towers of red sandstone, inlaid 
with ornamental designs in white marble. The passage between them, 
covered by two domes, is known as the Delhi Gate. Within it, beyond 
a bare space once occupied by a courtyard, lie the palace buildings, 
the first of which is the Dlwan-i-am, or ' hall of public audience,' formerly 
used as an armoury. It was built by Aurangzeb in 1685, and did duty 
as an imperial hall and courthouse for the palace. The roof is supported 
by colonnades which somewhat impair the effect of the interior. This 
hall opens on a large court or tilt-yard ; and while the emperor with 
his grandees sat in the open hall, the general public occupied three 
of the cloisters. A raised throne accommodated the sovereign, behind 
which a door communicated with the private apartments of the palace. 
The main range of buildings does not belong to Akbar's time, but was 
built by his son and grandson. The centre consists of a great court 
500 feet by 370, surrounded by arcades and approached at opposite- 
ends through a succession of corridors opening into one another. 
The Diwan-i-am is on one side, and behind it are two smaller 
enclosures, the one containing the Diwan-i-khas and the other the 
harem. Three sides were occupied by the residences of the ladies, and 
the fourth by three white pavilions. The Dlwan-i-khas, or ' hall of private 
audience,' consists of two corridors, 64 feet long, 34 feet broad, and 
22 feet high, both built in 1637. It has been repaired in a spirit 
of fidelity to the original. The Machchhl Bhawan, or court between 
these and the Diwan-i-am, was probably built by Shah Jahan. On the 


river side of this court are two thrones, one of white marble and 
the other of black slate. The substructures of the palace are of red 
sandstone ; but the corridors, rooms, and pavilions are of white marble 
elaborately carved. Next to the Diwan-i-khas comes the Shish Mahal 
or ' palace of glass,' which was an Oriental bath adorned with thousands 
of small mirrors. To the south again lies a large red building called 
the Jahanglr Mahal, with a fine two-storeyed facade and relieving lines 
of white marble. One of the inner courts is 70 feet square, and both 
are of red stone; between them is a handsome entrance on pillars. 
The Jahanglr Mahal presents some admirable examples of Hindu 
carving, with projecting brackets as supports to the broad eaves 
and to the architraves between the pillars, which take the place 
of arches. This Hindu form is adopted in the Jahanglr Mahal 
and in the neighbouring Saman Burj instead of the arch ; and the 
ornamentation of the former is purely Hindu. The exquisite Moti 
Masjid, or 'pearl mosque,' stands to the north of the Diwan-i-am. It 
is raised on a lofty sandstone platform, and has three domes of white 
marble with gilded spires. The domes crown a corridor open towards 
the court and divided into three aisles by a triple row of Saracenic 
arches. The pearl mosque is 142 feet long by 56 feet high, and was 
built by Shah Jahan in 1654. It is much larger than the pearl mosque 
at Delhi ; and its pure white marble, sparingly inlaid with black lines, 
has an effect at once noble and refined. Only in the slabs composing 
the floor is colour employed — a delicate yellow inlaid into the white 
marble. There is, however, in the Agra fort a second and much 
smaller pearl mosque, which was reserved for the private devotions 
of the emperor. This exquisite miniature house of prayer is entirely of 
the finest and whitest marble, without gilding or inlaying of any sort. 

The Taj Mahal, with its beautiful domes, ' a dream in marble,' rises 
on the river bank. It is reached from the Fort by the Strand Road, 
made in the famine of 1838 and adorned with stone 
ghats by native gentlemen. The Taj was erected as 
a mausoleum for the remains of Arjmand Banu Begam, wife of the 
emperor Shah Jahan, known as Mumtaz Mahal or ' exalted of the 
palace.' She died in 1629, and this building was begun soon after her 
death, though not completed till 1 648. The materials are white marbles 
from Makrana and red sandstone from Fatehpur Sikri. The complexity 
of the design and the delicate intricacy of the workmanship baffle de- 
scription. The mausoleum stands on a raised marble platform, and at 
each of the corners rises a tall and slender minaret of graceful proportions 
and exquisite beauty. Beyond the platform stretch the two wings, one 
of which is itself a mosque of great architectural merit. In the centre 
of the whole design, the mausoleum occupies a square of 186 feet, with 
the angles deeply truncated, so as to form an unequal octagon. The 


main feature of this central pile is the great dome, whi< I. iwells upward 
to nearly two-thirds of a sphere, and tapers at its extremity into a po 
spire, crowned by a crescent. Each corner of the mausoleum 
by a similar though much smaller dome, erected on a pediment pi< 
with graceful Saracenic arches. Light is admitted into the interior 
through a double screen of pierced marble, which tempers the glare ol 
an Indian sun, while its whiteness prevents the mellow effect from de 
generating into gloom. The internal decorations consist of inlaid work 
in precious stones, such as agate and jasper, with which every spandril 
or other salient point in the architecture is richly fretted. Brown and 
violet marble is also freely employed in wreaths, scrolls, and lintels, to 
relieve the monotony of the white walls. In regard to colour and design 
the interior of the Taj may rank first in the world for purely decorative 
workmanship ; while the perfect symmetry of its exterior, once seen, can 
never be forgotten, nor the aerial grace of its domes, rising like marble 
bubbles into the clear sky. 

The Taj represents the most highly elaborated stage of ornamentation 
reached by the Indo-Muhammadan builders — the stage at which the 
architect ends and the jeweller begins. In its magnificent gateway the 
diagonal ornamentation at the corners which satisfied the designers of the 
gateways of the Itimad-ud-daula and Sikandra mausoleums is superseded 
by fine marble cables, in bold twists, strong and handsome. The tri- 
angular insertions of white marble and large flowers have in like manner 
given place to a fine inlaid work. Firm perpendicular lines in black 
marble, with well-proportioned panels of the same material, are effec- 
tively used in the interior of the gateway. On its top, the Hindu 
brackets and monolithic architraves of Sikandra are replaced by 
Moorish cusped arches, usually single blocks of red sandstone in the 
kiosks and pavilions which adorn the roof. From the pillared pavilions 
a magnificent view is obtained of the Taj gardens below, with the Jumna 
at their farther end, and the city and fort of Agra in the distance. 

From this splendid gateway one passes up a straight alley, through a 
beautiful garden cooled by a broad shallow piece of water running along 
the middle of the path, to the Taj itself. The Taj is entirely of marble 
and gems. The red sandstone of other Muhammadan buildings has 
disappeared; or rather the red sandstone, where used to form the thick 
ness of the walls, is in the Taj overlaid completely with white marble, 
and the white marble is itself inlaid with precious stones arranged in 
lovely patterns of flowers. A feeling of purity impresses itself on the 
eye and the mind, from the absence of the coarser material which forms 
so invariable a feature of Agra architecture. The lower walls and panels 
are covered with tulips, oleanders, and full-blown lilies, in flat carving 
on the white marble; and although the inlaid work of flowers, done in 
gems, is very brilliant when looked at closely, there is on the whole but 


little colour, and the all-prevailing sentiment is one of whiteness, silence, 
and calm. The whiteness is broken only by the fine colour of the inlaid 
gems, by lines in black marble, and by delicately written inscriptions, 
also in black, from the Koran. Under the dome of the vast mausoleum 
a high and beautiful screen of open tracery in white marble rises round 
the two tombs, or rather cenotaphs ', of the emperor and his princess ; 
and in this marvel of marble, the carving has advanced from the old 
geometric patterns to a trelliswork of flowers and foliage, handled with 
great freedom and spirit. The two cenotaphs in the centre of the 
exquisite enclosure have no carving, except the plain kalamdan, or 
oblong pen-box, on the tomb of Shah Jahan. But both the cenotaphs 
are inlaid with flowers made of costly gems, and with the ever-graceful 
oleander scroll. 

The tomb of Itimad-ud-daula stands some distance from the opposite 
or left bank of the river. Itimad-ud-daula was the Wazir or prime 
minister of the emperor Jahangir, and his mausoleum forms one of the 
treasures of Indian architecture. The great gateway is constructed of 
red sandstone, inlaid with white marble, freely employing an orna- 
mentation of diagonal lines, which produce a somewhat unrestful Byzan- 
tine effect. The mausoleum itself in the garden looks from the gateway 
like a structure of marble filigree. It consists of two storeys. The 
lower one is of marble, inlaid on the outside with coloured stones chiefly 
in geometrical patterns, diagonals, cubes, and stars. The numerous 
niches in the walls are decorated with enamelled paintings of vases and 
flowers. The principal entrance to the mausoleum is a marble arch, 
groined, and very finely carved with flowers in low relief. In the in- 
terior, painting or enamel is freely used for the roof and the dado of 
the walls ; the latter is about 3^ feet high, of fine white marble inlaid 
with coloured stones in geometrical patterns. The upper storey consists 
of pillars of white marble (also inlaid with coloured stones), and a series 
of perforated marble screens stretching from pillar to pillar. The whole 
forms a lovely example of marble open filigree work. 

In addition to the ordinary District offices, Agra contains some fine 
public buildings. Among these may be mentioned the three colleges, 
the Roman Catholic Cathedral and the Mission buildings, the Thomason 
Hospital, now one of the best equipped in the United Provinces, 
the Lady Lyall Hospital, the Central and District jails, and the 
Lunatic Asylum. Agra is the head-quarters of the Commissioner of 
the Division, the Commissioner of Salt Revenue in Northern India, 
two Superintending Engineers in the Irrigation branch, the Chemical 
Examiner to Government in the United Provinces, and an Inspector 
of Schools. The city was the earliest centre of missionary enterprise 
in Northern India, for the Roman Catholic Mission was founded here 

1 The real tombs are in a vault below. 


in the sixteenth century, and in [620 a Jesuit College wa opened. 
Northern India was constituted an Apostolic Vicariati in [822, with 
head-quarters at Agra; but in 1886 Agra became the seat ol an Arch 
bishop appointed by the Holy Sec. The Baptist Mission hen 
founded in 181 1, and the Church Missionary Society commenced work 
in 1813. 

Agra was constituted a municipality in 1863. During th< t< n 
ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged 3.3 lakhs, excluding 
the loan account. In 1903-4 the income was 
5-3 lakhs, which included octroi (2-4 lakhs), water rate 
(Rs. 68,coo), rents (Rs. 37,000), sale of water (Rs. 33,000), and tolls 
(Rs. 35,000). The expenditure was4«8 lakhs, including repayment ol loan-, 
(1*3 lakhs), conservancy (Rs.70,000), water-supply and drainage (capital, 
Rs. 12,000; maintenance, Rs. 63,000), administration and collection 
(Rs. 50,000), roads and buildings (Rs. 24,000), and public safety 
(Rs. 41,000). An attempt was made between 1884 and 1887 to obtain a 
water-supply from an artesian well, but was abandoned in favour of a sup- 
ply from the Jumna. The work commenced in 1889, and water wa 
supplied to the city in 1891. Many extensions and improvements have- 
been made since, and loans amounting to nearly r6 lakhs have be< n 
obtained from Government. In 1903 the daily consumption of filtered 
water was more than 9^ gallons per head, and there were S11 house 
connexions. About 27 miles of drains are flushed daily. The drainage 
system has long been recognized as defective, owing to the small flow 
in the Jumna during the hot season and changes in its channels. An 
intercepting sewer has recently been completed, which discharges its 
contents below the city. 

The cantonment is ordinarily garrisoned by British and native 
infantry and British artillery. Agra is also the head-quarters of the 
Agra Volunteer Corps. The cantonment fund has an annual income 
and expenditure of over Rs. 60,000 ; a Cantonment Magistrate is 
stationed here. 

The trade of Agra has undergone considerable changes under British 

rule, the principal factors being the alteration in trade routes due to the 

extension of railways and changes in native fashions. 

t. c 1 ^1 .i 111 Commerce and 

It was formerly the great centre through which sugar industries 

and tobacco passed to Rajputana and Central India, 
while salt was received from Rajputana, cotton and ghl from the sur- 
rounding country, and stone from the quarries in the west ol the 
District. There was also a considerable trade in grain, the direction 
of which varied according to the seasons. Agra has now become 
a great railway centre, at which the East Indian and Great Indian 
Peninsula broad-gauge lines and the narrow-gauge Rajputana M 
line meet, and these important functions of collection and distribution 


have increased and been added to. The recent opening of another 
broad-gauge line to Delhi will augment its trade still further. In 
addition to the products of the country, European piece-goods and 
metals are largely imported, and distributed to the neighbouring towns 
and villages. Agra was also famous for its native arts and manu- 
factures, such as gold and silver wire-drawing, embroidery, silk-weaving, 
calico-printing, pipe-stems, shoes, carving in marble and soapstone, 
inlaying of precious stones in marble, and the preparation of millstones, 
grinding-stones, and stone mortars. Consequent on the growing pre- 
ference for articles of European manufacture, the industries connected 
with embroidery, silk-weaving, wire-drawing, shoemaking, and pipe- 
stems have declined ; and calico-printing is little practised. On the 
other hand, the trade in useful stone articles has prospered, and 
ornamental work has been fostered by the large sums spent in the 
restoration of the principal buildings and by the demand created by 
European visitors ; and although some of the indigenous arts are 
depressed, new industries have been created. In 1903 there were six 
cotton gins and presses, employing 959 hands ; and three cotton- 
spinning mills, with 30,000 spindles and 1,562 workers. The Agra 
Central jail has long been noted for the production of carpets, of which 
about 15,000 square yards are turned out annually; and a private 
factory manufactures the same articles. A flour-mill and a bone-mill 
are also working. The total value of the annual rail-borne traffic of 
Agra is nearly 4 crores of rupees. The trade with the rest of the 
United Provinces amounts to nearly half of this, and that with Raj- 
putana and Central India to a quarter. Bombay has a larger share of 
the foreign trade than Calcutta. 

Agra is one of the chief educational centres in the United Provinces. 
The Agra College was founded by Government in 1823, and endowed 

_ with a erant of land in 18 11. In 1883 it was made 

Education. . , , ■„. 1 

over to a local committee, and now receives an 

annual grant of Rs. 7,000 from Government. In 1904 it contained 

175 students in the Arts classes, besides 45 in the law classes and 312 

in the school department. The Roman Catholic College, St. Peter's, 

was founded in 1841, and is a school for Europeans and Eurasians, 

with six students reading in college classes in 1904. In 1850 the 

Church Missionary Society founded St. John's College, which in 1904 

contained 128 students in college classes and 398 in the school. It 

also has a business department with 56 pupils, and five branch schools 

with 350. The municipality maintains one school and aids 22 

others with 1,756 pupils. In addition to these colleges and schools, 

there are a normal school for teachers and a medical school (founded 

in 1855) for training Hospital Assistants. The latter contained 260 

pupils, including female candidates for employment under the Lady 



Dufferin Fund. There are about twenty printing presses, and 
weekly and six monthly papers are published. Agra is noted as the 
birthplace of Abul Fazl, the historian of Akbar, and his brother, FaizI, 
a celebrated poet. It produced several distinguished authors of Persian 
and vernacular literature during the nineteenth century. Among thi e 
may be mentioned Mir Taki and Shaikh Wall Muhammad (Nazir). 
The poet Asad-ullah Khan ^Ghalib) resided at Agra for a time. 

Agra Canal. — An important irrigation work in Northern India. 
-which receives its supply from the right bank of the Jumna at Okhla, 
about ii miles below Delhi. It protects a tract of country which 
suffered considerably in the past from famine. The weir across the 
Jumna was the first attempted in Northern India on a river having a bed 
of the finest sand; it is about 800 yards wide, and rises 7 feet above 
the summer level of the river. In 1877 a cut was made from the 
Hindan river to the left bank of the Jumna close to the weir; and 
water from the Ganges Canal can thus be used, when available, to 
supplement the supply in the Jumna, which sometimes falls short. 
The total length of the main canal in 1904 was 100 miles ; of branches, 
9 miles; of distributaries, 633 miles; of drainage cuts, 191 miles; and 
of other channels, 57 miles. The main channel was completed in 
1874, and irrigation commenced for the spring harvest of 1875. The 
total capital outlay to 1904 was 102 lakhs. The canal commands an 
area of 597,000 acres, of which about 8,000 acres are situated in 
the Delhi and 210,000 in the Gurgaon District of the Punjab, and 
228,000 acres in the Muttra and 151,000 in the Agra District of the 
United Provinces. The total area actually irrigated in 1903-4 was 
260,000 acres; the gross and net revenues were 8-4 and 5-6 lakhs, and 
the net revenue represented 5-5 per cent, on the capital outlay. The 
gross revenue has exceeded the working expenses in every year since 
1876-7, and the net revenue has been larger than the interest charges 
on capital since 1896-7 ; but taking the whole period of existence of 
the canal, the interest charges have exceeded the net revenue by nearly 
14 lakhs. The total length open for navigation was 125 miles, 
including two branches to the Jumna at Muttra and Agra, 9 and 16 
miles in length, which cost i-8 and 4-9 lakhs respectively, and were 
made especially for this purpose. The traffic is, however, small, and in 
1903-4 only 14,221 tons of goods, valued at Rs. 90,000, were carried. 
The navigation receipts were Rs. 1,600, and the expenditure was 
Rs. 6,500. Navigation was finally stopped in 1904, as it interfered 
with irrigation, which is the prime object of the canal. 

Agra Barkhera.— Thakurat'm Gwalior Agency, Central India. 

Agroha. — Ancient town in the Fatahabad tahsil of Hissar Dis- 
trict, Punjab, situated in 29 20' N. and 75 38' E -> x 3 miles north 
of Hissar. It is said to be the original seat of the Agarwal Banias, and 


was once a place of great importance. The remains of a fort are 
still visible about half a mile from the existing village, and ruins and 
debris half buried in the soil on every side attest its former greatness. 
It was captured by Muhammad of Ghor in 1194, since which time the 
Agarwal Banias have been scattered over the whole peninsula. The 
clan comprises many of the wealthiest men in India. The present 
village is quite unimportant and has (1901) a population of only 

Agror. — Frontier valley in the Mansehra tahsil of Hazara District, 
North-West Frontier Province, lying between 34 29' and 34° 35' 
N. and 72 58' and 75 9' E. It consists of three mountain glens, 
10 miles in length and 6 in breadth. The lower portions contain 
a mass of luxuriant cultivation, thickly dotted with villages, hamlets, 
and groves, and surrounded by dark pine-clad heights, whose depressions 
occasionally disclose the snowy peaks of the main range in the distance. 
These valleys are alike in their nature; they have no strictly level 
spaces, but consist rather of terraced flats which descend from the hills. 
Water is abundant and perennial, so that failure of crops seldom occurs. 
The population consists chiefly of Swatis and Gujars, and was returned 
in 1901 at 16,983. Islam is the almost universal creed. Agror is the 
ancient Atyugrapura of the Rajatarangini and the 'I^ayoupos town in 
Ompo-a mentioned by Ptolemy. From the time of Timur until the 
beginning of the eighteenth century the Agror valley was held by 
a family of Karlugh Turks. These were expelled in 1703 by a Saiyid 
named Jalal Baba, and the conquered country was divided among the 
Swatis, one Ahmad Sad-ud-dTn, who died in 1783, rising to the position 
of Khan of Agror. The Nawab of Amb took the valley in 1834, but in 
1 84 1 it was restored by the Sikhs to Ata Muhammad, a descendant of 
Sad-ud-din. At annexation Ata Muhammad was recognized as chief 
of Agror, and the defence and management of this part of the frontier 
was originally left to him ; but the arrangement did not work satisfactorily. 
An expedition had to be sent in 1852 to avenge the murder of two 
officers of the Salt department ; and in consequence of the unsatisfactory 
attitude of the chief and of repeated complaints by the cultivators, it 
was resolved in 1868 to place a police station in Agror and to bring the 
valley more directly under the administration of Government. This 
incensed the Khan, at whose instigation the newly-built police station 
was burnt by a raid of the Black Mountain tribes. An expedition was 
dispatched, and Ata, Muhammad was deported to Lahore for a time, 
but in 1870 reinstated in his chieftainship. His son and successor, 
All Gauhar, was removed from the valley in 1888 in consequence of his 
abetting raids into British territory. In order to maintain the peace of 
the border, expeditions were dispatched against the Black Mountain 
tribes in 1888, 1891, and 1892 ; and there has since been no disturbance. 


The Agror Valley Regulation (1891) declared the rights of the Khan ol 
Agror to be forfeit to Government. 

The land revenue of the valley was assessed by the Sikhs at Rs. 1,515. 
This demand was continued on annexation and raised to Rs. 3,315 In 
1853 and Rs. 4,000 at the regular settlement, in which the engagers nl 
was made with the Khan. The settlement was revised in 1901, and 
the present demand is Rs. 13,300. 

The sole manufacture of the valley is cotton cloth, and trade is purely 
k>cal, except for a small export of grain. The chief place in the valley 
is the village of Oghi, the head-quarters of the Hazara border military 

Ahar.— Village in the State of Udaipur, Rajputana, situated in 
24 35' N. and 73 44' E., on the banks of a stream of the same name 
about two miles east of Udaipur city. Population (1901), 982. The 
village contains a small mission school attended by 35 pupils, but is 
chiefly noteworthy as possessing the Mahdsati or group of cenotaphs of 
the chiefs of Mewar since they left Chitor. That of Rana Amar Singh II 
is the most conspicuous, but almost all are elegant structures. To the 
east are the remains of an ancient city which, according to tradition, 
was founded by Asaditya on the site of a still more ancient place, 
Tambavati Nagri, where dwelt the Tonwar ancestors of Vikramaditya 
before he obtained Ujjain. The name was changed first to Anandpur 
and afterwards to Ahar. The ruins are known as Dhul Kot (' the fort 
of ashes '), and four inscriptions of the tenth century and a number 
of coins have been discovered in them. Some ancient Jain temples are 
still to be traced ; also the remains of an old Hindu temple, the outside 
of which still shows excellent carving. 

Ahar. — Town in the Anupshahr tahsil of Bulandshahr District, 
United Provinces, situated in 28 28' N. and 78 15' E., 2r miles east 
of Bulandshahr town. Population (1901), 2,382. It is said to derive 
its name from a/ii, ' snake,' and Mr, ' sacrifice,' as tradition relates that 
Janamejaya performed his great snake sacrifice here. The capital of 
the Lunar race is also said to have been moved here after Hastinapur 
was washed away. Another legend states that this was the residence of 
RukminI, wife of Krishna, and the temple from which she was carried 
off is still pointed out. The place is certainly of great antiquity, and 
several fragments of stone sculpture of an early date have been found. 
Under Akbar, Ahar was the chief town of a mahal or pargana. The 
town lies on the high bank of the Ganges, and there are many temples. 
It also contains a hall for the meetings of the Arya Samaj, which has 
over 100 followers here. 

Ahichhattra.— Ancient ruins near Ramnagar Village, Bareilly 
District, United Provinces. 

Ahmadabad District.— District in the Northern Division of the 


Bombay Presidency, lying between 21 26' and 23 37' N. and 71 19' 
and 73 27' E., with a total area of 3,816 square miles. It is bounded 
on the west and south by the peninsula of Kathiawar ; on the north by 
the northern division of Baroda territory ; on the north-east by Mahi 
Kantha territory ; on the east by the State of Balasinor and the District 
of Kaira; and on the south-east by the State and Gulf of Cambay. The 
boundary line is irregular, and two portions, the Parantlj taluka in the 
north-east and the Gogha petha in the south, are cut off from the main 
body of the District by the territories of native States. The compactness 
of the District is also broken by several villages belonging to Baroda 
and Kathiawar which lie within it, while several of its own are scattered 
in small groups beyond its borders. 

The general appearance of the District shows that at no very remote 

period it was covered by the sea. The tract between the head of the 

Gulf of Cambay and the Rann of Cutch is still subject 

as ts to overflow at high tides. In the extreme south, and 

also just beyond the northern boundary, are a few 

rocky hills. But between these points the whole of the District forms 

a level plain, gradually rising towards the north and east, its surface 

unbroken by any inequality greater than a sandhill. 

The chief physical feature is the river SabarmatT, which rises in the 
north-east, near the extremity of the Aravalli range, and flows towards 
the south-west, falling finally into the Gulf of Cambay. The river 
has three tributaries, the Khari, Meshwa, and Majham, which, with 
the Shelva and Andhari, all flow south-west. Flowing east from 
Kathiawar are the Bhogava, Bhadar, Utavli, Nilki, Pinjaria, and Adhia 
rivers. The waters of the Khari are diverted for the irrigation of more 
than 3,000 acres by canals 16 miles in length. The only large lake in 
the District is situated in the south of the Viramgam taluka, about 
37 miles south-west of Ahmadabad city. This sheet of water, called the 
Nal, is estimated to cover an area of 49 square miles. Its water, at 
all times brackish, grows more saline as the dry season advances. The 
borders of the lake are fringed with reeds and other rank vegetation, 
affording cover to innumerable wild-fowl. In the bed of the lake are 
many small islands, much used as grazing-grounds during the hot 
season. In the north of the District, near the town of Parantlj, in 
a hollow called the Bokh (lit. a fissure or chasm), are two smaller lakes. 
Of these, the larger covers an area of about 160 acres, with a depth of 
30 feet of sweet water ; and the smaller, with an area of 3 1 acres, is 
8 feet deep during the rains and cold season, but occasionally dries up 
before the close of the hot season. There are several creeks, of which 
the most important are those of Dholera, Gogha, and Bavliari. 

The District is occupied mostly by alluvial plains. The superficial 
covering of alluvium is, however, of no great thickness. The underlying 


strata probably include Tertiary and Cretaceous sedimi ng on 

a substratum of gneiss, and possibly slates. The Tertiarj I 
probably all miocene, corresponding in age to the Siwaliks, and i 
of sandstones or clays, with sometimes rubbly limestone. Tin- under 
lying strata are probably the sandstones of the Umia group, of neocomian 
or Lower Cretaceous age. Remnants of Deccan trap and Lameta (Uppi i 
Cretaceous) may occasionally intervene between the two formations. 
The Deccan trap is exposed in the western part of the Dhandhuka 
taluka. The outlying mahal of Gogha in Kathiawar consists of Deccan 
trap, laterite, and Siwalik beds, the latter forming the island of Piram, 
renowned for its fossil bones and fossil wood. The saline earth in the west 
of Viramgam was at one time used for the manufacture of saltpetre. 

The District as a whole is open and poorly wooded. The chief trees 
are mango, rayan (Mimusops he.xandra), niahua, and nim (Melia 
Azadirachtd). The Modasa hills bear inferior teak and bamboo, and 
also produce the khair, babul, pipal (Ficus religiosd), bordi {Zizyphus 
Jujuba), and khdkra {Butea frondosa). Many of the trees and shrubs 
supply food, medicines, and materials for dyeing and tanning. Cum 
from the khair and babul is eaten by the poorer classes. The plpal and 
bordi yield a wax much used by goldsmiths for staining ivory rods, and 
the leaves are eaten by buffaloes. The berries of the makua are boiled 
with grain, and the leaves of a creeper called dori (Leptadenia reticulata) 
form a favourite article of food with the Bhlls. From its seed soap-oil 
is extracted. Of flowering plants the principal types are Hibiscus, 
Crotalaria, Indigofera, Cassia, and Ipomoea. 

Tigers are almost extinct. Leopards are found in Modasa, and 
wolves in the low-lying salt lands near the Nal. Wild hog are common. 
Gazelle and barking-deer are also met with. The smaller kinds of game 
are obtained during the cold season in great numbers, especially quail, 
duck, and snipe. Fish abound. 

Except in the southern tracts lying along the sea-coast, the District, 
especially towards the north and east, is subject to considerable varia- 
tions of temperature. Between the months of November and February 
periods of severe cold occur, lasting generally from two days to a week. 
During the hot months, from February to June; the heat is severe ; and 
as the rainfall is light, the climate in the rainv season is hot and close. 
October is the most sickly month. The mean temperature is Si , the 
maximum indoors being 115° and the minimum 47 . 

The rainfall varies but slightly between the central portions of the 
District and the outlying tracts. Dhandhuka and Gogha are the driest. 
The maximum average rainfall is 34 inches at Modasa, and the mini- 
mum 27 at Dhandhuka. The annual rainfall for the twenty-five years 
ending 1902 averaged 29 inches. In consequence of the ill -d< 
channels of the western rivers and the low level of the ground in 


the lower course of the SabarmatI, the District suffers periodically 
from floods, the chief of which were recorded in the years 17 14, 1739, 
1868, and 1875. 

Although Ahmadabad District contains settlements of very high 
antiquity, its lands are said to have been first brought under tillage by 
the Anhilvada kings (a. d. 746-1298). Notwithstand- 
ing the wealth and power of these rulers and the 
subsequent Muhammadan kings of Gujarat, large portions of the 
District remained in the hands of half-independent Bhil chiefs, who 
eventually tendered their allegiance to the emperor Akbar (1572), when 
he added Gujarat to the Mughal empire. With the exception of Gogha, 
the present lands of the District were included in the sarkar of Ahmad- 
abad, which formed the head-quarters of the Gujarat Subah, some out- 
lying portions being held by tributary chieftains ; and after the capture 
of Ahmadabad by the Marathas (1753) the Peshwa and the Gaikwar 
found it convenient to continue this distinction between the central 
and outlying parts. A regular system of management was introduced 
into the central portion, while the outlying chiefs were called on only to 
pay a yearly tribute, and, so long as they remained friendly, were left 
undisturbed. Until their transfer to the British in 1803, the position of 
the border chieftains remained unchanged, except that their tribute was 
gradually raised. The first British acquisition in the District was due 
to the aggression of the Bhaunagar chief, who, intriguing to obtain a 
footing in Dholera, drove the people to seek British protection. The 
Bombay Government was implored for years to take possession of 
Dholera and to protect its inhabitants from aggression. In 1802 the 
offer was accepted, the cession being sanctioned by the Gaikwar, then 
predominant in Gujarat as the Peshwa's deputy. Sir Miguel de Souza 
was sent to examine and report upon this new possession, and he was of 
opinion that it would be of little value without the addition of other 
adjoining estates. These were also ceded, and in 1803 Dholka was 
handed over to the British for the support of a subsidiary force. The 
territory thus acquired remained under the Resident at Baroda till 1805, 
when it was included in the charge of the newly appointed Collector of 
Kaira. In 1818, in consequence of fresh cessions of territory, including 
the city of Ahmadabad, resulting from the overthrow of the Peshwa, 
Ahmadabad was made a separate District. 

The District is rich in Hindu and Musalman buildings of considerable 
architectural beauty, most of which are to be found in Ahmadabad 
City and in its immediate vicinity at Sarkhej and Batwa. There are 
notable specimens of Musalman architecture at Dholka and Mandal. 
A fine temple of Mahadeo, at Bhimnath in the Dhandhuka tahtka, has 
a mythical origin connected with the Pandavas. At Adalaj, 12 miles 
north of Ahmadabad, is the finest step-well in Gujarat. 



In 1857 the population of the District was estimated at 650,223. 
At the last four enumerations it was: (1872) 832,231, (1881) 856,1 [9, 
(1891) 921,507, and (1901) 795,967, the decrease 
during the last decade being due to the severe ° PU atlon - 
famine of 1900 and to visitations of cholera. The distribution in 1901 
was as follows : — 


Area in square 

Number of 


V • 

.2 ^ 

3 S 


Percentage of 

variation in 
population be- 
tween 1891 and 

Number of 

persons able 

to read and 















Viramgam . 

„ Modasa petha . 

,, Gogha petha 



} 447 













- 26 

- 25 

- 26 

- 22 

+ 6 

- 24 

- 21 

- 10 












- '4 


Of the total population, 665,762, or 84 per cent., are Hindus, and 
87,183, or n per cent., Musalmans, the Christians numbering 3,450. 
The language chiefly spoken is Gujarat!, but in the towns Hindustani 
is generally understood. 

The chief towns of the District are : Ahmadabad, Viramgam, 
Dholka, Dhandhuka, Parantij, Dholera, Modasa, and Sanand. 

Among the Hindus, the merchant (Bania or Vani) class is the most 
influential ; but, contrary to the rule in other parts of Gujarat, the 
Shravak Banias, or Jain merchants, are wealthier than the Meshri 
Banias, or Brahmanical traders. The richest members of both classes 
employ their capital locally, supplying the funds by which the village 
usurers and dealers carry on their business. Those who do not possess 
sufficient capital to subsist solely by money-lending borrow at moderate 
rates of interest from their caste-fellows, and deal in cloth, grain, timber, 
or sugar. The poorest of all keep, small retail shops, or move from 
place to place hawking articles required by the rural population for 
their daily consumption. Shravaks and Meshri Banias are also 
employed as clerks in Government or private offices. 

Although Ahmadabad is one of the first manufacturing Districts of 
the Presidency, the large majority of the people support themselves by 
agriculture. Among the Hindus, the chief cultivating classes are the 
Kunbls, Rajputs, and Kolis. There is also in most parts of the District 
a sprinkling of Musalman cultivators or Bohras, as well as Musalmans 
of the common type. The Kunbls, who number 101,000, are an 

vol. v. h 


important class, many of them being skilled weavers and artisans, while 
some have risen to high positions in Government service, or have 
acquired wealth in trade ; but the majority are engaged in agriculture 
and form the greater part of the peasant proprietors in Gujarat. There 
is no real difference of caste between Kunbis and Patidars, though 
Patidars will not now intermarry with ordinary Kunbis. The latter 
are divided into three classes — Levas, Kadvas, and Anjanas. Female 
infanticide, owing to the ruinous expenses attached to marriage, having 
been found prevalent among the Kunbis, the provisions of Bombay Act 
VIII of 1870 were applied to the Kadvaand Leva Kunbis. Two of the 
marriage customs of the Kadva Kunbis are deserving of notice. When 
a suitable match cannot be found, a girl is sometimes formally married 
to a bunch of flowers, which is afterwards thrown into a well. The 
girl is then considered a widow, and can now be married by the natrd 
(second marriage) form — a cheap process. At other times a girl is given 
to a man already married, his promise to divorce her as soon as the cere- 
mony is completed having previously been obtained. The girl is after- 
wards given in natrd to any one who may wish to marry her. Next in 
position to the Kunbis are the Rajputs, who still retain to some extent 
the look and feelings of soldiers. They are divided into two classes : 
Garasias, or landowners, and cultivators. The former live a life of 
idleness on the rent of their lands, and are greatly given to the use of 
opium. There is nothing in the dress or habits of the cultivating 
Rajputs to distinguish them from Kunbis, though they are far inferior 
in skill and less industrious. Their women, unlike those of the Garasias, 
are not confined to the house, but help their husbands in field labour. 
The character of the Kolls, as agriculturists, varies much in different 
parts of the District. In the central villages their fields can hardly be dis- 
tinguished from those cultivated by Kunbis, while towards the frontier 
they are little superior to those of the aboriginal tribes. Crimes of 
violence are occasionally committed among them ; but, as a class, they 
have settled down in the position of peaceful husbandmen — a marked 
contrast to their lawless practices of fifty years ago. After Kunbis, the 
chief castes of the District are Brahmans, 43,000 ; Rajputs, 23,000 
(excluding Garasias, 19,000) ; Vanis or Banias, 29,000 ; Kolls, 188,000; 
and Dhers, 44,000. Mochls (leather-workers) and Kumbhars (potters) 
are also numerous. Jains, mainly Srimalis, exceed 37,000. The 
Musalmans are chiefly Sunnis. 

There are 3,450 Christians, and missions are numerous in the District. 
The Irish Presbyterians have stations near Ahmadabad, Parantlj, and 
Gogha, dating from 1861, 1897, and 1844. The Methodist Episco- 
palians and the Salvation Army are also at work, and there is a mission 
known as the Hope and Live Mission. The Salvation Army supports 
two industrial schools, one for girls at Ahmadabad and another at 

AGRICUL tiki: 

Daskroi, and a training home for women with ioo inmates. In I I ., 
it maintains a farm of 400 acres, on which 27 famili( ttled. 

Dholka and Sanand are stations of the American Christian Missi 
Alliance, which has made 640 converts and maintains an orphai 
with 600 inmates at the former place. Of the 2,800 native ' 
500 belong to the Anglican communion, 500 arc Presbyterians, and 
Roman Catholics. A remarkable increase in converts, namely 1,078, 
was noticed between 1891 and 1901. 

, The two principal varieties of soil are black and light. In many 
parts of the District both occur within the limits of a single village, 
but on the whole the black soil is found chiefly 
towards the west, and the light-coloured soil in gncU ure * 
the east. With the help of water and manure the light soil is 
very fertile; and though during the dry season it wears into a loose 
fine sand, after rain has fallen it again becomes tolerably com pact 
and hard. Two other varieties of soil are less generally distributed: 
an alluvial deposit of the SabarmatI river, the most fertile soil in the 
District, easily irrigated, and holding water at the depth of a few feet 
below the surface; and, in the north-east, a red stony soil, like that of 
Belgaum in the south of the Presidency. 

The tenures of the District are chiefly talukdari or ryotwdri, which 
form respectively 50 per cent, and 32 per cent, of the total area. About 
6 per cent, is held as inam or jaglr land. The chief statistics of 
cultivation in 1903-4 are shown below, in square miles: — 







Sanand . 
Dhandhuka . 




25 1 













* The area for which statistics are not available is 391 square miles. 

The chief crops are : wheat, covering 228 square miles ; jowdr, 380 ; 
bdjra, 228; cotton, 480. The best rice is grown in Daskroi, and the 
next best in Sanand and Dholka. The cotton, which has a good staple, 
is mainly grown in the Dhandhuka and Dholka tdlukas. In Daskroi 
and Dholka many garden crops are grown. 

The tdlukddrs and mehwdsi chiefs, who hold about half the lands of 
the District, are deeply in debt. In consequence, the extension and im- 
provement of agriculture are much neglected. During the decade end 
ing 1903-4, 32-3 lakhs was advanced to agriculturists for improvements 

h 2 


and the purchase of seed and cattle, of which \o\ lakhs was lent in 
1 899- 1 900 and ri »7 lakhs in 1 900-1. 

The local cattle are usually under-sized and weakly, but in Dhandhuka 
the cows are exceptionally good milkers, yielding as much as 16 pints a 
day. Bullocks of the Kathiawar and Kankrej breeds are owned by 
cultivators in Daskroi, Dholka, and Dhandhuka. Ahmadabad is one of 
the best horse-breeding Districts in the Presidency. Four stallions are 
maintained by the Civil Veterinary department ; and active, hardy 
horses are also bred by Kabuli merchants from Kathiawar, Kabuli, 
Sindi, and Arab stock. Camels are reared by Rabaris, Rajputs, and 
Sindls in Daskroi, Viramgam, and Dhandhuka. 

The District is not favourable for direct river irrigation, as most of the 
rivers flow in deep narrow channels with sandy beds. At the same time 
there are many spots along the course of the SabarmatI, Khari, and 
Bhadar where, by means of a frame on the banks, water can be raised 
in leathern bags. Well-water is also used to a considerable extent. 
Irrigation from tanks and reservoirs is almost confined to the early part 
of the cold season, when water is required to bring the rice crops to 
maturity. In 1903-4, 68 square miles were irrigated, of which 50 square 
miles were supplied by wells, 7 by tanks, 5 by Government works, and 
6 from other sources. The Government irrigation works in the District 
are the Hathmati canal and the Khari cut, commanding respectively 
29,000 and 1 1,500 acres, with a capital expenditure up to 1903-4 of 5 
and 6 lakhs respectively. In all parts of the District, except in the west 
where the water is so salt as to be unfit even for purposes of cultivation, 
wells exist in abundance, and in most places good water is found at a 
depth of about 25 feet. The District is also well supplied with reservoirs 
and tanks for storing water, not only near towns and villages, but in out- 
lying parts ; these cover an area of about 14,000 acres. Though in 
favourable years a sufficient supply of water is thus maintained, after a 
season of deficient rainfall many of the tanks dry up, causing much 
hardship and loss of cattle. In 1903-4 there were 18,706 wells, of 
which 15,763 were used for irrigation. About 170 tanks have been 
ted by famine labour. There is little forest in the District, the 
land so classed being fodder and pasture reserves. 

The mineral products are veined agate and limestone. Iron-ore 
seems to have once been worked in Gogha. Portions of Dholera and 
Viramgam contain earth suitable for the production of saltpetre. 

Ahmadabad holds an important place as a manufacturing District. 

Except the preparation of salt, carried on near the Rann, most of its 

manufactures centre in Ahmadabad city. At Khara- 

ra e an ghoda, about 56 miles north-west of Ahmadabad, 

communications. ° . ' J . ' 

are situated two salt-works, from which salt is dis- 
tributed through Gujarat. A railway has been carried into the heart 


of the works, and a large store has been built at Kharaghoda. 
Minor depots have been constructed at Ahmadabad, Broach, and S 
Other stations on the railway are supplied by a contractor. The - 
made from brine found at a depth of from i S I below the sur- 

face. This brine is much more concentrated than sea-water, and 
tains in proportion about six times as much salt. S - once 

largely manufactured in the neighbourhood of th - :ks. The 

other manufactures are cotton cloth, silk, gold- and silver-work, hard- 
ware, copper and brassware, pottery. rk 3 si es, and blankets. 
The artisans o\ Ahmadabad city have enjoyed a high reputation for the 
skill and delicacy of their handiwork since the days e Gujarat 
Sultans. Though in 1881 the number of mills was only 4, in 1004 there 
were 38 steam cotton-mills, with 632,630 spindles and 7,855 looms, 
producing 45 million pounds of yarn and rS million pounds of cloth. 
They employ 24,048 hands. There are also dye-works, a metal fa 
a match factory, and an oil-mill. Ahmadabad city is sent s 
only to Bombay as a centre of the manufacture of cotton yarn and cloth. 
In consequence of the importance of its manufactures of silk and 
cotton, the system of caste or trade unions is more fully developed in 
Ahmadabad than in any other part of Gujarat. Each of the different 
castes of traders, manufacturers, and artisans forms its own trade guild, 
to which all heads of households belong. Every member has a rig 
vote, and decisions are passed by a majority. In cases where one in- 
dustry has many distinct branches, there are several guilds. Thus 
among potters, the makers of bricks, of tiles, and of earthen jars at 
trade purposes distinct ; and in the great \\,.o rig trade, those who pre- 
pare the different articles of silk and cotton form distinct - /.ions. 
The objects of the guilds are to regulate competition among the mem- 
bers, e.g. by prescribing days or hours during which work shall not 
be done. The decisions of the guilds are enforced by fines, If the 
offender refuses to pay. and the members of the g 

caste, the offender is put out of c.\<\c. 1:' the guild contains men of 
different castes, the guild uses its influence with other guilds to prevent 
the recusant member from getting work, besides the amount rec< 
from fines, the different guilds draw an income by levying fees on any 
person beginning to practise his craft. This custom prevails in the 
cloth and other industries, but no fee is paid by potters, carpenters, 
other inferior artisans. An exception is also made in the 1 is 
son succeeding his father, when nothing has to be paid. In other 
the amount varies, in proportion to the importance of the tu 
Rv 50 to R.S. 500. The revenue derived from t: and from 

tines is expended in feasts to the members of the guild, and 
Charitable institutions, or - where beg 

maintained in Ahmadabad at the expense of th< 'Ids. 


From a.d. 746 to the close of the sixteenth century Ahmadabad was 
a great trading centre. With the rise of Surat it suffered a temporary 
decline, but under British rule its predominance has been regained. 
The imports comprise sugar, piece-goods, timber, metal, grain, coco- 
nuts, and molasses ; the exports are cotton, oilseeds, and grain. The 
trade is carried on both by coasting vessels and by rail, and is chiefly 
directed to Bombay through the ports of Dholera and Gogha. 

Before the introduction of railways, the main trade of Central India 
and Malwa passed through Ahmadabad, the chief articles being grain, 
ghl, molasses, tobacco, cochineal, iron and copper, silk and cotton, and 
cloth. The general means of transit included carts drawn by two or 
more pairs of bullocks, camels, and pack-bullocks. Fifty years ago 
there were no made roads in the District ; and during heavy rains the 
country became impassable to carts, and traffic was suspended. At 
present the means of communication are three — by road, by rail, and 
by sea. Since 1870 many good roads have been constructed ; and for 
internal communication, the common Gujarat cart drawn by two and 
sometimes four bullocks is still in use. In 1903-4 there were 124 miles 
of metalled roads and 337 miles of roads suitable for fair-weather traffic 
only. Of the former, 37 miles of Provincial roads and 66 miles of 
local roads are maintained by the Public Works department. The 
remainder are in charge of the local authorities. Avenues of trees are 
planted along 285 miles of roads. The Bombay, Baroda, and Central 
India Railway runs through the District for a distance of 86 miles ; 
the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway for 7 miles ; the Dhola-Wadhwan 
branch of the Bhaunagar-Gondal-Junagadh-Porbandar Railway for 
about 14 miles; and the Mehsana-Viramgam branch of the Gaikwar's 
Mehsana Railway for about 27 miles. Branch metre-gauge lines con- 
nect Ahmadabad city with Parantlj and Dholka, each traversing the 
District for 34 miles. 

During the past two centuries and a half, seventeen years have been 

memorable for natural calamities. Of these, three were in the seven- 

_ . teenth, seven in the eighteenth, and seven in the nine- 

Famine. , ' mi /-••,, 

teenth century. The year 1629 is said to have been 
a season of great famine; and 1650 and 1686 were years of drought 
and scarcity. The years 17 14 and 1739 were marked by disastrous 
floods in the SabarmatT ; 17 18 and 1747 were years of scarcity, and 
1 77 1 was one of pestilence. In 1755 extraordinarily heavy rains did 
considerable damage to the city of Ahmadabad. The famine which 
reached its height in 1 790-1, and, from having occurred in Samvat 
1847, ' s known by the name sudtala, lasted through several seasons. 
In the nineteenth century the years 181 2-3 were marked by the 
ravages of locusts, while 1819-20 and 1824-5 were years of insufficient 
rainfall. In 1834 the rainfall was again short, and the distress was 


increased by vast swarms of locusts. In 1838 there was a faili 
the usual supply of rain. In 1868 a disastrous flood of the Sabarmatl 
occurred. In 1875 the city of Ahmadabad and the three .astern tdlukas 
were visited by extraordinary floods of the Sabarmati river; two iron 
bridges and a large portion of the town were washed away, and thn 
out the District 101 villages suffered severely. 

In 1899-1900 the rains failed and the District was visited by severe 
famine. Relief works were opened in September, 1899, and continued 
.till October, 1902, the highest daily average relieved on works being 
J 47>539 (April, 1900), and on gratuitous relief, 98,274 (September, 
1900). The maximum death-rate was 100 per mille, and the popula- 
tion in the ten years between 1891 and 1901 decreased by 14 per cent. 
The cost of relief measures in the District during the famine exceeded 
78 lakhs, and 24 lakhs of land revenue were remitted. There was 
very great mortality in agricultural stock, which is estimated to have 
decreased by two-thirds. The September rains of 1900 failed, and the 
distress was prolonged into 1901. The crops of the succeeding year 
promised well, but were destroyed by rats and locusts. Relief measures 
were again necessary, therefore, in 190 1-2, and were not finally closed 
until seasonable rain fell in August and September of 1902. 

For administrative purposes Ahmadabad is divided into six tdlukas : 
namely, Daskroi, Sanand, Viramgam, Dholka, Dhandhuka, and Parantij. 
Gogha is included in the Dhandhuka tah/ka, and 
Modasa in the Parantij taluka. The supervision of 
these charges is distributed, under the Collector, between two cove- 
nanted Assistants and a Deputy-Collector. 

There is a District and Sessions Judge, whose jurisdiction extends 
also over the adjacent District of Kaira, and who is assisted by a Joint 
Judge, an Assistant Judge, a Judge of Small Causes, and five Sub- 
ordinate Judges. The city of Ahmadabad forms a separate magisterial 
charge, under a city magistrate. The principal revenue officers are also 
magistrates. The commonest offences are thefts of ripening grain in 
the harvest season, and house-breaking. Serious crimes of violence 
are rare. 

As compared with the other British Districts of Gujarat, an im- 
portant peculiarity of Ahmadabad is the great extent of land held 
by the class of large landholders called talukdars and mehivasi chiefs, 
who own more than half of the District. Their possessions comprise the 
border-land between Gujarat proper and the peninsula of Kathiawar. 
Historically, this tract forms 'the coast, where the debris of the old 
Rajput principalities of that peninsula was worn and beaten by 
the successive waves of Musalman and Maratha invasion.' But these 
estates are part of Kathiawar rather than of Gujarat. Their proprietors 
are Kathiawar chiefs, and their communities have the same character 


as the smaller States of that peninsula. The talukdari villages are 
held by both Hindus and Musalmans. Among the Hindus are the 
representatives of several distinct classes. The Chudasamas are 
descended from the Hindu dynasty of Junagarh in Kathiawar, 
subverted by the Musalman Sultans of Ahmadabad at the end of the 
fifteenth century ; the Vaghelas are a remnant of the Solanki race, 
who fled from Anhilvada when that kingdom was destroyed by Ala-ud- 
din in 1298 ; the Gohels emigrated from Marwar many centuries ago; 
the Jhalas, akin to the Vaghelas, were first known as Makwanas ; the 
Thakardas are the offspring of Solanki and Makwana families, who lost 
status by intermarriage with the KolTs of Mahi Kantha. The Musalman 
families are for the most part relics of the old nobles of Ahmadabad. 
Besides these, a few estates are still held by descendants of favourites 
of the Mughal or Maratha rulers ; by Molesalams, converted Rajputs 
of the Paramara tribe, who came from Sind about 1450 ; and by the 
representatives of Musalman officers who came from Delhi in the service 
of the Marathas. All Paramaras and Musalmans are called Kasbatis, 
or men of the kasba or chief town, as opposed to the rural chiefs. 
There are also other Kasbatis who say that they came from Khorasan 
to Patan, and received a gift of villages from the Vaghela kings. 

The talukdars are absolute proprietors of their estates subject to the 
payment of the jama or Government demand, which is fixed for a term 
of years and is subject to revision at the expiry of the term. They 
cannot, however, permanently alienate any portion without the sanction 
of Government. In the course of time the estates have become so sub- 
divided that in most villages there are several shareholders jointly 
responsible for the payment of the whole quit-rent. Under the share- 
holders are tenants who pay to the landlord a share in the crops, 
varying from 60 to 50 per cent. In 1862 special measures were adopted 
for the relief of many of the talukdars who were sunk in debt. As many 
as 469 estates were taken under the management of Government, and 
a survey was undertaken and completed in 1865-6, with the view of 
ascertaining the area and resources of the different villages. The 
indebtedness of many of these landowners led to the appointment 
of a special talukdari settlement officer, who is responsible for the 
administration of the encumbered estates. The original survey of 
the District in 1856-7 settled the land revenue at 8-7 lakhs. In 1893 a 
revised survey, which had been commenced in 1888, raised the total 
demand by 2-§ lakhs. The present assessment per acre of ' dry ' 
land averages Rs. 1-13 (maximum, Rs. 4—8; minimum, Rs. 1-2); of 
rice land, Rs. 5-2 (maximum, Rs. 6; minimum, R. 1); and of 
garden land, Rs. 8-4 (maximum, Rs. 8 ; minimum, Rs. 5). 

Collections of land revenue and of revenue from all sources are 
shown in the table on next page, in thousands of rupees. 



1 880- 1. 


1 900- 1. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


2 ', 39 




The first municipalities established in the District were Gogha and 
Parantij (1855). In the next five years Dholka, Ahmadabad, Viramgam, 
Modasa, and Dhandhuka were made municipal towns. The total revenue 
pf the municipalities averages about 6 lakhs. There are a District board 
and six tdluka boards, with an income in 1903-4 of 2-4 lakhs, chiefly 
derived from the land cess. The expenditure amounted to 2-2 lakhs, 
including Rs. 95,000 spent on roads, buildings, and water-works. 

The District Superintendent controls the police of the District, with 
the aid of two assistants. There are 18 police stations and 33 outposts. 
The force in 1904 numbered 1,170 men, inclusive of 248 head constables, 
under 3 inspectors and 15 chief constables, being one to every 3 square 
miles or nearly 2 per mille of the population. There is also a body of 
26 mounted police, under 2 daffadars and 2 European constables. 
x\ Central jail at Ahmadabad city has accommodation for 929 prisoners, 
and 8 subsidiary jails and 15 lock-ups are distributed throughout the 
District. The daily average number of prisoners in 1904 was 974, 
of whom 47 were females. 

Ahmadabad stands third among the Districts of the Presidency as 
regards the literacy of its population, of whom 11-4 per cent. (20-5 males 
and 1-7 females) were able to read and write in 1901. The number 
of schools increased from 193 with 14,638 pupils in 1 880-1 to 380 
with 30,014 pupils in 1900-1. In 1903-4 there were 401 schools with 
31,460 pupils, including 56 schools for girls with 4,872 pupils. 
Of the 323 institutions classed as public, 8 are Government, 61 are 
controlled by municipalities, 197 by local boards, 42 are aided from 
public funds, and 15 are unaided. These include one Arts college, 
6 high schools, 18 middle, 294 primary, 2 training schools, one medical 
school, and one commercial institution. Ahmadabad City contains 
the Arts college, training colleges for male and female teachers, and 
a special school for the sons of Gujarat talukdars. The total cost 
of education is about 3^ lakhs, and the receipts from fees Rs. 70,000. 
Of the total expenditure, 53 per cent, is devoted to primary education. 

Besides 5 private dispensaries, the District contains 3 hospitals 
(including a leper hospital) and 18 dispensaries, at which 184,000 cases 
were treated in 1904, of whom 4,364 were in-patients. The expenditure 
was Rs. 55,500, of which Rs. 17,000 was met from Local and municipal 
funds. A lunatic asylum at Ahmadabad city, opened in 1863, has 
accommodation for about 108 inmates. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 


19,000, representing a proportion of 24 per 1,000, which is slightly 
below the average for the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. iv (1879).] 

Ahmadabad City. — Chief city in the District of the same name, 
Bombay, situated in 23 2' N. and 72 35' E., 310 miles by rail from 
Bombay, and about 50 miles north of the head of the Gulf of Cambay. 
Ahmadabad possesses a station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central 
India Railway, and is the junction between this line and the Rajputana- 
Malwa Railway, the metre-gauge line to Delhi. It is also the starting- 
point of the recently constructed feeder-lines to Parantlj and Dholka, 
the former being the pioneer enterprise in railway construction with 
rupee capital in Western India. 

In the days of its prosperity the city is said to have contained a popu- 
lation of about 900,000 souls ; and so great was its wealth that some 
of the traders and merchants were believed to have fortunes of not less 
than a million sterling. During the disorders of the latter part of the 
eighteenth century, Ahmadabad suffered severely, and in 18 18, when 
it came under British rule, was greatly depopulated. In 1851 it con- 
tained a population of 97,048, in 1872 of 119,672, in 1881 of 127,621, 
and in 1891 of 148,412. The city is the second largest in the Presidency, 
and has (1901) a population of 185,889, including 4,115 in the canton- 
ments. The Hindus, numbering 129,505, or 70 per cent, of the total, 
form the wealthiest and most influential class. The Jains, of whom 
there are 15,460, come next in the order of importance, being the 
wealthy traders, merchants, and money-lenders of the city. The Kunbl 
caste supplies a large proportion of the weavers and other artisans. 
Though the majority of Musalmans, who number 38,159, seek employ- 
ment as weavers, labourers, and peons, there are a few wealthy families 
who trade in silk and piece-goods. Christians number 1,264. Ahmad- 
abad is the head-quarters of the Gujarat Jain sect, who have upwards 
of 120 temples here. While in and around the city there is no place 
deemed holy enough to draw worshippers from any great distance, no 
less than twenty-four fairs are held, and every third year the Hindu 
ceremony of walking round the city bare-footed is observed. 

Ahmadabad ranks first among the cities of Gujarat, and is one of the 
most picturesque and artistic in the Bombay Presidency. The name 
of the present city is derived from its founder, Ahmad Shah, Sultan 
of Gujarat (141 1-43); but before this date a city named Ashaval 
existed on the same site, attributed to Raja Karan, a Solanki Rajput 
of Anhilvada. It stands on the raised left bank of the Sabarmatl river, 
about 173 feet above sea-level. The walls of the city stretch east and 
west for rather more than a mile, enclosing an area of about 2 square 
miles. They are from 15 to 20 feet in height, with fourteen gates, and 
at almost every 50 yards a bastion and tower. The bed of the river 


is from 500 to 600 yards broad ; but, except during occasional freshes, 
the width of the stream is not more than 100 yards. To the north 
of the city the channel keeps close to the right bank ; and then, crossing 
through the broad expanse of loose sand, the stream flows close under 
the walls, immediately above their south-western extremity. The city 
is built on a plain of light alluvial soil or gorat, the surface within the 
circuit of the walls nowhere rising more than 30 feet above the fair- 
weather level of the river. From its position, therefore, the city is liable 
to inundation. In 1875 the floods rose above the level of a large 
portion, causing damage to 3,887 houses, estimated at about 5 lakhs. 
Beyond the city walls the country is well wooded, the fields fertile and 
enclosed by hedges. The surface of the ground is broken at intervals 
by the remains of the old Hindu suburbs, ruined mosques, and Musal- 
man tombs. The walls of the city, built by Ahmad Shah, were put into 
thorough repair in i486 by the greatest of his successors, Mahmud Shah 
Begara (1459-1511), and in 1832 were again restored under the British 
Government. In 1572 Ahmadabad was, with the rest of Gujarat, sub- 
jugated by Akbar. The emperor Jahanglr spent some time here. 
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Ahmadabad was one 
of the most splendid cities of Western India. There were, according 
to Firishta, 360 different wards, each surrounded by a wall. The decay 
of the Mughal empire led to disastrous changes. Early in the eighteenth 
century the authority of the court of Delhi in Gujarat had become 
merely nominal ; and various leaders, Musalman and Maratha, con- 
tended for the possession of Ahmadabad. In 1738 the city fell into 
the hands of two of these combatants, Damaji Gaikwar and Momin 
Khan, who, though of different creeds, had united their armies for the 
promotion of their personal interests, and now exercised an equal share 
of authority, dividing the revenues between them. The Maratha chief 
having subsequently been imprisoned by the Peshwa, the agent of his 
Mughal partner took advantage of his absence to usurp the whole power 
of the city, but permitted Damaji's collector to realize his master's 
pecuniary claims. Damaji, on obtaining his liberty, joined his forces 
with those of Raghunath Rao, who was engaged in an expedition for 
establishing the Peshwa's claims in Gujarat. In the troubles that 
followed, the combined Maratha armies gained possession of Ahmad- 
abad in 1753. The city was subsequently recaptured by Momin 
Khan II in 1755-6, but finally acquired by the Marathas in 1757. In 
1780 it was stormed by a British force under General Goddard. The 
place was, however, restored to the Marathas, with whom it remained 
till 1 81 8, when, on the overthrow of the Peshwa's power, it reverted to 
the British Government. 

The architecture of Ahmadabad illustrates in a very interesting 
manner the result of the contact of Saracenic with Hindu forms. The 


vigorous aggressiveness of Islam here found itself confronted by strongly 
vital Jain types, and submitted to a compromise in which the latter pre- 
dominate. Even the mosques are Hindu or Jain in their details, with 
a Saracenic arch thrown in occasionally, not from any constructive want, 
but as a symbol of Islam. The exquisite open tracery of some of the 
windows and screens supplies evidence — which no one who has seen 
can forget — of the wonderful plasticity of stone in Indian hands. 

'The Muhammadans,' says Mr. James Fergusson, 'had here forced 
themselves upon the most civilized and the most essentially building 
race at that time in India ; and the Chalukyas conquered their con- 
querors, and forced them to adopt forms and ornaments which were 
superior to any the invaders knew or could have introduced. The 
result is a style which combines all the elegance and finish of Jain or 
Chalukyan art, with a certain largeness of conception, which the Hindu 
never quite attained, but which is characteristic of the people who at 
this time were subjecting all India to their sway.' 

The following list gives the remains of most interest in the city and 
its neighbourhood : — 

i. Mosques. — (r) Ahmad Shah ; (2) Haibat Khan; (3) Saiyid Alam; 
(4) Malik Alam ; (5) Rani Asni (otherwise called Slpri, a corruption of 
Shehepari); (6) Sidl Saiyid; (7) Kutb Shah; (8) Saiyid Usmani ; 
(9) Mian Khan Chishti ; (10) Sidl Basir ; (11) Muhafiz Khan; (12) 
Achhut Blbl; (13) Dastur Khan; (14) Muhammad Ghaus and the 
Queen's and the Jama mosques. The Jama Masjid, finished in 1424 by 
Sultan Ahmad, is one of the most remarkable buildings of its class in 
India. It displays a skilful combination of Hindu and Muhammadan 
elements of architecture, and the broad courtyard, paved with marble 
and flanked by five domes, presents an imposing appearance. 

ii. Tombs. — (1) Ahmad Shah I; (2) Ahmad Shah's queen; (3) Darya 
Khan ; (4) Azam Khan ; (5) Mir Abu ; and (6) Shah Wazlr-ud-din. 

iii. Miscellaneous. — Ancient well of Mata-Bhawani at Asarva; the 
Tin Darwaza or ' Triple gateway ' ; the Kankaria tank, about a mile to 
the south-east of the city; Harir's well; the Shahi Bagh ; Azlm Khan's 
palace ; tombs of the Dutch, and the temples of Swami Narayan 
Hathising and Santidas ; the Chandola and Malik Shaban tanks. 

iv. Mausoleums in the neighbourhood. — (1) Sarkhej, about 5 miles 
from Ahmadabad ; (2) Batwa, about 6 miles from Ahmadabad ; and 
(3) Shah Alam's buildings, situated half-way between Ahmadabad 
and Batwa. 

The peculiarity of the houses of Ahmadabad is that they are generally 
built in blocks or pols, varying in size from small courts of from five to 
ten houses to large quarters of the city containing as many as 10,000 
inhabitants. The larger blocks are generally crossed by one main 
street with a gate at each end, and are subdivided into smaller courts 


and blocks, each with its separate gate branching off from either side 
of the chief thoroughfare. 

The Ahmadabad municipality was established in 1857. It includes 
the two square miles of territory within the city walls and the railway 
suburbs outside, as well as the hamlet of Saraspur. Before the constitu 
tion of the municipality, a fund raised in 1830 and styled the 'town 
wall fund' was available for municipal purposes. In 1903-4 the 
total income of the municipality (including loans) was nearly \o\ 
lakhs. The chief sources were octroi (Rs. 1,60,000), house and land 
tax (Rs. 42,000), water rate (Rs. 88,000), and conservancy (Rs. 51,000). 
The total expenditure was Rs. 1 1,02,000, including administration 
(Rs. 54,000), public safety (Rs. 18,000), water-supply (Rs. 29,000), and 
conservancy (Rs. 1,06,000). In 1890 an attempt was made to drain 
one of the more thickly-populated quarters on the gravitation system. 
After a comprehensive scheme had been prepared by a European 
expert, the operations were gradually extended to about half the urban 
area, at a cost of 14 lakhs. The annual maintenance charges for the 
28 miles of drains completed by 1906 exceeds Rs. 14,000, and are met 
by a drainage tax. A sewage farm of 353 acres is worked at a profit in 
connexion with the scheme. Prior to 1891 the water-supply of Ahmad- 
abad depended upon wells, tanks, and a pump-service from the 
Sabarmati river, which, constructed in 1849 and improved in 1865, was 
situated in a somewhat insanitary portion of the city. The present 
works, which were opened in 1891 and were handed over to the 
municipality in the following year, cost nearly 8 lakhs, of which a,\ lakhs 
was contributed by Government. The head-works are situated at 
Dudheshwar on the left bank of the Sabarmati, about 2,000 yards north- 
west of the city, and comprise four supply-wells, a pump-well, and a 
high-level reservoir, the water being pumped from the wells by steam 
power. The total length of the service is 82 miles, and the annual 
expenditure, which is met by a water tax, amounts to about Rs. 53,000. 

The cantonment is situated north of the city at a distance of $\ miles, 
and close by, in the Shahi Bagh, is the residence of the Commissioner. 
The cantonment usually contains a battery of artillery, a few com- 
panies of British infantry, and a native regiment, and has an income 
of Rs. 14,000. 

Ahmadabad was formerly celebrated for its manufactures in cloth of 
gold and silver, fine silk and cotton fabrics, articles of gold, silver, steel, 
enamel, mother-of-pearl, lacquered ware, and fine woodwork. It is now 
the centre of a rising cotton-mill industry. The Dutch founded a 
factory in 1618, which was removed in 1744- The building is now used 
by the Bombay Bank. No trace remains of the English factory founded 
in 16 14 by Aldworth. It was closed in 1780 when the city was captured 
by General Goddard. The prosperity of Ahmadabad, says a native 


proverb, hangs on three threads, silk, gold, and cotton ; and though the 
hand manufactures are now on a smaller scale than formerly, these 
industries still support a large section of the population. All the 
processes connected with the manufacture of silk and brocaded goods 
are carried on. Of both the white and yellow varieties of China silk, 
the consumption is large. Basra silk arrives in a raw state. The best 
is valued at Rs. 18 or Rs. 20 a pound. The Bengal silk fetches almost 
an equal price. Ahmadabad silk goods find a market in Bombay, 
Kathiawar, Rajputana, Central India, Nagpur, and the Nizam's 
Dominions. The manufacture of gold and silver thread, which are 
worked into the richer varieties of silk cloth and brocade, supports a con- 
siderable number of people. Tin- and electro-plating are also carried on 
to some extent. Many families are engaged as hand-loom weavers work- 
ing up cotton cloth. Black-wood carving is another important industry, 
and the finest specimens of this class of work may here be seen. 

The common pottery of Ahmadabad is far superior to most of the 
earthenware manufactures of Western India. The clay is collected 
under the walls of the city, and is fashioned into domestic utensils, 
tiles, bricks, and toys. To give the clay a bright colour the potters use 
red ochre or ramc/ii, white earth or khari, and mica or abrak, either 
singly or mixed together. No glaze is employed, but the surface of the 
vessels is polished by the friction either of a piece of bamboo or of a 
string of agate pebbles. A few of the potters are Musalmans, but the 
majority are Hindus. A considerable manufacture of shoes and leather- 
work gives employment to a large number. The manufacture of paper, 
which was formerly an industry of some importance, is declining ; and 
the little paper now made is used exclusively for native account-books. 

The principal industry of Ahmadabad is the spinning and weaving of 
cotton yarns and piece-goods in factories. The first mill was opened 
1861. By 1904 there were 34 mills, with about 569,000 spindles and 
7,035 looms, employing 18,000 to 20,000 persons daily, and represent- 
ing a capital of 150 lakhs. Some of the finest cloth woven in Indian 
mills is made at Ahmadabad, usually from imported yarn. In 1904 the 
mills produced 42 million pounds of yarn and 26 million pounds of 
woven goods, largely for local consumption, though some part of the 
out-turn is exported. There are also an oil-mill, a match factory, and 

Besides 89 private and public vernacular schools, the city has an 
Arts college with a law class attached to it. It also contains two training 
colleges, one for male and the other for female teachers, a medical 
school, and a commercial class. In 1861 a law lectureship was founded 
in Ahmadabad, to which lectures in English, Sanskrit, logic, mathematics, 
and science were subsequently added ; but the classes were poorly 
attended and were closed in 1873. In 1879 the Gujarat College was 


reopened and affiliated to the Bombay University. Its average daily 
attendance is 143. In addition to the Gujarat High School, recently 
opened, there were in 1904 five high schools with 1,927 pupils, and six 
middle schools with 416 boys and 134 girls; of the middle schools three 
are girls' schools. The city contains five printing presses, and four 
vernacular newspapers are issued. There are a Victoria fubilee 
Dispensary for women, a leper asylum, a lunatic asylum, eight dis- 
pensaries, and the usual station hospital. There are five libraries in 
the city, of which the Hemabhai Institute with 4,000 volumes is the 
best known. A club exists for the promotion of social intercourse 
between European and native ladies. 

[Hope and Fergusson, Architecture of Ahmaddbdd (1866) ; Rev. ( i. 1'. 
Taylor, 'The Coins of Ahmadabad,' vol. xx of the Journal of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, Bombay Branch (1900) ; Jas. Burgess, 'Muhammadan 
Architecture of Bharoch, Cambay, Dholka, Champanlr, and Muhammad- 
abad in Gujarat,' vol. vi of the Archaeological Survey of Western 
India (1896).] 

Ahmadnagar District. — District in the Central Division of the 
Bombay Presidency, lying between 18 20' and 19 59' N. and 73 37' 
and 75 41' E., with an area of 6,586 square miles. To the north- 
west and north lies Nasik District ; on the north-east the line of the 
Godavari river separates Ahmadnagar from the Dominions of the 
Nizam ; on the extreme east, from the point where the boundary leaves 
the Godavari to the extreme northern point of Sholapur District, it 
touches the Nizam's Dominions, a part of the frontier being marked by 
the river Slna ; on the south-east and south-west lie the Districts of 
Sholapur and Poona, the limit towards Sholapur being marked by no 
natural boundary, but to the south-west the line of the Bhima, and its 
tributary the Ghod, separate Ahmadnagar from Poona ; and farther 
north the District stretches westward, till its lands and those of Thana 
meet on the slopes of the Western Ghats. Except in the east, 
where the Dominions of the Nizam run inwards to within 10 miles of 
Ahmadnagar city, the District is compact and unbroken by the terri- 
tories of Native States, or outlying portions of other British Districts. 

The principal geographical feature of the District is the chain of the 
Western Ghats, which extends along a considerable portion of the 
western boundary, throwing out many spurs and , 

ridges towards the east. Three of these spurs con- aspects, 

tinue to run eastwards into the heart of the District, 
the valleys between them forming the beds of the Pravara and Mula 
rivers. From the right bank of the Mula the land stretches in hills 
and elevated plateaux to the Ghod river, the south-western boundary of 
the District. Except near the centre of the eastern boundary, where the 
hills rise to a considerable height, the surface of the District eastwards. 


beyond the neighbourhood of the Ghats, becomes gradually less 
broken. The highest peaks in the District are in the north-west : 
the hill of Kalsubai, believed to attain a height of 5,427 feet above 
the sea ; and the Maratha forts of Patta and Harischandragarh. 
Farther south, about 18 miles west of Ahmadnagar city, the hill of 
Parner rises about 500 feet above the surrounding table-land and 
3,240 feet above sea-level. The chief river of the District is the 
Godavari, which for about 40 miles forms the boundary on the north 
and north-east. The streams of the Pravara and Mula, flowing 
eastwards from the Western Ghats along two parallel valleys, unite, 
and after a joint course of about 12 miles fall into the Godavari 
in the extreme north-east of the District. About 25 miles below the 
junction of the Pravara, the Godavari receives on its right bank the 
Dhora, which rises in the high land in the east, and runs a northerly 
course of about 35 miles. The southern parts are drained by two 
main rivers, the Slna and the Ghod, both tributaries of the Bhima. Of 
these, the Slna, rising in the highlands to the right of the Mula, flows 
in a straight course towards the south-east. The river Ghod, rising in 
the Western Ghats and flowing to the south-east, separates the Districts 
of Ahmadnagar and Poona. The Bhima itself, with a winding course 
of about 35 miles, forms the southern boundary of the District. Besides 
the main rivers, there are several tributary streams and watercourses, 
many of which in ordinary seasons continue to flow throughout the year. 

No detailed geological survey of the District exists. From some 
observations of Mr. Blanford's, published in 1868 in the Records of the 
Geological Survey of India, it is known that Ahmadnagar consists 
principally of horizontal beds of basalt belonging to the Deccan trap 
series. The valley of the Godavari in the neighbourhood of Paithan 
is occupied by pliocene or pleistocene gravels, shales, and clays, con- 
taining bones of extinct mammalia. 

The District, particularly the Akola tdluka, possesses a varied flora, 
the Konkan forest type being prevalent on the rainy Ghats, and the 
less numerous Deccan types appearing on the plains and hills to the 
eastward. The banyan, nandruk, babul, nlm, and mango grow on most 
roadsides ; and among wild flowers, Clematis, Cleome, Capparis, Hibis- 
cus, Heylandia, Crotalaria, Indigofera, Ipomoea, and leucas are common. 
Pomegranates and melons of good quality are grown in the District. 

Tigers are seldom found, but leopards are not uncommon. Wolves 
are occasionally met with. In the open country antelope are 
numerous. Among game-birds, partridge, quail, and sand-grouse 
are noticeable. There are a few duck and snipe. Hares are common. 

The climate is on the whole genial. The cold season from 
November to February is dry and invigorating. A hot dry wind from 
the north-east then sets in, lasting from March to the middle of May, 


when sultry oppressive weather succeeds, till, with the break of the 
south-west monsoon, about the middle of June, the clin 
becomes temperate and continues agreeable till the close of the rains in 
either early or late October. The temperature varies from 45° in January 
to 106 in May, the average being 75 . During the twent) 
ending 1903, the annual rainfall at Ahmadnagar averaged 23 in 
The heaviest rainfall, namely 26 inches, occurs in the Jamkhed and 
Shevgaon talukas, and the lightest, 18 to 19 inches, in Sangamner, 
.Karjat, Shrlgonda, and Kopargaon. Frost has occasionally been 
registered in the District during the last thirty years, and severe hail- 
storms are not unknown. 

The early history of Ahmadnagar centres in Paithan in the Nizam's 
territory on the left bank of the Godavari. The District was held from 
about 550 to 757 by the Western Chalukyas of 
Badami. It then passed into the hands of the 
Rashtrakutas, who retained it till 973. They were followed by the 
Western Chalukyas of Kalyani (till 1156), the Kalachuris (1187), and 
the Deogiri Yadavas, who were displaced by the Musalmans in 1294 ; 
but the power of the Deogiri Yadavas was not crushed till 131 8. In 
1346 there was widespread disorder. The governors appointed from 
Delhi were replaced in that year by the Bahmani Sultans of the 
Deccan, who held their court at Daulatabad and then at Gulbarga and 
Bidar. About 1490 the governor in charge of the District revolted 
and succeeded in establishing himself as an independent ruler. He 
founded the Nizamshahi dynasty, and built the city and fort of 
Ahmadnagar on the field of his victory. In the sixteenth century the 
kingdom extended over the Konkan as far as Kalyan, but progress 
on either side was checked by the Faruki dynasty in Khandesh and 
the Bijapur kings, whose dominions almost surrounded it. The 
history of the State is in fact the history of the local wars in which it 
engaged to extend its rule or to maintain its existence, until it was 
subdued by the Mughals in 1600 ; it again became independent under 
Malik Ambar, and enjoyed a gleam of prosperity until it was finally 
subverted by Shah Jahan in 1635. Maratha inroads commenced in 
the reign of Aurangzeb, who died here, and on the decay of Mughal 
power the fort was surrendered to the Marathas in 1759. The Peshwa 
granted it to Sindhia in 1797, and in 1803 it capitulated to the British 
under Wellesley. It was restored at the peace; but in 181 7, after the 
fall of the Peshwa, the District finally became British. The Nizam 
ceded 107 villages in 1882 and Sindhia 120 villages in 1861, which 
were added to the District. In recent years Ahmadnagar received 
the first batch of Boer prisoners sent to India during the South 
African War. About 500 arrived in Ahmadnagar in April, 1901, 
and were confined in the fort till the close of the \\ai 

vol. v. 1 



The District possesses some cave temples and numerous Hemadpanti 
remains dating from the twelfth century. The Brahmanical Dhokesh- 
war caves in Parner are ascribed to the middle of the sixth century, 
and the caves and temple of Harischandragarh to the Hemadpanti 
era. A few Musalman buildings, now reduced to ruins, are to be 
found in Ahmadnagar City. A beautiful little mosque known as the 
Damri Masjid stands to the north of the fort. Hemadpanti temples, 
built of stone pieced together without mortar, and ascribed by the 
people to the Gauli-nlj, which are found at Shrigonda, Pedgaon, Haris- 
chandragarh, Akola, Jamkhed, Rassin, Telangsi, and many other places, 
appear to have been built in the days of the Yadavas of Deogiri. The 
Lakshmi Narayan temple at Pedgaon is profusely decorated, and its 
outer walls are richly embellished with sculptured figures. It belongs 
to the thirteenth century. There are numerous forts of historic interest 
in the District. At Manjarsamba, 8 miles north of Ahmadnagar, a fort 
crowning the Dongargaon hill is said to have been the favourite haunt 
of Valmiki, the author of the Ramayana, and reputed founder of the 
Mahadeo Kolis. The forts of Palia and Harischandragarh have already 
been mentioned. At the end of the Pravara valley, 18 miles west of 
Akola, is the fort of Ratangarh, the rock-hewn gates of which com- 
mand a magnificent view over the Konkan. The forts are supplied 
with water by cisterns cut in the rock of the hills on which they stand. 
Temples of importance are found at Sidhtek and Miri. 

The number of towns and villages in the District is 1,349. The 
population at the last four enumerations was: (1872) 777,251, (1881) 

Population 75°,° 2I > ( l8 90 888,755, and (1901) 837,695. 
The decline during the last decade was due to the 
famine of 1896— 1900. The distribution in 1901 was as follows : — 

Area in square 

Number of 






5 3 

O w 

Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween 1 89 1 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 












Shevgaon . 



Jamkhed . 








5 6 5 








1 1 2 


1 17 






- 18 
+ 4 
+ 9 
+ 29 

- 26 

- 8 

- 8 

+ 3 

- 16 

- 8 

- 28 








- 6 



The chief towns are Ahmadnagar, the District head-quai 
Sangamner, Pathardi, Vambori, and Kharda. Th< den- 

sity of population is 127 persons per square mile, hut the Karjat taluka, 

the most thinly populated owing to the large extent of rocky and 
uncultivable land, has a density of only 63 persons per square mile. 
Marathi is spoken by 90 per cent, of the total population. S< m 
Bhil tribes in the hills speak a dialect of Marathi. Of the popula- 
tion in 1901, 90 percent, were Hindus, 5 per cent. Musalmans, 2 per- 
cent. Christians, and 16,254 Jains. 

The majority of the population are Marathas (327,000 Marathas and 
17,000 Maratha Kunbis), who are generally cultivators and artificers, 
and, as a rule, darker in complexion than the Brahmans. Besides the 
low or depressed castes— Mahar (65,000), Mang (21,000), Dhi 
(40,000), and Chamar (15,000) — there are many wandering tribi 
which the chief are called Vanjari (32,000), Kaikadi, and Kolhati. Of 
hill tribes, besides the Bhlls (14,000), the Thakurs (7,000) and Kathodis 
(125) may be mentioned; they form a distinct race, generally met 
with in the wilder tracts in the west of the District. The members of 
these tribes are still fond of an unsettled life, and have to be carefully 
watched to prevent their resuming their predatory habits. Others of 
numerical importance are Brahmans, mostly Deshasths (33,000), Kolls 
(30,000), and Malls or gardeners (36,000). With the exception of a 
few Bohras, who engage in trade and are well-to-do, the Musalmans are 
in poor circumstances, being for the most part sunk in debt. They are 
chiefly Shaikhs (29,000). The Muhammadan priest or Mulla, besides 
attending the mosque, kills the sheep and goats offered by the Hindus 
as sacrifices to their gods. So thoroughly has this strange custom been 
incorporated with the village community, that Marathas generally 
decline to eat the flesh of a sheep or goat unless its throat has 
been cut by a Mulla or other competent Musalman. Since the 
District came under British management, there has been a large 
immigration of Marwaris. These men come by the route of Indore 
and Khandesh, and are almost entirely engaged in money-lending 
and trading in cloth and grain. Agriculture supports 60 per cent, 
of the population, while industry and commerce support iS and 1 
per cent, respectively. 

In 1901 there were 20,000 native Christians, of whom 7,000 were 
Anglicans, 4,000 Roman Catholics, 8,000 belonged to minor denomi- 
nations, and 1,000 were unspecified. They belong to the American 
Marathi Mission, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and 
the Roman Catholic Mission. The American Mission commenced 
work in 1831, and was followed by the S.P.G. in 1873. At present the 
Ahmadnagar missions have three churches and numerous schools. 
The American Mission maintains a carpet factory and two experimental 



weaving institutions, and the hands trained by this mission are em- 
ployed in a factory maintained by the Indian Mission Aid Society. 

The chief soils are kali (black), tdmbat (red), and barad (grey), 
including pdndhari (white). Towards the north and east the soil is, as a 
rule, a rich black loam, while in the hilly part towards 
the west it is frequently light and sandy. By reason 
of this variation in soil, it is said that a cultivator with 10 acres of land 
in the north of the District is better off than one with a holding twice 
as large in the south. Though a single pair of bullocks cannot till 
enough land to support a family, many cultivators have only one pair, 
and manage to get their fields ploughed by borrowing and lending 
bullocks to one another. Garden lands are manured ; but, as a rule, for 
ordinary ' dry ' crops nothing is done to enrich the soil. Cultivators 
are employed in ploughing in March, April, and May ; in sowing the 
early kharlf crops in July ; and in harvesting the early crops from 
November to February. 

The District is almost entirely ryotwdri, only about 13 per cent, of 
the total area being held as inam or jaglr. The chief statistics of 
cultivation in 1903-4 are shown below, in square miles : — 













Akola . 












Rahuri . 






Nevasa . 












Parner . 




1 r 











1 1 









Karjat . 

5 6 5 

39 6 






6 >594* 





* Of this area, which is based on the most recent information, statistics are not available 
for 139 square miles. 

The staple food-grains grown are jowdr (1,064 square miles) and 
bajra (1,556). The excess of bajra over jowdr is due to abnormal 
seasons during the last few years. Usually the area under the former is 
smaller. Wheat (309) and gram (123) are grown in the vicinity of the 
rivers Godavari and Bhima. In the Akola taluka, where the soils are 
suited to the cultivation of coarser cereals, vari and rdgi are cultivated. 
The pulses are tur (105), math (103), and kulith (115). In the east, 
cotton (225) is cultivated, and hemp or san (40) in some of the superior 
soils near the Godavari. Safflower covers 170 square miles, and 
sesamum and linseed 57 and 50 square miles respectively. Among 


other products, sugar-cane to a small extent, tobacco, pan, and 
tables of many kinds are raised in irrigated lands. 

Cotton was first introduced by a Hindu merchant of Ahmadnagar in 
1830. It prospered and is now largely grown in the east. The ryots 
have availed themselves extensively of the Land Improvement Loans 
Act, and more than 39 lakhs was advanced during the ten years 
ending 1904, including 25 lakhs under the Agriculturists' Loans Act. 
Of this sum 8 lakhs was advanced during the famine of 1896-7, and 
27-7 lakhs during the four years ending 1902-3. 

The introduction of tongas or pony carriages during the last thirty 
years has interfered with the breed of fine, cream-white, straight-lv 
Hunum bullocks formerly used for riding or drawing carts. Efforts are 
being made by Government to revive the famous breed of Bhimthadi 
horses, which was allowed to degenerate after the establishment of 
British supremacy in 1803 and was largely drawn upon during the 
Afghan War. Fourteen horse stallions, as well as five pony stallions, 
are stationed in the District in charge of the Army Remount 
department, and an annual horse show is held at Ahmadnagar, when 
prizes are given for good young stock and brood marcs. I (hangars 
keep a class of specially good ponies, which are known as Dhangaris. 
Goats are numerous, and sheep, though fewer in number, are kept 
by all except the richer and higher classes. 

Irrigation from wells and water channels is common. Of the total 
cultivated area, 98 square miles, or 2 per cent., were irrigated in 1903-4. 
Government canals supplied 8 square miles, wells 84, and other sources 
6 square miles. The Government works include the Bhatodi lake and 
the Ojhar and Lakh canals. The Bhatodi lake was constructed by 
Salabat Khan, the minister of Murtaza Nizam Shah I (1565-88), and 
was restored by Government in 187 1. It is 10 miles from Ahmadnagar 
and supplies 719 acres of land, the estimated area which it could 
irrigate in a good year being 1,500 acres. When full it has an area 
of 315 acres, with an available capacity of 154 millions of cubic hit. 
The Ojhar canal, with head-works in Sangamner, is 27 miles long, 
irrigating an area of about 7,400 acres. It was commenced as a relict 
measure in 1869 and completed in 1879. The Lakh canal, with head- 
works in the Rahuri talaka, is 23 miles long and supplies 186 acres. It 
was completed in 1873-4. Both the canals draw their supply from the 
Pravara river. The capital outlay up to 1903-4 on the Lakh. Ojhar, 
and Bhatodi works exceeded 10 lakhs. There are two irrigation works 
for which only revenue accounts are kept. Nearly 30,000 wells are used 
for irrigation, chiefly to water small patches of garden crops. 

The area of forest land in Ahmadnagar is 849 square miles, of which 
458 square miles are under the control of the Forest department. 
Nearly 40 per cent, of the forest area is in the Akola and Sangamner 


talukas. The total revenue is about Rs. 25,000. The commonest 

tree in the plains is the babul; bor, ntm, tivas, karanj, saundad, and hiver 

_ are also found. Hill forests belong to three classes : 

Forests. fo 

the lower slopes, the central teak region, and the 

evergreen western forests. The lower slopes are bare and yellow, broken 

only by rut, the hekle, and other scrub. The central region possesses 

teak of excellent quality. It is treated as coppice, the demand being 

chiefly for poles and rafters. Under the teak, dhavda, khair, and some 

other kinds of underwood are encouraged. The characteristic trees of 

the western forests are anjan, jambul, beheda, ain, and karvand. 

Limestone is found in abundance throughout the District, and also 

trap suitable for building purposes. A variety of compact blue basalt 

is worked near Ahmadnagar. Veins of quartz and 

chalcedony, agate and crystals occur in the Shrigonda 

tdluka, and stones resembling cornelian are procurable in the rocky 

plain which lies westward of Ahmadnagar city. 

The chief industries are the weaving of sans or women's robes and 

inferior turbans, and the manufacture of copper and brass pots. Weaving 

is said to have been introduced into the District soon 

Trade and ft th founding of the city of Ahmadnagar (1494) 

communications. ° _ J . o \ ^^^' 

by a member of the Bhangna family, a man of 

considerable means and a weaver by caste. Of late years the industry 
has somewhat declined. This change seems due to the competition of 
European and machine-made goods. The yarn consumed in the looms 
comes chiefly from Bombay, being either imported from Europe or spun 
in the Bombay mills. Ahmadnagar saris have a high reputation ; and 
dealers still journey from neighbouring Districts and from the Nizam's 
Dominions to purchase them. Many of the weavers are entirely in the 
hands of money-lenders, who advance the raw material and take posses- 
sion of the article when made up. An ordinary worker will earn when 
at his loom about Rs. 5 a month. The weavers, as a class, are said to 
be addicted to the use of intoxicating liquors. In 1820 this craft was 
almost entirely confined to members of the weaver caste, Sal! or Koshtl. 
But many classes, such as Brahmans, Kunbis, Kongadls, and Malls, now 
engage in the work. Among hand industries formerly of importance 
are the manufactures of paper and carpets. Country paper has been 
supplanted by cheaper articles brought from China and Europe, and 
Ahmadnagar carpets have ceased to be manufactured except in a 
recently established factory. There are five cotton-pressing factories, of 
which three are working and employ about 200 persons. 

In former days a considerable trade between Upper India and the 
seaboard passed through this District. The carriers were a class of 
Vanjaras called Lamans, owners of herds of bullocks. But since the 
opening of the two lines of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, the 

FAMIN1 ,,„ 

course of traffic has changed. Trade is carried on almost entirely by 
means of permanent markets. From all pails <>t the I listric! milli 
gram are exported to Poona and Bombay. The imports consist chiefly 
of English piece-goods, tin-sheets, metals, groceries, salt, yarn, and silk. 
Except three or four mercantile houses in Ahmadnagai city there ai 
large banking establishments in the District. The business ol monej 
lending is chiefly in the hands of Marwari Banias, most ol them 
Jains by religion, who are said to have followed the Muhammadan 
armies at the end of the fifteenth century. They did not, howi 
commence to settle in the District in large numbers until the accession 
of the British in the first quarter of the last century. Since then 
they have almost supplanted the indigenous money-lenders, the Deccan 

The Dhond-Manmad State Railway, connecting the south-eastern and 
north-eastern branches of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway at the 
stations named, runs for a distance of 122^ miles (very nearly its entire- 
length) through this District, passing through Ahmadnagar city. Some 
cotton traffic has been diverted by the construction of the Nizaim's 
Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railway from Manmad to Hyderabad. 
The District is well supplied with roads, the chief leading from Ahmad- 
nagar to Poona, Dhond, Malegaon, and Paithan, while good roads also 
run to Akola, Jamkhed, and Shevgaon. Of a total length of 758 miles 
of road within its limits, 398 miles are bridged and metalled and 360 
miles are unmetalled. Avenues of trees are maintained on 13 miles. 

The District is liable to drought, and numerous famines are recorded 
in its history. The first is the awful calamity at the close of the 
fourteenth century, known as Durga-devI, which com- 
menced about 1396 and lasted nearly twelve years. 
In 1460 a failure of rain caused what is known in history as Damaji 
Pant's famine. In 1520 no crops were grown, and the failure of rain 
caused famine in 1629-30. In 1791, 1792, and 1794 there was much 
misery owing to the increase in the price of grain, occasioned by the 
disturbed state of the country. A few years later (1803-4) the depre- 
dations of the Pindaris who accompanied the army of Holkar inflicted 
much suffering, and so severe was the distress that children are said to 
have been sold for food. The price of wheat rose to Rs. 2 a pound. 
Besides scarcity due to the droughts of 1824, 1833, 1846, and 1862, 
severe famines occurred in 1877, 1897, and 1899-1900. In 1877 an 
unusually large number of the famine-stricken emigrated to the Nizam's 
territory and Khandesh. The Dhond-Manmad Railway was the principal 
relief work opened, but it attracted only those whose homes were near. 
After twenty years the District again suffered from famine, owing to tin- 
failure of the autumn rains of 1896. Relief works were opened in 
November, and the numbers mounted rapidly, till in September, [897, 


there were 86,745 persons on the works, and 23,184 persons in receipt 

of gratuitous relief. The following rains were again indifferent, and 

distress lingered in the District for some years. In 1899 the monsoon 

opened well, but the long droughts of July, August, October, and 

November ruined the crops. At the height of this famine there were 

nearly 241,000 persons on works and 29,000 in receipt of gratuitous 

relief. The famine continued into the next year on account of the small 

out-turn of the harvest, which averaged about one-fourth of the normal 

for the whole District. It is calculated that the excess of mortality over 

the normal was 28,400 and that 162,000 cattle died. Exclusive of 

advances to agriculturists and remissions, the famine cost more than a 

crore. Remissions of land revenue and takavi advances amounted to 

nearly 30 lakhs. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into eleven 

tdlukas : namely, Ahmadnagar, Parner, Shrigonda, Karjat, Jam- 

. . . . x . khed, Shevgaon, Nevasa, Rahuri, Kopargaon, 
Administration. ' ' _ ' , 

Sangamner, and Akola. The Collector has two 

covenanted Assistants and one Deputy-Collector recruited in India. 

The District and Sessions Judge is assisted by one Subordinate Judge 
under the Dekkhan Agriculturists' Relief Act, and seven other Sub- 
ordinate Judges for civil business. There are altogether forty-one courts 
in the District to administer criminal justice. The commonest forms 
of crime are murder, dacoity, robbery, and theft. 

The earliest revenue system of which traces remained at the beginning 
of British rule is the division of the land into plots or estates known as 
munds, kds, and tikas or thikds. These names seem to be of Dravidian, 
that is, of south-eastern, origin. They need not date from times farther 
back than the northern element in Marathi, as, among the great Hindu 
dynasties who ruled the Deccan before the Musalman invasion in 1294, 
the Rashtrakiitas (760-973), the Chalukyas (973-1184), and perhaps 
the Deogiri Yadavas (1150-1310) were possibly of southern or eastern 
origin. The mund or large estate was the aggregate of many fields or 
tikas, together or separate, or part together, part separate. The assess- 
ment on the mund was a fixed lump sum for all the lands in the estate 
or mund, good, fair, and bad. In the settlement of has or small estates 
the division of the village lands was into smaller parcels than munds, 
and, unlike the assessment on tikas or shets, the assessment on each kds 
in a village was the same. The next system of revenue management 
was Malik Ambar's (1600-26). This combined the two great merits 
of a moderate and certain tax and the possession by the cultivators 
of an interest in the soil. Instead of keeping the state sole landowner, 
he sought to strengthen the government by giving the people a definite 
interest in the soil they tilled. He made a considerable portion of the 
land private property. The revenue system which the English found in 


force when they conquered Ahmadnagar arose in the latter part ol the 
seventeenth century. It was based upon the usual Maratha .hum to 
the chauth or one-fourth of the revenue, but was greatly complii at 
continual assignments of revenue to chiefs, and by the grant to many 
proprietors of the right to hold and collect the rents of many estates in 
the District. Uncertainty as to the amount of revenue due, and as to 
the persons to whom it was payable, caused gnat hardship to the 
people. Nana Farnavls endeavoured to ameliorate their condition bj 
the introduction about 1769 of an alternative system, known as kamdi, 
based upon the estimated value of the soil and the highest rent it < ould 
bear consistent with the prosperity of the country ; but this system 
proved unworkable and gave place to an older system, the kasbandi 
big/ia, which with modifications existed up to the date of British rule, 
and for some years after that date. A series of bad harvests and other 
causes prevented the British taking any steps towards the settlement 
of the revenues till 1848. 

The first settlement took place between 1848 and 1876. Resettle- 
ment operations were commenced in 1875, an< ^ completed throughout 
the District by 1890. The revision in nine talnkas disclosed an increase 
in the cultivated area of 5 per cent., and enhanced the assessment from 
9 to 15 lakhs. The average assessment on 'dry' land is R. 0-9; on 
rice land, Rs. 1-9 ; and on garden land, Rs. 1-8. 

Collections of land revenue and of revenue from all sources have 
been, in thousands of rupees : — 


1 890- 1. 

1 900-1. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 






Local affairs are managed by five municipalities -namely, Ahmad- 
nagar, Bhingar, Sangamner, Vambori, and Kharda — and by a Dis- 
trict board with eleven taluka boards. The annual receipts of the 
municipalities average about \\ lakhs. The District and local boards 
have an average revenue of nearly 2 lakhs, the principal source of their 
income being the land cess. About Rs. 70,000 is spent annually on 
the maintenance and construction of roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police at Ahmadnagar is assisted by 
two inspectors. There are 16 police stations in the District. The 
total number of police is 772, including 13 chief constables, 157 head 
constables, and 602 constables. The mounted police number 9 under 
one daffaddr. In addition to the District jail at Ahmadnagar with 
accommodation for 1,200 prisoners, there are n subsidiary jails in 
the District which can accommodate 266 prisoners. The daily average 


number of prisoners during 1904 in all the jails was 858, of whom 
5 were females. 

The District holds a medium position as regards the education of 
its population, of whom 4-7 per cent. (8-9 males and 0-4 females) 
were literate in 1901. In 1881 there were 219 schools, attended by 
11,140 pupils. The number of pupils rose to 19,698 in 1891, and to 
20,135 m 1901. In 1903-4 there were 412 schools in the District 
(including 24 private schools), of which 3 were high schools, 4 middle, 
and 378 primary. These schools were attended by 14,884 pupils, of 
whom 2,781 were girls. Of the 388 institutions classed as public, 
197 schools were supported by local boards, 20 by municipalities, 
120 were aided, and 51 unaided. A training school for masters and 
two industrial schools are located at Ahmadnagar. The total expendi- 
ture on education in 1903-4 was i«8 lakhs, of which 72 per cent, was 
devoted to primary education. Towards this, local boards and munici- 
palities contributed respectively Rs. 23,000 and Rs. 10,000, while 
Rs. 14,000 represented fee-receipts. 

Besides the civil hospital at Ahmadnagar, there are nine dispensaries 
and one private medical institution in the District, with accommodation 
for 97 in-patients. In 1904 the total number of cases treated was 
57,989, of whom 652 were in-patients, and 1,744 operations were per- 
formed. The total expenditure on medical relief was Rs. 17,219, 
of which Rs. 10,024 was derived from Local and municipal funds. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 
23,354, representing a proportion of 28 per 1,000, which exceeds the 
average for the Presidency. 

[Sir J. M. Campbell, Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xvii (1884) ; Selections 
from the Records of the Bombay Government, No. CXXIII ; Revision 
Settlement Report ( 1 8 7 1 ) . ] 

Ahmadnagar Taluka. — Taluka of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay, 
lying between 18 47' and 19 19' N. and 74 32' and 75 2' E., with an 
area of 624 square miles. There are two towns, Ahmadnagar (popu- 
lation, 35,784), the District and taluka head-quarters, and Bhingar 
(5,722); and 117 villages, including Jeur (5,005). The population in 
1901 was 128,094, compared with 124,300 in 1891. The density, 
205 persons to the square mile, is the highest in the District. The 
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 1-7 lakhs, and for cesses 
Rs. 13,500. The taluka is for the most part a high table-land, lying 
between the Godavari and the Bhima. The northern and eastern 
sides of the table-land are lofty and precipitous, but on the west and 
south the country is less broken. From the head of the table- 
land the Slna flows in a south-easterly direction towards its junction 
with the Bhima. The taluka is very scantily wooded, and the soil 
is generally poor, save in a few of the minor valleys where rich reddish 


soil occurs. The climate is healthy, notwithstanding the moderate 
rainfall, which averages about 22 inches a year; but it is on the whole 
less favourable than that of Shevgaon on the east. 

Ahmadnagar City. — Head-quarters of the District of the same nami 
in the Bombay Presidency, situated in 19 5' N. and 74 55' K. It lies 
in a plain on the left bank of the Sina, 72 miles from Poona, and on the 
Dhond-Manmad Railway. The area slightly exceeds 2 square miles. 
Population, (1872) 37,240, (1881) 37,492, (1891) 41,689, and (1901) 
42,032, including 6,248 in the cantonment. Hindus number 31,030; 
Muhammadans, 5,968; and Christians, 3,572. Some of the Brahmans 
are traders; most, however, are employed in work requiring education. 
The Musalmans are, as a rule, uneducated and indolent. They are 
employed in weaving, cleaning cotton, and in domestic service in the 
houses of well-to-do Hindus. The Marwaris are the most prosperous 
class. The city has a commonplace appearance, most of the houses 
being of the ordinary Deccan type, built of mud-coloured sun-burnt 
bricks, with flat roofs. It is surrounded by an earthen wall about 
12 feet in height, with decayed bastions and gates. This wall is said 
to have been built about 1562 by Husain Nizam Shah. The adjacent 
country is enclosed on two sides by hills. Ahmadnagar was founded 
about 1490 by Ahmad Nizam Shah, after whom it is named. Originally 
an officer of the Bahmani kingdom, he, on the breaking up of that 
government, assumed the title and authority of an independent ruler, 
and fixed his capital here. In his reign the kingdom attained high 
prosperity, extending on the north over Daulatabad and part of Khan- 
desh. He was succeeded in 1508 by his son, Burhan Nizam Shah, who 
died in 1553 and was succeeded by his son, Husain Nizam Shah. This 
prince suffered a very severe defeat from the king of Bijapur, in 1562, 
losing several hundred elephants and 660 pieces of cannon : among them 
the great gun now at Bijapur, considered to be one of the largest pieces 
of bronze ordnance in the world. Husain Shah of Ahmadnagar sub 
sequently allied with the kings of Bijapur, Golconda, and Bldar against 
Raja Ram of Vijayanagar, whom in 1565 they defeated, made prisoner, 
and put to death. Murtaza Nizam Shah, nicknamed Divana, or 'the 
insane,' from the extravagance of his conduct, was in 1588 cruelly 
murdered by his son, Mlran Husain Nizam Shah, who, having reigned 
ten months, was in turn deposed and put to death. Mlran was suc- 
ceeded by his cousin, Ismail Nizam Shah ; but he, after a reign of two 
years, was deposed by his own father, who became king with the title 
of Burhan Nizam Shah II, and died in 1594. His son and succcsmh, 
Ibrahim Nizam Shah, after a reign of four months, was killed in battle 
against the king of Bijapur. Ahmad, a reputed relative, was raised to 
the throne. But, as it was soon afterwards ascertained that he was not 
a lineal descendant, he was expelled from the city; and Bahadur Shah, 


the infant son of Ibrahim Nizam Shah, was placed on the throne under 
the influence of his great-aunt Chand Bibi (widow of All Adil Shah, 
king of Bijapur, and sister of Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar), 
a woman of heroic spirit, who, when the city was besieged by Murad, 
the son of Akbar, in 1596, defended in person the breach in the rampart, 
and compelled the assailants to raise the siege. In 1600 prince Daniyal 
Mirza, son of Akbar, at the head of a Mughal army, captured the city ; 
but nominal kings continued to exercise a feeble sway until 1635, when 
Shah Jahan finally overthrew the dynasty. In 1759 the city was be- 
trayed to the Peshwa by the commandant holding it for the Mughals. 
In 1797 h was ceded by the Peshwa to the Maratha chief, Daulat Rao 
Sindhia. In 1803 it was invested by a British force under General 
Wellesley, and surrendered after a resistance of two days. It was, how- 
ever, shortly after given up to the Peshwa ; but the fort was again 
occupied by the British in 181 7, by virtue of the Treaty of Poona. On 
the fall of the Peshwa, Ahmadnagar became the head-quarters of the 
Collectorate of the same name. 

Half a mile to the east of the city stands the fort, built of stone, 
circular in shape, about \\ miles in circumference, and surrounded by 
a wide and deep moat. This building, which stands on the site 
of an earlier fortress of earth, said to have been raised in 1488, was 
erected in its present form by Husain Nizam Shah, grandson of Ahmad 
Nizam Shah, in 1559. In 1803 the fort was surrendered to the British 
after a severe bombardment. The breach then made is still visible. 
In 1 90 1, during the Boer War, the fort was used for the accommodation 
of prisoners from South Africa. To the north-east of the flag-staff 
bastion is a large tamarind tree, known as 'Wellington's tree,' from 
the tradition that Sir Arthur Wellesley, as he then was, halted beneath 
it while his troops were besieging the fort. Natives may frequently 
be observed paying their devotions to it. The city has numerous 
specimens of Muhammadan architecture, several of the mosques being 
now converted into Government offices or used as dwelling-houses by 
European residents. The Collector's office is held in a mosque built 
in the sixteenth century. The Judge's court was originally the palace 
of a Musalman noble, built about the year 1600. Six miles east of 
the city, on a hill between 700 and 800 feet above the level of the fort 
and on the left of the Ahmadnagar-Shevgaon road, stands the tomb 
of the Nizamshahi minister, Salabat Khan II, commonly known as 
Chand Bibi's Mahal. It is an octagonal dome surrounded by a three- 
storeyed veranda. From the summit a fine view can be obtained of 
the surrounding country, and it is a favourite resort during the hot 
season. Other buildings of special interest are the Damri Masjid, 
a very ornate little building, the Faria Bagh, the tomb of Ahmad 
Nizam Shah, the Hasht Bihisht Bagh, and Alamglr's Dargah. The 


latter, close to the adjacent town of Bhingar, is the burial-place of 
the heart and viscera of Aurangzeb. 

Ahmadnagar is an important mission centre. Two noteworthy 
industrial schools are maintained by the American Mission : namely, 
a carpet factory and an experimental weaving institute. The two 
schools together contain 410 pupils. There is a Pars! lire-temple near 
the city and a fine cotton market. In the city are three high schools, 
three middle schools, and one normal class. Of these, the high schools 
.belong to the American Mission, the Education Society, and the S.P.G. 
Mission, and contain respectively 247, 167, and 80 pupils. An agri 
cultural class with eleven pupils is attached to the Education Society's 
school. The middle schools are St. Anne's Roman Catholic school 
with 34 pupils, the American Mission girls' school with 136 pupils, 
and the Education Society's school with 151 pupils. The normal class 
has an attendance of 87. The municipality, established in 1854, had 
an average income during the decade ending 1901 of nearly one lakh. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 82,000, chiefly derived from octroi 
(Rs. 34,000), conservancy fees (Rs. 9,500), and market fees (Rs. 9,300). 
A civil hospital treats about 10,000 patients annually. The city is 
supplied with water by numerous aqueducts leading from sources 2 to 
6 miles distant, supplemented by well-water pumped by machinery 
into the ducts. Ahmadnagar is a station of the Poona division of the 
Western Command, with a garrison composed of British and native 
infantry, and a field battery. During the ten years ending 1901 the 
cantonment had an average income of Rs. 14,000. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 26,100, and the expenditure nearly Rs. 21,000. 

The chief industries are the weaving of saris and the manufacture 
of copper and brass pots. Good carpets are woven in a mission 
factory, lately established. One street is devoted to the houses 
and shops of grain-dealers. The shops of the cloth-sellers form 
another street. The cloth-selling trade is chiefly in the hands of 
Marwaris, who combine it with money-lending. 

Ahmadnagar Town.— Capital of the State of Idar in the Mahi 
Kantha Agency, Bombay, situated in if 34' N. and 73 1' E., on 
the left bank of the Hathmati, and on the Ahmadabad-Parantlj 
Railway. Population (1901), 3,200. It is surrounded by a stone wall, 
built about 1426 by Sultan Ahmad I (141 1-43), who is said to have 
been so fond of the place that he thought of making it, instead of 
Ahmadabad, the capital of Gujarat. When the present dynasty took 
Idar (1728), Ahmadnagar soon fell into their hands. After the death 
of Maharaja Shiv Singh in 1791, his second son, Sangram Singh, took 
Ahmadnagar and the country round, and, in spite of the efforts of his 
nephew, Gambhlr Singh, became an independent chief. Sangram Singh 
was succeeded by his son, Karan Singh. The latter died in 1835, and 


Mr. Erskine, the British Agent, who was in the neighbourhood with 
a force, moved to Ahmadnagar to prevent the Ranis from becoming 
sati. The sons of the deceased Maharaja begged Mr. Erskine not 
to interfere with their customs. Finding him resolved to prevent the 
sacrifice, they secretly summoned the Bhils and other turbulent tribes, 
and in the night, opening a way through the fort wall to the river bed, 
burnt the Ranis with their father's body. The sons then fled, but 
subsequently gave themselves up to Mr. Erskine ; and, after entering 
into an engagement with the British Government, Takht Singh was 
allowed to succeed his father as Maharaja of Ahmadnagar. Some 
years later he was chosen to fill the vacant throne of Jodhpur. He 
tried to keep Ahmadnagar and its dependencies, but, after a long 
discussion, it was ruled in 1848 that Ahmadnagar should revert to 
Idar. The chief remains are the Bhadr Palace, built of white stone, 
and a reservoir, both in ruins. The palace is said to have been 
originally constructed in the reign of Ahmad Nizam Shah, the founder 
of the town. A new palace has been erected on the Bhadr site by 
the present Maharaja of Idar. The town contains a hospital treating 
annually about 7,000 patients, and is administered as a munici- 
pality with an income (1903-4) of Rs. 1,755 anc * an expenditure of 
Rs. 1,401. 

Ahmad pur Tahsll (or Ahmadpur East). — Tahsil in the Bahawalpur 
State and nizamat, Punjab, lying south and west of the Sutlej and the 
Panjnad, between 27 46' and 29 26' N. and 70 54' and 71 32' E., with 
an area of 2,107 square miles. The population in 1901 was 111,225, 
compared with 93,515 in 1891. It contains the towns of Ahmadpur 
East (population, 9,928), the head-quarters, and Uch (7,583) ; and 
102 villages. It is traversed by the depression known as the Hakra, 
which is supposed by some to be an old bed of the Sutlej. South of 
this stretches the desert of the Cholistan, with sand-dunes rising in 
places to a height of 500 feet. To the north lie the central uplands, 
and beyond them the alluvial lowlands along the Sutlej and Panjnad. 
The land revenue and cesses amounted in 1905-6 to 2-2 lakhs. 

Ahmadpur Town, East. — Head-quarters of the Ahmadpur tahsil, 
Bahawalpur State, Punjab, situated in 29°8 / N. and 71 i6'E., 20 miles 
south-west of Bahawalpur town on the North-Western Railway. Popu- 
lation (1901), 9,928. Founded in 1748 by a Daudputra chieftain, 
it was given in dower to Nawab Bahawal Khan II of Bahawalpur in 
1782. The town possesses an Anglo- vernacular middle school, a 
theological school, and a dispensary. Its trade, chiefly in carbonate 
of soda, is considerable, and it manufactures shoes and earthenware 
on a large scale for export. The town is administered as a munici- 
pality, with an income in 1903-4 of Rs. 12,100, chiefly derived from 


Ahmadpur Lamma Tahsil.— Tahsil in the Khanpur nizdmat, 

Bahawalpur State, Punjab, lying on the left bank of the Indus, between 
27 53' and 28 45' N. and 69 31' and 70 20' K., with an an 
1,206 square miles. The population in 1901 was 77,735, compared 
with 63,833 in 1891. It contains the town of Ahmadpi R \\ i i (popu 
lation, 5,343)* tne head-quarters, and Sabzal Kot, which has reci 
been constituted a municipality ; and 66 villages. The portion of the 
tahsil which lies in the Indus lowlands is damp and unhealthy. The 
southern portion lies in the desert. The land revenue and 1 
amounted in 1905-6 to i-i lakhs. 

Ahmadpur Town, West {Ahmadpur Lamma).— Head-quarters of 
the Ahmadpur Lamma tahsil, Bahawalpur State, Punjab, situated in 
28 18' N. and 70° 7' E., 4 miles north-west of Sadikabad on the 
North-Western Railway. Population (1901), 5,343. It was founded 
by Ahmad Khan of the Daudputra tribe, which ruled bahawalpur, 
about 1800, and was originally the capital of a separate principality 
annexed to that State in 1806. The town possesses an Arabic school 
and some Muhammadan buildings of interest. It is administered .1- a 
municipality, with an income in 1903-4 of Rs. 4,300, chiefly from 
octroi. The town is noted for its mango gardens. 

Ahmadpur Town. — Town in the Shorkot tahsil of Jhang 1 Ustrict, 
Punjab, situated in 30 41' N. and 71 47' E., west of the Chenab. 
Population (1901), 3,916. The town had in the past close business 
relations with Bahawalpur, which are now more or less broken off. 
The school and dispensary are flourishing institutions. Ahmadpur is 
administered as a ' notified area.' 

Ahmedabad. — District and city in Bombay. See Ahmadabad. 

Ahmednagar. — District taluka, and city, in Bombay. See Ahmad- 

Ahobilam.— Village and temple in the Sirvel taluk of Kurnool 
District, Madras, situated in 15 8' N. and 78 45' E., on the Nalla- 
malais. Population (1901), 151. The temple is the most sacred 
Vaishnava shrine in the District, and has three parts : namely, Diguva 
(lower) Ahobilam temple at the foot of the hills, Yeguva (upper) 
Ahobilam about 4 miles higher up, and a small shrine on the summit. 
The first is the most interesting, as it contains beautiful reliefs of si 
from the Ramayana on its walls and on two great stone porches (manta- 
pams) which stand in front of it, supported by pillars 8 feet in circum- 
ference, hewn out of the rock. One of these, the Kalyana mantapam, or 
'wedding hall,' was pronounced by Mr. Fergusson to be 'a fine bold 
specimen of architecture, wanting the delicacy and elegance «>! the 
earlier examples, but full of character and merit.' The annual festival 
takes place in the months of March and April. The temple and the 
connected math in Tiruvallur in Chingleput District, though they 


possess endowments almost throughout the Presidency and even 
beyond it, are now in a neglected condition. 

Ahraura. — Town in the Chunar tahsll of Mirzapur District, United 
Provinces, situated in 25 1' N. and 83 3' E., 12 miles south-east of 
Chunar. Population (1901), 11,328. Ahraura was formerly an impor- 
tant trade centre, being the most southerly limit of cart traffic on the 
road from the railway to the south of the District and to Surguja State. 
Besides the through trade, which has fallen off owing to the establish- 
ment of other markets, there are local industries in sugar-making and 
the manufacture of lacquered toys. Tasar or wild silk was formerly 
woven here ; but this industry is almost extinct, though silk thread is 
still made. The town contains a dispensary and two schools. It is 
administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 4,000. 
A short distance away, in the village of Belkhara, is an inscription of Lak- 
hana Deva, the last king of Kanauj, which, though dated in 1196, com- 
pletely ignores the conquest by the Muhammadans a few years earlier 1 . 

Ai. — A river of Assam, which rises in Bhutan and has a tortuous 
easterly course through Goalpara District, till it falls into the Manas. 
Its principal tributaries are the Buri Ai and Kanamukra, both of 
which join it on the left bank. For the greater part of its course the Ai 
flows through jungle land ; but it is used for the export of rice, mustard, 
thatching-grass, and timber, and is one of the routes by which articles of 
merchandise are conveyed into the interior. Boats of 4 tons burthen 
can proceed as far as Kollagaon in the rainy and Chamugaon in the dry 
season. The river, which is 95 miles in length, is nowhere bridged, 
but is crossed by ferries in four places. 

Aihole. — Village in Bijapur District, Bombay. See Aivalli. 

Aijal Subdivision. — Subdivision of the Lushai Hills District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 23° i' and 24°i9'N. and 92° 16' 
and 93 26' E., with an area of 4,701 square miles. The population in 
1 901, the first year in which a Census was taken, was 52,936, living 
in 125 villages. The head-quarters of the District are situated at Aijal. 

Aijal Village.— Head-quarters of the Lushai Hills District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam, situated in 23 44' N. and 92 44' E., on 
the top of a narrow ridge about 3,500 feet above the sea. It is con- 
nected by a bridle-path with Silchar, 120 miles distant ; but stores are 
usually brought up the Dhaleswari river to Sairang, only 13 miles from 
Aijal. The station was established in 1890, and in 1901 had a popu- 
lation of 2,325. The rainfall (80 inches) is not excessive for Assam, 
and the climate is cool and pleasant. Aijal is the head-quarters of the 
Superintendent and his staff, and of a military police battalion under 
a European commandant. There is a jail with accommodation for 
thirteen prisoners, and a hospital with thirty-four beds. For some time 
1 Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. xi, p. 128. 


much difficulty was experienced in obtaining water at the top of the 
hill, but arrangements have now been made at considerable i 
catch and store the rain water. The bazar contains the sir , 
several traders, from various parts of India. 

Aivalli (Ai/io/e).— Old village in the Hungund taluka of Bijapur 
District, Bombay, situated in i6° i' N. and 75 52' H., on the 
Malprabha, 13 miles south-west of Hungund. Population (1901), 
1,638. An axe-shaped rock is shown on the river-bank in commemora 
tion of the legend of Parasu Rama, the sixth incarnation of Vishnu, who 
is said to have washed his axe on the spot after destroying the whole 
race of Kshattriyas. On a rock in the river are Parasu Rama's foot 
prints. Near these is a fine old temple of Ramling. An inscription is 
carved on the rock on the river-bank. On the hill facing the village is 
a temple dedicated to Meguti, built in the Dravidian style. On the 
outside of the east wall of the temple is an important stone inscription 
of the early Chalukya dynasty, dated a.d. 634. The temple, now- 
known as the Durga temple, is the only structure in India which 
preserves a trace of the changes through which the Buddhist cave 
temple passed in becoming a Jain and Brahmanical structural temple. 
This also bears an inscription on the outer gateway. Two cave-temples, 
one Jain, the other Brahmanical, with images of their respective creed 
carved in them, are of great interest. 

[Indian Antiquary, vol. v, p. 67 ; vol. viii, p. 237 ; Epigraphia Indica, 
vol. vi, p. 1.] 

Ajabpura. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Ajaigarh State. — A sanad State in Central India, under the 
Bundelkhand Political Agency, lying between 24 5' and 25 10' N. 
and 79 50' and 8o° 21' E., with an area of about 771 square miles, 
distributed over two separate tracts, one surrounding the town of 
Ajaigarh, the other near to Maihar. The whole State lies in the heart 
of the Vindhyas, and is much cut up by hills and valleys. The 
principal streams are the Ken and its affluent the Bairma. The rainfall 
recorded at Ajaigarh during a period of eleven years averaged 47 inches. 

The Ajaigarh chiefs are Bundela Rajputs, being descendants of 
Chhatarsal, the founder of Panna. In 1731 Chhatarsal divided his 
State into several shares, of which one worth 31 lakhs, including 
Ajaigarh, was given to his third son, Jagat Raj. On the death of Jagat 
Raj, his son and successor, Pahar Singh, was continually engaged in 
disputes with his nephews, Khuman Singh and Guman Singh. Finally, 
a settlement was effected by which Guman Singh received Banda 
District, including the fort of Ajaigarh. In 1792 Bakht Singh, a 
nephew of Guman Singh, who had succeeded to the Banda State, was 
driven out by All Bahadur and reduced to such straits that he was 
obliged to throw himself on the charity of his conqueror, and accept 

VOL. V. K 


a subsistence allowance of 2 rupees a day. When in 1803 the British 
succeeded the Marathas in the possession of Bundelkhand, they granted 
to Bakht Singh a cash pension of Rs. 30,000 a year, until territory 
could be assigned to him. In 1807 he obtained a sanad for the Kotra 
and Pawai parganas, the pension being discontinued in 1808. The 
Ajaigarh fort and the surrounding country were at this time in the 
hands of one Lachhman Daowa, a noted freebooter, who at once 
proposed terms to the British authorities; and as it was important to 
pacify the country, he was allowed to continue in possession on the 
conditions of allegiance, the payment of a tribute of Rs. 4,000 a year, 
and the surrender of the fort after two years. His entire disregard 
of these conditions and his persistent turbulence made it necessary to 
resort to force, and the fort was taken by Colonel Martindell in 1809 
after a seve're fight. A large share of Lachhman Daowa's possessions 
was then added to Bakht Singh's territory, including the fort of Ajaigarh, 
which became the capital of his State. In 1812, at the Raja's request, 
a fresh sanad was granted defining his possessions more accurately. 
Bakht Singh died in 1837, and his son and successor, Madho Singh, in 
1849. Madho Singh's brother, Mahipat Singh, then succeeded, and on 
his death in 1853 was followed by his son, Bijai Singh, who died two 
years later. There being no direct heirs, the State was held to have 
escheated to the British Government. While the matter was under 
reference to the Court of Directors, the Mutiny broke out. In 
recognition of the fact that the late chief's mother remained faithful to 
the British during the disturbances, the escheat was waived, and the 
succession of the present Maharaja, Ranjor Singh, an illegitimate brother 
of Bijai Singh, was recognized in 1859. In 1862 Ranjor Singh received 
a sanad of adoption, and in 1877 the hereditary title of Sawai. His 
Highness is the author of several works, including treatises on the 
Mutiny and the use of cheetahs in- hunting. Enhanced criminal 
jurisdiction was conferred in 1887, subject to certain limitations, which 
include the submission of all sentences of death for confirmation to 
the Agent to the Governor-General. In 1897 Ranjor Singh was 
created a K.C.I.E. The chief bears the titles of His Highness and 
Maharaja Sawai, and receives a salute of n guns. The eldest son 
Raja Bahadur Bhopal Singh, was born in 1866. 

Besides the old fort at Ajaigarh, two other places in the State 
possess archaeological interest. At the village of Bachhon, 15 miles 
north-east of Ajaigarh, are the remains of a large town, and two tanks — 
one, the Bhitaria Tal, being a very fine example of Chandel work. 
Tradition assigns the foundation of the town to Bachha Raja, minister 
to Parmal Deo or Parmardl Deo (1 165-1203), the last important 
Chandel ruler. Not far from the tank an inscription was found dated 
A. D. 1376, in which the town is called Vacchiun. The other place is 


Nachna, 2 miles from Ganj (24 25' N. and 8o° 28' E.), wrongly 1 1 
as Narhua in our maps. It was formerly known as Kuthara, and 1 
to have been raised into a place of importance l>y Sohan Pal BundelS in 
the thirteenth century. The number of old pan gardens on the site 
show that a large town once flourished here. Two partially ruined 
temples arc still standing, one of which, dedicated to ParvatI, is of 
unusual interest. From its style and ornamentation it must belong to 
the Gupta period of the fourth or fifth century. An elaborate attempl 
.has been made to preserve the old fashion of the rock-cut temples, the 
walls being carved so as to imitate rock. The figures sculptured upon 
it are all in Gupta style, and are far superior in execution to those met 
with in most mediaeval temples ; the males, moreover, have their hair 
dressed in curls, resembling the style used on coins of the Gupta 1. 
The second temple, which possesses a fine spire, is dedicated to 
Chaturmukhya Mahadeo, and is built in eighth-century style l . 

The population of the State has been: (1881) 81,454, (1891) 93,048, 
and (1901) 78,236, giving a density of 101 persons per square mile. 
During the last decade there was a decrease of 15 per cent., owing 
to famine. Hindus number 70,360, or 89 per cent.; Animists (chiefly 
Gonds), 5,062, or 6 per cent.; and Musalmans, 2,314, or 3 per cent. 
The State contains 488 villages and one town, Ajaigarh (population, 
4,216), the capital. The Gahora dialect of Bundelkhandi is most 
generally spoken. The most numerous castes are Brahmans, 11,100; 
Chamars, 9,200; Kachhis, Bundela. Thakurs, Lodhas, Ahirs, and 
Gonds, each numbering from 4,000 to 3,000. Agriculture supports 
40 per cent, and general labour 27 per cent, of the population. 

Of the total area, 407 square miles, or 53 per cent., are reported to be 
cultivated, of which 10 square miles are irrigable ; 144 square miles, or 
19 per cent., are under forest; 141 square miles, or 18 per cent., are 
cultivable but not cultivated ; and 79 square miles, or 10 per cent., are 
waste. Gram is reported to occupy 32 square miles, or 8 per cent, of the 
cultivated area ; kodon, 3 1 square miles, or 8 per cent. ; wheat, 2 2 square 
miles, or 5 per cent.; jmvar, 16 square miles, or 4 per cent.; rice, 
13 square miles, or 3 per cent.; barley, 8 square miles, or 2 per cent.; 
and cotton, 3 square miles. A canal, to be supplied by the Ken, is now 
under construction, and will benefit the State agriculturally. The 
forests are being placed under systematic management, and should 
yield a considerable income. 

Iron was once extensively worked, but the industry has died out. 
Diamonds are obtained in a few places. Guns, swords, and pistols of 
country make are still produced in some quantity. 

The State has practically no trade, its isolated position and want of 
good communications making any development in this direction 
1 A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. xxi, pp. 54-95. 

K 2 


difficult. The total length of roads is 72 miles, of which 24 are 
metalled and 48 unmetalled. The metalled roads are portions of the 
Satna-Nowgong, Banda-Nagod, and Ajaigarh-Panna roads, of which only 
the last is maintained by the State. A British post office has been 
opened at Ajaigarh town. 

The total revenue amounts to 2-3 lakhs, of which 2 lakhs is derived 
from land, and Rs. 19,000 from tribute. The expenditure is about 
2 lakhs, of which one lakh is spent on general administration, including 
the chiefs establishment. The revenue is assessed on the crop-bearing 
capability of the soil, a higher rate being levied from irrigated lands. 
The incidence of the land revenue demand is Rs. 1-5—0 per acre of 
cultivated area, and R. 0-7-8 per acre of the total area. About 
203 square miles, or 26 per cent, of the total area, have been alienated 
in land grants. 

The army consists of 75 cavalry, 350 infantry, all irregulars, and 
44 artillerymen with 9 serviceable guns. The number of regular police 
is 68, and of village police 211. 

Four schools are maintained, including one primary school, attended 
by 67 pupils. There is a dispensary at Ajaigarh town. 

Ajaigarh Town.- — Chief town of the State of the same name in 
Central India, situated in 24 54' N. and 8o° \$ E., at the foot of the 
old fort. Population (1901), 4,216. The modern capital is known as 
the Naushahr or ' new city,' and lies at the north end of the rock on 
which the fort stands. It is in no way remarkable, but has been much 
improved by the present chief. High above the town towers the great 
fort, one of those strongholds known traditionally as the Ath Kot, or 
' eight forts,' of Bundelkhand, which, with the natural ruggedness of the 
country, long enabled the Bundelas to maintain their independence 
against the armies of the Mughals and Marathas. It was ultimately 
taken by All Bahadur of Banda in 1800 after a siege of ten months. 
In 1803 Colonel Meiselbeck was sent to take possession, in accordance 
with the terms of a treaty with All Bahadur ; but the Muhammadan 
governor was induced by one Lachhman Daowa, who had formerly 
been the governor under Bakht Singh, to make over the fort to him in 
return for a bribe of Rs. 18,000. On February 13, 1809, it was taken 
by Colonel Martindell after a desperate assault, Lachhman Daowa 

The hill on which the fort stands, called the Kedar Parbat, is an 
outlier of Kaimur sandstone resting on gneiss, and rising 860 feet above 
the plain below, the fort being 1,744 feet above sea-level. The slope is 
gradual up to about 50 feet from the summit, where it suddenly becomes 
a perpendicular scarp, adding greatly to the defensive strength of the 
position. The name by which the fort is now known is comparatively 
speaking modern, and is not used in the numerous inscriptions 


found upon it, in which it is always called Jaya pura durga 
it was undoubtedly built about the ninth century, and wa 
place of importance, it is never mentioned by any Muhamn 
torian except Abul Fa/1, who merely records that it was the head qua 
of a ma hCil in the Kalinjar sarkar, and notes that it had 
a hill. Its present name is a corruption of Jaya-durga, through its 
synonym Jaya-garh, the legend ordinarily given, which accounts I 
foundation by one Ajaipal of the Chauhan house of Ajmi r, 1" 
.modern invention. The battlements of the fort follow the top i ontour 
of the hill, and have the form of a rough triangle 3 miles in circuit. It 
was formerly entered by five gates, but three are now blocked up. 
rampart, which never has the same dimension in height, breadth, or 
depth for three yards running, is composed of immense blo< 1. 
without cement of any kind, the parapet upon it being divided into 
merlons resembling mitres. Muhammadan handiwork is apparent in the 
numerous delicately carved stones from Jain temples which have been 
inserted into the walls. Many tanks exist on the summit and sidi 
the hill, several giving a good supply of pure water. The ruins of three 
Jain temples are still standing. They are built in twelfth-century style. 
very similar to those at Khajraho. The stones are richly carved 
with fine designs, and the temples must once have been magnil 
specimens of their class. Countless broken remains of idols, pillars, 
cornices, and pedestals lie strewn around, while several inscriptions ol 
the later Chandel period, dating from riar to 13 15, have been dis- 
covered in the buildings. 

The sides of the hill and all the surrounding country are covered with 
a thick forest of teak and fe/idu (Diospyros tomenfosa), which adds to 
the wild picturesqueness of the scene. The town contains a primary 
school, a British post office, and a dispensary. 

[A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. vii. p. 46 ; vol. 
xxi, p. 46.] 

Ajanta Hills (or Inhyadri). — This range, also called the Chandor, 
Satmala, or Inhyadri Hills, and Sahyadriparbat in Hyderabad territory, 
consists of a series of basalt pinnacles and ridges of the same geologi" a' 
formation as the Western Ghats, from which it breaks off at right 
angles near Bhanvad in Nasik District (Bombay), and runs nearly due 
east, with a general elevation of 4,000 feet or more, for about 50 miles, 
to near Manmad, where there is a wide gap through wind) the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway passes. From Ankai, south of Manmad, tin 
range runs eastward at a lower level for about 20 miles, widening mt< 
the small tabledand of Rajapur. At Kasari there is a second gap, from 
which the hills run north-eastwards for about 50 miles, dividing Khan 
desh District from Aurangabad to near Ajanta. Thence they aga 
turn eastwards into Berar, entering Buldana District, the south' 


portion of which they cover, and pass on into Akoi.a and Yeotmal. 
The Hyderabad Districts of Parbhani and Nizamabad are traversed 
by the southern section of the range, locally called Sahyadriparbat. 
The length of the latter is about 150 miles, and of the section called 
Ajanta about 100. The range forms the northern wall of the Deccan 
table-land and the watershed between the Godavari and Tapti valleys, 
rising in parts of Berar into peaks of over 2,000 feet in height. 
The old routes followed by traders and invading armies from Gujarat 
and Malwa enter the Deccan at the Manmad and Kasarl gaps, and at 
the passes of Gaotala and Ajanta. At the last-named place, in the 
Nizam's Dominions, are the famous Buddhist cave-temples of Ajanta. 
The range is studded with hill forts, most of which were taken from the 
Peshwa's garrisons in 1818. The most notable points are Markinda 
(4,384 feet), a royal residence as early as a.d. 808, overlooking the road 
into Baglan, and facing the holy hill of Saptashring (4,659 feet); Raulya 
Jaulya, twin forts taken by the Mughals in 1635 ; Dhodap, the highest 
peak in the range (4,741 feet); Tudrai (4,526 feet); Chandur, on the 
north of the Manmad gap ; Ankai, to the south of the same ; Manik- 
punj, on the west side of the Kasarl gap ; and Kanhira, overlooking 
the Patna or Gaotala pass. The drainage of the hills, which in Bombay 
are treeless save for a little scrub jungle in the hollows at their feet, 
feeds a number of streams that flow northwards into the Girna or south- 
wards into the Godavari. Beyond Bombay the hills are well wooded 
and picturesque, and abound in game. In Hyderabad they form the 
retreats of the aboriginal tribes (see Bhils), and in Yeotmal District are 
peopled by Gonds, Pardhans, and Kolams as well as by Hindus. The 
hills are mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbarl under the name of Sahia or 

Ajanta Village. — Village in the Bhokardan taluk of Aurangabad 
District, Hyderabad State, and a jaglr of the Sir Salar Jang family, 
situated in 20 32' N. and 75 46" E. Population (1901), 2,274. The 
place, which is situated on the summit of the ghat or pass to which it 
gives its name, has stone fortifications constructed by the first Nizam in 
1727. It is, however, still more celebrated for the Buddhist caves 
situated in the Inhyadri Hills, 4 miles north-west, which first became 
known to the British in 18 19. The defile in which the caves are 
situated is wooded, lonely, and rugged, the caves being excavated in a 
wall of almost perpendicular rock, about 250 feet high, sweeping round 
in a hollow semicircle with the Waghara stream below and a wooded 
rocky promontory jutting out of its opposite bank. The caves extend 
about a third of a mile from east to west, in the concave scarp composed 
of amygdaloid trap, at an elevation of 35 to no feet above the bed of 
the torrent. The ravine, a little higher up, ends abruptly in a waterfall 
of seven leaps (sat kund), from 70 to over 100 feet in height. From the 


difficulty of access, the Ajanta caws were hut little visited until in 
Mr. Fergusson's paper on the rex k cut temples of India < reated 
interest in these remarkable works of art. 

Twenty-four monasteries (viharas) and five temples (,//<///. 
been hewn out of the solid rock, many of them supported l>y lofty 
pillars, richly ornamented with sculpture and covered with I. 
finished paintings. The following brief description i ed chiefly 

from notes by Dr. Burgess. The five chaityas, or cave-temples tor public 
worship, are usually about twice as long as they arc wide, the 1. 
being 94A feet by 41^. The back or inner end of the chaityai 
circular; the roofs are lofty and vaulted, some ribbed with wood, others 
with stone cut in imitations of wooden ribs. A colonnade hewn out of 
the solid rock runs round each, dividing the nave from the ai 
columns in the most ancient caves arc plain octagonal pillars without 
bases or capitals, with richly ornamented shafts. Within the circulai 1 rid 
of the cave stands the daghoba (relic-holder), a solid mass of rock, either 
plain or richly sculptured, consisting of a cylindrical base supporting a 
cupola (garb/id), which in turn is surmounted by a square capital or ' tee ' 
(toran). The twenty-four vihdras, or Buddhist monasteries containing 
cells, are usually square in form, supported by rows of pillars, either 
running round them and separating the great central hall from the aisle-, 
or disposed in four equidistant lines. In the larger caves, a veranda cut 
out of the rock, with cells at either end, shades the entrance ; the great 
hall occupies the middle space, with a small chamber behind and a 
shrine containing a figure of Buddha enthroned. The walls on all the 
three sides are excavated into cells, the dwelling-places (grt'Aas) of the 
Buddhist monks. The simplest form of the vihara or monastery is a 
veranda hewn out of the face of the precipice, with cells opening from 
the back into the rock. Very few of the caves seem to have been com- 
pletely finished ; but nearly all of them appear to have been painted on 
the walls, ceilings, and pillars, inside and out. Even the sculptures have 
all been richly coloured. Twenty-five inscriptions— seventeen painted 
ones in the interior, eight rock inscriptions engraved outside— com 
memorate the names of pious founders in Sanskrit and Prakrit. 

One monastery has its whole facade richly carved ; but, as a rule, such 
ornamentation is confined in the monasteries {vihdras) to the doorways 
and windows. More lavish decoration was bestowed upon the temples 
(chaityas) ; the most ancient have sculptured facades, while in the more 
modern ones the walls, columns, entablatures, and daghoba are coi 
with carving. The sculptures show little knowledge of art, and 1 
chiefly of Buddhas, or Buddhist teachers, in every variety of posture, 
instructing their disciples. 

'The paintings,' writes Dr. Burgess, 'have much higher preten 
and have been considered superior to the style of Europe in th 


when they were probably executed. The human figure is represented in 
every possible variety of position, displaying some slight knowledge of 
anatomy ; and attempts at foreshortening have been made with surprising 
success. The hands are generally well and gracefully drawn, and rude 
efforts at perspective are to be met with. Besides paintings of Buddha 
and his disciples and devotees, there are representations of streets, 
processions, battles, interiors of houses with the inmates pursuing their 
daily occupations, domestic scenes of love and marriage and death, 
groups of women performing religious austerities ; there are hunts, men 
on horseback spearing the wild buffalo ; animals, from the huge elephant 
to the diminutive quail ; exhibitions of cobras, ships, fish, &c. The 
small number of domestic utensils depicted is somewhat remarkable, — 
the common earthen waterpot and lota, a drinking cup, and one or two 
other dishes, a tray, an elegantly shaped sort of jug having an oval 
body and long thin neck with lip and handle, together with a stone and 
roller for grinding condiments, being all that are observable. The same 
lack of weapons of war, either offensive or defensive, is also to be 
noticed. Swords, straight and crooked, long and short, spears of various 
kinds, clubs, bows and arrows, a weapon resembling a bayonet reversed, 
a missile like a quoit with cross-bars in the centre, and shields of different 
form, exhaust the list. There is also a thing which bears a strong resem- 
blance to a Greek helmet, and three horses are to be seen yoked abreast, 
but whether they were originally attached to a war-chariot cannot now be 
determined. The paintings have been in the most brilliant colours — 
the light and shade are very good ; they must have been executed upon 
a thick layer of stucco. In many places, the colour has penetrated to a 
considerable depth.' 

Of the date of these paintings it is difficult to form a very definite 
estimate, nor are they all of the same age. The scenes represented are 
generally from the legendary history of Buddha and the Jatakas, the 
visit of Asita to the infant Buddha, the temptation of Buddha by Mara 
and his forces, Buddhist miracles, the Jataka of king Sibi, legends of the 
Nagas, hunting scenes, battle-pieces, the carrying off of the relics of 
Ceylon, &c. 

The cave-temples and monasteries of Ajanta furnish a continuous 
narrative of Buddhist art during 800 years, from shortly after the reign 
of Asoka to shortly before the expulsion of the faith from India. The 
oldest of them are assigned to about 200 B.C. ; the most modern cannot 
be placed before the year a.d. 600. For many centuries they enable us 
to study the progress of Buddhist art, and of Buddhistic conceptions, 
uninfluenced by Hinduism. The chief interest of the latest chaitya, 
about a.d. 600, is to show how nearly Buddhism had approximated to 
Brahmanism, before the convulsions amid which it disappeared. The 
liberality of the Indian Government had enabled Major Gill to take up 
his residence in Ajanta, and to prepare a magnificent series of facsimiles 
from the frescoes. These unfortunately perished in the fire at the 
Crystal Palace in i860, but reductions of two of the more important of 


them, and of eight detached fragments, exist in Mrs. Spiei 

Ancient India. More recently the matchless art series of Ajanta has 

been made available to the Western world by Mr. Griffiths. 

[John Griffiths, Indian Antiquary, vol. ii, p. 150; vol. iii, p. 25; 
J. Fergusson, History of Indian Architecture (cd. 1876); J. Burgess, 
Bauddha Rock Temples of Ajanta (1879), and Cave-Templei 0) W 
India (1881); J. Griffiths, The Paintings in the Buddhist Care Temples 
of Ajanta (1896-7).] 

Ajeygarh. — Town in Central India. See Ajaigarh. 

Ajimganj. — Town in Murshidabad District, Bengal. See Azim- 

Ajmer. — British Province, District, and city in Rajputana. See 
Ajmer-Merwara and Ajmer City. 

Ajmer-Merwara. — An isolated British Province in Rajputana, 
lying between 25 24' and 26 42' N. and 73 45' and 75 24' K. The 
Agent to the Governor-General in Rajputana administers it as Chief 
Commissioner. The Province consists of two small separate Districts, 
Ajmer and Merwara. 

Ajmer is bounded on the north by Jodhpur (Marwar) ; on the south 
by Udaipur (Mewar) and Merwara ; on the east by Jaipur and Kishan- 
garh ; and on the west by Jodhpur. Merwara is bounded on the north 
by Jodhpur and Ajmer ; on the south by Udaipur ; on the east by 
Ajmer and Udaipur; on the west by Jodhpur. The total area of the 
Province is 2,711 square miles; the total population (1901), 476,912. 

The Sanskrit word meru^ 'a hill,' is a component part of the names 
of both Districts. Ajmer took its name from the founder (Raja Aja) of 
its principal town, and Merwara from its physical features. 

Ajmer District is a large open plain, very sandy in parts, especially to 

the west in the neighbourhood of Pushkar and Gobindgarh, and studded 

at intervals with hills that rise boldly from the plain. 

Merwara, on the other hand, is a network of hills. aspects. 

The Aravalli range, which commences at the Ridge 

at Delhi, and runs in a broken chain south-westward across Rajputana, 

comes into prominence in the northern corner of Ajmer District, where 

it assumes the form of several parallel hill ranges. The highest point, 

on which is perched the fort of Taragarh, immediately above the city of 

Ajmer, rises to a height of 2,855 leet above sea-level, and between 

1,300 and 1,400 feet above the valley at its base. The Nagpahar, or 

'serpent hill,' which is situated between 3 and 4 miles west of Ajmer, 

attains a scarcely inferior elevation. The plateau on whose centre 

stands the city of Ajmer marks the highest point in the plains <f 

Hindustan, the country sloping away on every side from the circle of 

hills which hem it in. The range of hills running between Ajmer and 

Naslrabad forms a dividing watershed for India. The rain which tall- 


on the southern or Nasirabad face finds its way into the Chambal, and 
so into the Bay of Bengal ; that which falls on the opposite side drains 
into the Luni, and so into the Rann of Cutch. The range of hills on 
which Taragarh stands bends westwards from the city of Ajmer, and the 
country for several miles in the direction of Beawar is open. The hills 
enter Merwara as a compact double ridge, enclosing the valley of the 
pargana from which Beawar takes its name. The two ranges approach 
each other at Jawaja, 14 miles south of Beawar, and finally meet at 
Kukra, in the north of the Todgarh tahsil, whence a succession of hills 
and valleys extends to the farthest extremities of the District, the chain 
finally merging into the Vindhyan system near the isolated hill of Abu. 
On the Marwar, or western side, of Merwara, the hills become very 
bold and precipitous, and Goramji, which lies about 7 miles to the 
south-west of Todgarh, has an elevation of 3,075 feet. The average 
level of the valleys is about 1,800 feet. 

Owing to its elevated position at the centre of the watershed, the 
Province does not possess any rivers of importance. The Banas is 
the principal stream. It rises in the Aravalli Hills, 40 miles north-west 
of Udaipur, and enters Ajmer District at the extreme south-east corner. 
During the rains this river comes down in high flood, and travellers to 
and from Deoli are ferried across at the village of Negria, in Jaipur 
territory. The Khari Nadi rises in the hills near the village of Birjal, 
in Merwara District, and after forming the boundary between Mewar 
and Ajmer for a short distance, falls into the Banas about a mile above 
Negria. The Dai Nadi flows across Ajmer District from west to east ; 
it is arrested in its course by embankments at Nearan and at Sarwar, 
which is in Kishangarh territory. It leaves the District close to 
Baghera, and eventually empties itself into the Banas. The Sagar 
Mati rises on the southern slope of the hills surrounding the Anasagar 
tank in Ajmer. It flows through and fertilizes the Ajmer valley, and 
takes a sweep northwards by Bhaonta and Pisangan to Gobindgarh. 
Here it meets the SaraswatT, which carries the drainage of the Pushkar 
valley ; and from this point till it falls into the Rann of Cutch the 
stream is called the Luni or ' salty ' river. These streams, which are 
dry during the hot season, become torrents in the rains. With the 
exception of Pushkar, which lies in a valley, there are no noteworthy 
natural lakes in the Province. The tanks, on which the cultivators 
depend for their supply of water for irrigation, have been built at 
different times, some being very old and others of quite recent con- 

Ajmer District is deficient in striking scenery, although Ajmer city 
is an exception. There, after the first burst of the monsoon, the hills 
assume a very pleasing aspect, as, green with verdure, they stand out in 
bold relief against a clear blue sky. The sunset effects are at times 


very striking, and the most beautiful scene of all is the Ana 
embankment and lake on a night when the moon is at full. Mei 
in the hot season, is more bleak and barren to the eye than Aimer; 
but during the rains, and while the autumn and spring crops are 
standing, some parts are remarkably pretty. The view from the top ol 
the Dewair pass, looking down, is singularly beautiful, as is thai from 
the top of the pass which separates Barakhan from Todgarh. 

Ajmer-Merwara consists of Archaean rocks, which may be separated 
into two subdivisions: first, gneissose and schistose rocks, arranged in 
successive bands, some of which have the composition ol igneous ro k 
while others may be highly metamorphosed sediments ; second, another 
group of rocks known as the Aravalli series, often highly metamorph 
and schistose, but whose original sedimentary character is still clearly 
recognizable, the principal rocks being quartzites and quartz schists, 
slates and mica schists, and metamorphic limestones. It is difficult to 
decide which of these subdivisions is the older, on account of the great 
degree of metamorphism of both series, and their mutual relations are 
still further confused by a profusion of igneous intrusions cutting 
through both formations, and of later date than either. The handed 
gneiss and schists crop out round Naslrabad, and throughout the flat 
country forming the eastern part of the Province, wherever the rocks 
are not concealed by recent alluvial accumulations. The hilly western 
part of Ajmer-Merwara falls mainly under the Aravalli series. The 
loftiest ridges consist principally of quartzites or quartz schists, while 
slates, mica schists, and limestones occur in the intervening valleys. 
The crystalline limestones include white, grey, pink, and green varieties, 
constituting beautiful ornamental stones, which have been quarried to 
a great extent. Valuable mica is found in the intrusive pegmatites. 
Metalliferous veins, chiefly copper and lead, occur at several places \ 

The flora of Ajmer-Merwara is similar to that of RAJPUTANA, east of 
the Aravalli Hills. Shrubs of various kinds prevail, being more 
prominent than the trees, of which the more common are the pi pal 
(Fiats religiosa), banyan (F i/idica), nlm {Mel/a Azadirachta), and 
semal (Bombax malabaricum). Among fruit trees, the pomegranate and 
the guava are the most numerous. The herbaceous vegetation is con- 
fined to a few species, while in the rains grasses and sedges abound. 

An occasional tiger is to be met with in Merwara, while leopards 
are found in the hills from Nagpahar to Dewair, as also are hyenas. 
Wolves are rare ; wild hog are found in most of the old feudal 
{istimrari) estates, and hog-shooting is a favourite amusement of the 
Rajputs. ' Black buck ' {A ntelope cervicapra), 'ravine deer' (Gazclla 
bennetti), and nilgai {Bose/aphus tragocamelus) are met with in Ajmer. 
A few sambar (Cervus unicolor) are to be found in the hills in both 

1 Contributed by Mr. E. Vredenburg;, of the Geological Survey of India. 


Districts. As regards small game, the great Indian bustard is to be 
seen in Ajmer ; the florican is a visitor during the rains ; geese, duck, 
snipe, and quail are found in the cold season ; and hares, sand-grouse, 
and grey partridges at all times. 

The climate is healthy. In the summer it is dry and hot ; in the 
winter cold and bracing, especially in December, January, and February, 
when hoar-frost not infrequently covers the ground. During the twenty- 
five years ending 1901 the maximum temperature recorded in the shade 
was 116 in June, 1897, and the minimum 35 in December, 1892. 
The following figures show the average mean temperatures of four 
representative months at Ajmer for the twenty -five years ending 1901 : 
January, 59-4°; May, 91-5°; July, 84-9°; November, 67-9°. 

Ajmer-Merwara lies on the border of the arid zone of Rajputana, 
outside the full influence of the monsoons, and the rainfall is, therefore, 
very partial and precarious. The annual fall during the twenty-five 
years ending 1901 averaged 21-2 inches, of which about two-thirds falls 
in July and August and the greater part of the rest in June and Septem- 
ber. The maximum rainfall during this period was 37 inches in each 
District in 1892-3, and the minimum 8 inches in Ajmer and 5 inches 
in Merwara in 1899- 1900, a year of severe famine. 

The early history of Ajmer is legendary in character. According to 
tradition, a certain Raja Aja, a Chauhan Rajput, founded the city and 
fort of Ajmer about a.d. 145. At first he attempted to 
build his stronghold on the Nagpahar hill ; but each 
night his evil genius destroyed the walls which had been built during the 
day, and this induced Aja to transfer his fortress to the neighbouring 
hill of Taragarh. Here he built a fort which was called Garh Bitli ; and 
in the valley at the foot of the hill, known as Indrakot, he founded a city 
which he called after his own name, Ajmer. Towards the end of his 
life he retired to some hills about 10 miles to the west of Ajmer, and 
died there as a hermit. The temple of Ajaipal commemorates his 
deathplace. It has been shown, however, by Dr. Blihler and others, 
that Aja and Ajaya flourished about a.d. iioo, and it is to this period 
that the foundation of Ajmer must be ascribed l . The Chauhans came 
to Rajputana from Ahichhatrapur in Rohilkhand about a.d. 750, and 
their first capital was Sambhar. Their possessions included the tract 
now known as Ajmer, but there was at that time no known city there. 
Ajaya's son, Ana (or Arno), constructed the fine Anasagar embankment, 
on which the emperor Shah Jahan subsequently erected a magnificent 
range of marble pavilions. An inscription discovered at Chitor by 
Pandit Gauri Shankar of Udaipur shows that Ana was alive in 1150. 
Vigraharaja III, otherwise known as Visaldev, a son of Ana, was the 
most famous of the Chauhan dynasty of Ajmer. He conquered Delhi 
1 See article by Dr. G. Biihler in the Indian Antiquary for June, 1897. 



from the Tomars, and constructed the Bisal Sagar tank in hi 
territory. The latest inscription under his reign isdated 1163. Prithwl 
Raj, grandson of Visaldev, was king of Delhi and Ajrner at the tin 
the invasion of Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Ghorl. In [19a hi 
the latter in a great battle and forced him to fly. But in 1193 Muham 
mad Ghorl returned with a fresh army, recruited in A; , and 

Central Asia. The Rajput chiefs were weakened by feuds, and Prithwl 
Raj was defeated, taken prisoner, and murdered in cold blood. 
Muhammad Ghorl then proceeded to Ajmer, where a terrible ma 
of the inhabitants occurred. A son of Prithwi Raj was established 
subordinate ruler, but was soon after dispossessed by his uncle llari Raj. 
The latter was, however, reduced to such straits by a Muham madan 
army under the Ghorl viceroy Kutb-ud-din (afterwards the first of tin- 
Slave kings of Delhi), that he committed suicide. Ajmer was now- 
annexed to the Delhi kingdom. In 12 10, after Kutb-ud-din's death, 
the Mers and the Solankis of Gujarat made a night attack on Taragarh, 
the fort commanding Ajmer town, and massacred the Muhammadan 
garrison to a man. The shrine of Saiyid Husain, the governor, who 
perished in this attack, is still the most noteworthy feature of Taragarh. 
His tomb, those of his comrades, and that of his horse, stand in an 
enclosure known as Ganj Shah'idan, or 'treasury of martyrs.' Shams- 
ud-din Altamsh, who succeeded Kutb-ud-din, restored the authority of 
the kings of Delhi, which was not disturbed again till the invasion of 
Tlmur. Then Rana Kumbha of Mewar seized advantage of the pre- 
vailing anarchy to take possession of Ajmer. He was assassinated very 
soon afterwards; and Ajmer fell into the hands of the Muhammadan 
rulers of Malwa, who held it from 1470 to 1531, when the kingdom of 
Malwa was annexed to Gujarat. Maldeo Rathor, who had recently 
succeeded to the throne of Marwar, then took possession of Ajmer, 
which was reannexed to Delhi in the early years of Akbar. Akbar in- 
cluded Ajmer in a Subah or province, which gave its name to the whole 
ofRajputana. The great importance of the fort and district of Ajmer 
as a point d'appui in the midst of the Rajputana States was early 1 
nized by the Muhammadan rulers. It commanded the main routes 
from Northern India to Gujarat on one side and to Malwa on the 
other. Ajmer itself was a centre of trade, with a wellnigh impregnable 
fort to protect it, and water was plentiful as compared with the 
tracts around. Accordingly, under the Mughals, Ajmer was one of the 
royal residences. Akbar had made a vow that, if a son were horn to 
him and lived, he would go on pilgrimage from Agra to Ajmer and 
offer thanks at the tomb of the saint Muin-ud-dln Chishti, a holy man 
who came from Ghor to India in the twelfth century, and whose tomb. 
known as the Dargah Khwaja Sahib, had been a placeof Muhammadan 
pilgrimage for several centuries. Sahm, afterwards the emperor JahSnglr, 


was born to Akbar in 1570, and ten years later the emperor fulfilled 
his vow. Akbar appears to have made other pilgrimages to this shrine, 
and the pillars he caused to be erected to mark the route from Agra 
to Ajmer are still in a good state of preservation. Jahanglr and 
Shah Jahan spent a considerable portion of their time at Ajmer ; and 
it was here that Jahanglr received Sir Thomas Roe, the ambassador 
from King James I, who had his first audience in January, 1616, and 
was received by the Mughal emperor with ' courtly condescension.' 
Near Chitor, on his way up to Ajmer from Surat, Sir Thomas Roe met 
Thomas Coryat, an eccentric Englishman who had a mania for tra- 
velling, and who had walked from Jerusalem to Ajmer, having spent 
£2 10 s. on the way. Roe remained at Ajmer till November, 1616, and 
then accompanied Jahanglr on his march to Ujjain, which place was 
reached in February, 1617. The life at Ajmer and in camp is vividly 
described by Sir Thomas Roe in his Journal. It was near Ajmer that 
Aurang/eb defeated his brother Dara. The battle was fought about 
6 miles to the south of the city in March, 1659. Dara's subsequent 
privations are graphically narrated by Eernier, who was an eyewitness 
of the miserable retreat. From the defeat of Dara down to the death 
of the Saiyid ministers of Farrukh Siyar in 1720, the annals of Ajmer 
do not contain anything noteworthy. In 1 721 Ajlt Singh, son of Raja 
Jaswant Singh of Marwar, took advantage of the decline of the Mughal 
empire, killed the imperial governor, and seized Ajmer. Muhammad 
Shah temporarily recovered the city ; but ten years later he appointed 
Abhai Singh, son of A jit Singh, to be viceroy of Ajmer and Ahmadabad, 
and from 1731 to 1750 the Rathor princes of Marwar ruled over Ajmer. 
A struggle for the succession led to the calling in of the Marathas, to 
whom Bijai Singh, the successful competitor, made over the fort and 
District of Ajmer as mund kati or ' blood-money ' for the murder of Jai 
Appa Sindhia, their general. In 1787 Mahadji Sindhia invaded Jaipur, 
and the Rathor princes were called in to aid their brethren. The 
Marathas were defeated and the Rathors regained Ajmer for a brief 
period. In 1790 the forces of Sindhia, led by De Boigne, defeated the 
Rajputs at Merta, retook Ajmer, and held it till its cession to the 
British Government. At the close of the Pindari War, Daulat Rao 
Sindhia, by treaty dated June 25, 1818, ceded the District to the 

The long tale of battles and sieges is now closed ; the history of 
Ajmer becomes One of its administration. From 1818 to 1832 the 
officers in charge of Ajmer, who were called ' Superintendents,' corre- 
sponded, first with the Resident at Delhi, subsequently with the Resident 
in Malwa and Rajputana. In 1832 Ajmer came under the administra- 
tion of the North-Western Provinces, under which it remained till 1871, 
when Ajmer and Merwara were formed into a Chief Commissionership 


under the Foreign Department of the Government of India, the Agent 
to the Governor-General for Rajputana becoming Chief Commissioner. 
In July, 1818, Mr. Wilder, the first Superintendent of Ajmer, received 
charge from the last of the Maratha subahdars. He and his successors 
laboured hard for the good of the people ; and the long incumbency 
of Colonel Dixon, who took charge of Ajmer in 1842, in addition 
to Merwara, which has since been administratively attached to it, was 
productive of much good. Irrigation works were vigorously pushed 
forward ; agriculture and commerce were encouraged in every way • 
and in 1851 the District came under a regular settlement. The 
measures taken from time to time to win the confidence of the people 
were successful, and during the Mutiny civil government was not 
interrupted and the agricultural population held aloof from the rising. 
On May 28, 1857, two regiments of Bengal Infantry and a battery 
of Bengal Artillery mutinied at Nasirabad, and marched straight 
to Delhi. The European residents were protected by a regiment of 
Bombay Cavalry, and eventually made their way in safety to Beawar, 
the head-quarters of Merwara. A detachment of the Merwara Batta- 
lion made a forced march into Ajmer and guarded the treasury 
and magazine. Since then famines alone have troubled the Province. 
The opening of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway in 1879 ushered in 
a period of material prosperity. The population of Ajmer city has 
very nearly doubled since the railway was opened. The Province 
has been severely afflicted by recent famines, and in 1905-6 scarcity 
was again experienced. 

Outside Ajmer City and Pushkar there are few objects of archaeo- 
logical interest. In the south-east of Ajmer District are remains of 
Hindu temples, the age of which is not known. It is possible that they 
date from the time of the Hindu kings of Toda Raisen, the ruins of 
which lie some 30 miles across the border in Jaipur territory. Baghera 
and Sakrani contain the better known of these remains. The fort 
at Bhinai is a good specimen of the fortresses built by the smaller 
Rajput chiefs. 

The Census of 1901, the sixth of a series which commenced in 1865, 
returned a population of 476,912 (Ajmer 367,453, Merwara 109,459), 
compared with 460,722 in 1881, and 542,358 in 1891. Population 
The decrease since 1891, which .amounts to as much 
as 12 per cent., is the result of the natural calamities of the decade, 
which included two severe famines and one period of scarcity. It has 
taken place entirely in rural areas, and has been heavier in Ajmer than 
in Merwara, where the people are hardier. The density for the Province, 
including urban areas, is 176 persons per square mile, against 200 in 
1 89 1 . The population is distributed over four towns— Ajmer (population, 
73,839), Nasirabad (22,494), Beawar (21,928), and Kekri (7>°53) — 



and 740 villages. The number of occupied houses is 107,401, and 
the number of persons per house 4-4. The villages in Ajmer are much 
more compact and larger than in Merwara, where 52 per cent, of the 
population live in villages having less than 500 inhabitants. The 
difference in the physical features of the two Districts accounts for 
this. The agricultural classes in Merwara take up their abode in valleys 
and open spaces where they can cultivate the land. This tends to give 
the village a very scattered character, which is not necessary in Ajmer 
with its open plains. About 80 per cent, of the population in 1901 
had been born in the Province, and 27,931 persons — 12,177 males 
and 15,754 females — born in the Province were enumerated in other 
parts of India. Migration is principally to and from the surrounding 
Native States, immigration being much larger than emigration, owing 
to the facilities for obtaining employment in the city and towns. 

In the city of Ajmer, and in the towns, the municipal or cantonment 
authorities arrange for the collection of vital statistics. In rural areas 
the police are the reporting agency. Village watchmen make reports 
of births and deaths at police stations, while revenue officials (patwaris) 
and managers (kamdars) of istimrari estates also submit weekly returns 
to the police stations, as a check on the reports of village watchmen. 
The local authority who deals with the figures is the Civil Surgeon. 

The following statement shows the results of birth and death registra- 
tion for 1 88 1, 1 89 1, 1 90 1, and 1903, the increase of the birth-rate in 
the last year furnishing evidence of recovery from the effects of famine : — 


Ratio of 



Ratio of 

per 1,000. 

Deaths per 1,000 from 





1881 . 
1891 . 
1901 . 

1903 . 

54 2 >35 8 




33- * 


O. IO 







The fever that supervened on the famine of 1 899-1 900 was wide- 
spread and of a very fatal character. Epidemics of small-pox and 
cholera are not infrequent, while dysentery and diarrhoea occur during 
the rains, and pleurisy and pneumonia carry off many people in the 
cold season. Guinea-worm is frequent. Up to May, 1904, the Province 
was free from plague in an epidemic form ; imported cases had occurred, 
but prompt segregation prevented the spread of the disease. In 
May, 1904, however, plague appeared in a village in the Kekri circle, 
and, despite all efforts to prevent its spreading, has since broken out 
in a number of villages in Ajmer. A steady decrease in blindness 
since 1881 may be noted as satisfactory. 



During the famine of 1899-1900 the infant mortality was \ 
In 1891 the population under one year of age was 19,976; in 1901 
it was only 6,117, while the population between one and two years fell 
from 9,555 to 3,116. Taking the age period 0-5, the 1901 figures show 
3 2 ,37S> against 76,924 in 1891. Children between the ages of five 
and ten years numbered 76,192 in 1891 ; in 1901 their number had 
fallen to 52,549. About 45 per cent, of the total population in 1901 
were between ten and thirty years of age, 35 per cent, between thirty 
and sixty, and 3-7 per cent, over sixty. The mean age was 25-5 for 
males and 26-3 for females. 

In 1901 there were 44,161 boys and 40,763 girls under ten years 
of age, while the adult population was made up of 206,865 males and 
185,123 females. The proportion of males to the total population 
was 52-6 per cent., being highest in the castes of good social status. 
The statistics of civil condition for 1891 and 1901 are shown below: — 









Unmarried . 





54, 58 

1 39,5 J 8 












Infant marriage is very restricted, polygamy is not common, and 
polyandry is unknown. Divorce is allowed only among Muhammadans, 
as laid down in their laws. Widow remarriage is permitted among the 
Gujars and Jats, and in the lower castes generally. 

Among the Merwara clans inheritance through the mother prevails. 
In the event of there being sons by two or more wives, the property 
is divided between each such family. In Ajmer primogeniture is recog- 
nized among the Rajputs. Infanticide does not exist. 

Local dialects of Rajasthanl and Hindi are spoken by the people in 
the following numbers, according to the census returns of 1901 : 
Ajmeri, 148,644; Hindi, 89,951; Marwari, 94,178; Merwarl, 82,480; 
Mewari, 8,099 5 other vernaculars of the Province, 6,349 ; other languages, 
47,211. The local dialects are very rough and difficult to understand. 

The mercantile castes or Mahajans — the most prominent of whom 
are the Oswals, Agarwals, Maheshwaris, and SaraogTs — number 37,027. 
The majority are to be found in Ajmer. The Gujars come next (36,278). 
They are careless cultivators, and their principal occupation is cattle- 
grazing. The Rawats number 32,362, of whom no less than 30,88s live 
in Merwara. ' Mer ' is used as a generic term for the people of Merwara. 
including Rawats, Hindu Merats (Gorats), and Muhammadan Merits 
(Katats). Among Muhammadans, Shaikhs are the most numerous 
(31,972): the majority live in Ajmer, and follow various occupations. 

VOL. V. L 



Jats, who are first-rate cultivators, and own many of the best villages in 
Ajmer, are returned at 27,952. Brahmans number 25,896 : Pushkar is 
their principal stronghold. The Rajputs number 15,430. The Rathors 
are the most numerous (4,609); then the Chauhans (1,651). The 
istimrdrddrs, who are the native aristocracy of Ajmer, are all Rajputs. 
The labouring and menial classes — Balais, Regars, and Kumhars 
(potters) — form a considerable portion of the population. 

The people are generally industrious and well-behaved, but in years 
of famine the Mers in Merwara, and the Mums in Ajmer, occasionally 
return to their former predatory habits. The rural labouring population 
is very poor, and was somewhat demoralized after the natural calamities 
that occurred between 1891 and 1900. The inhabitants generally are 
of fine physical characteristics, and possess good powers of endurance. 

The following statement gives statistics by religions : — 



Muhammadans .... 

n , . .. \ Native 

Christians j Qthers _ _ _ 

Other religions . 












It will be seen that in 1901, 80 per cent, of the people were Hindus, 
15 per cent. Muhammadans, and 4 per cent. Jains. While the general 
population decreased by 12 per cent, as compared with 1891, the rate of 
decrease was 13 per cent, in the case of Hindus and 26 per cent, among 
Jains, but only 3 per cent, among Muhammadans, a fact which testifies 
to the superior vitality of the latter. Emigration in famine years and 
heavy mortality in the fever epidemics which followed, coupled with the 
fact that in Merwara a large proportion of the Jains belong to the priestly 
class, who subsist on the hospitality of others and are not welcomed in 
bad years, are the principal causes of the large decrease among Jains, who 
nevertheless include the most prosperous inhabitants of the Province. 
The principal Hindu sects are Vaishnavas, Saivas, and Saktas, the last 
being worshippers of the Saktis or female associates of the Hindu triad. 
The majority of the population of Merwara have returned themselves as 
Hindus, but their religion is of a very vague and undefined character. 
Among Muhammadans Shaikhs predominate, and Pathans number 
11,048. The Merat Katats and the Chltas profess Islam. They used 
to intermarry with their Hindu brethren, but this has now been dis- 

The Christian population has increased by r,o29 since 1891. The 
increase is attributed to conversions, and to natural growth among 
native Christians, who now number 2,362, compared with 1,209 m I ^9 I 


and 799 in i88r. The Church of England, tin- Roman Catholics, the 
Scottish United Free Church, and the American Methodists ha 
sion establishments, the principal and oldest being the Rajputana bran< h 
of the United Free Church Mission, which began work at Beawar in i860. 

Fifty-five per cent, of the population are supported by agriculture. 
The industrial population — 18 per cent. — is composed principally ol 
persons employed in the cotton and leather industries, and in the pro 
vision of food and drink. General labour other than agriculture supports 
1 1 per cent, of the population. Personal services, commerce, professions, 
government and independent occupations provide for numbers varying 
from 6 to i-8 per cent. The great famine of 1899-1900 had a m 
effect on several occupations, as herdsmen, tenants, cotton-weavers and 
dyers, cart-owners and drivers, and mendicants were compelled to take 
to other means of livelihood. 

The higher classes, with the exception of Rajputs and curtain 
Brahmans and Kayasths, are vegetarians. The number of meals varies 
from two a day for the people of all classes in towns to four among the 
agricultural classes. Their food consists chiefly of cakes (ckqpatis), 
made of wheat or coarse grains according to the social standing of the 
people, vegetables, pickles, and whey. 

The ordinary dress of a male Hindu of the higher classes consists of 
a turban, which is generally a piece of silk or cotton cloth 30 to 40 feet 
long and 6 inches broad, having at each end gold-thread work and 
coloured to suit the wearer, a shirt (kurta), a long coat (angarkha) 
reaching nearly to the ankles, a loin-cloth [dhoti) worn round the waist, 
and a scarf (dupatta). The kurta and angarkha are usually made of 
a fine-textured material, generally white, resembling fine muslin. Occa- 
sionally silk is used. The loin-cloth is a long sheet of a coarser 
material. The Rajput istimrdrdars are fond of wearing embroidered 
garments and multicoloured turbans, tied in narrow and picturesque 
folds. The dress of a Hindu woman of the upper classes consists of 
a bodice (kanchli), a sheet (orhni) as an upper garment, and a petticoat 
of chintz or coloured cloth. The clothes of the male agricultural and 
labouring classes comprise a turban (pagri), a coat (bakhtari) extending 
to the waist, a loin-cloth (dhoti), and a sheet (pacheora) made of coarse 
materials. Females wear a petticoat (ghdgrd), a garment resembling 
a rough bodice, and a sheet (orhni), all of coarse materials. The 
principal point of difference in dress between Hindus and Muham 
madans in rural areas is that Muhammadans, other than Merat Katats 
and Chitas, wear trousers (paijdmas) and not dhotis. Hindus wear their 
coats (bakhtaris) with the opening on the right side of the breast, while 
the Muhammadans have the opening on the left. In the towns a 
tendency to dress in European fashion, retaining the turban or a small 
round cap as a head-dress, is apparent. 

l 2 


In the towns the houses of the native bankers and traders, and in 
rural areas the residences of the leading istimrardars of Ajmer District, 
are substantial stone buildings with roofs of the same material, two or 
more storeys high, with one or more open courts and a balcony. The 
houses are built with little attention to sanitary rules. The village 
dwellings are small mud huts with tiled roofs. The entrance leads into 
a courtyard, around which are ranged the quarters of the family, accord- 
ing to its size and prosperity. Signs, with the name of a deity, are 
usually painted at the entrance for good luck. 

Gymnastic exercises and athletics, wrestling, sword and lance exercises, 
and kite-flying are the principal games in towns, apart from cricket, 
football, and hockey, which are confined to the students in educational 
establishments. Chess, cards, and a kind of draughts known as chopar 
are the indoor games. Singing, playing the fiddle (sitdr) and lute {/>ln), 
and drum-beating are the chief amusements, while what might be 
termed an opera, called the Rai-ka-tamasha, performed in the streets, is 
much appreciated by the people generally. In rural areas the grown- 
up people have no games or amusements. The games of village 
children are similar to those played in towns. 

The principal festivals are the Holi, Dewali, Dasahra, Gangor, 
and Tejaji-ka-Mela (the fair of Tejaji) among Hindus, and the 
Muharram and Urs Khwaja Sahib among Muhammadans. The HolT 
and the Dewali are the two great festivals, which are held all over the 
country, when the spring and autumn harvests are ripe. The Holi 
festival is attended with some local peculiarities of an interesting nature, 
an account of which will be found in the revised edition of the District 
Gazetteer. The Gangor festival, which is celebrated by Mahajans, 
begins a week after the Holi and lasts for twenty days. The festival is 
held in honour of the return of ParvatI, the wife of Siva, to her parents' 
home, where she was entertained and worshipped by her female friends. 
The Tejaji festival is confined to the Jats. Teja was a renowned J at 
hero, and in July or August a fair is held in his honour. The Jats, both 
men and women, keep awake the whole of the previous night and 
worship the deified hero, singing songs and bringing offerings of cooked 
rice, barley, and fruits. The sword-dance of the Indrakotls, in which 
ioo to 150 men armed with sharp swords take part, dancing and throw- 
ing their weapons about wildly, is an exciting spectacle at the Muharram. 
The Urs Khwaja Sahib is a fair held at the tomb of Muln-ud-din 
Chishti, at Ajmer, in the Muhammadan month of Rajab, and lasts 
six days. 

Personal nomenclature is very simple. Generally speaking the 
Hindu names are either borrowed from their gods or are given out of 
affection or fancy, e.g. Gulzari Lai ('flower like ruby'). The usual 
practice is to use only the individual appellation of the person referred 

AGRICUL Tl RE , ,,, 

to, without the father's or family name. Among the agricultural i 
the males usually possess one name only, which is an abbreviation of 
the name of a higher class ; for instance, a Brahman would call himself 
Birdhl Chand, a cultivator Birdha. Except in rare instances the lower 

classes never use the suffixes Ram, Lai, ("hand, and the like; while 
among them the name of the wife often corresponds with that of the 
husband, as Uda (husband), Udi (wife). Occasionally Muhammadan 
names are used by Hindus and Jains, apparently out of reveren< 
the Muhammadan saint whose tomb is at Ajmer. Some sections of 
Muhammadans who were originally Hindus still retain their Hindu 
family names. 

Owing to its configuration, and its position on the watershed of India, 
agricultural conditions in Ajmer-Merwara are precarious. The soil is 
generally shallow, and the rocky strata are near the . 

surface. The soil is composed of a natural mixture 
of one-third stiff yellow loam, and two-thirds sand consisting of dis 
integrated mica schist and felspar. Alluvial soil is found only in the 
beds of tanks, and clay is rare. Carbonate of lime is common in 
certain areas. The Pushkar valley contains deposits of rich soil. 

Ajmer is flat and Merwara hilly. The rainfall in both is uncertain, 
and its frequent failure makes the Province peculiarly liable to scarcity 
and famine. The ' dry-crop ' area, though extensive, is uncertain in 
out-turn and little considered. The success of the harvest depends in 
large measure upon artificial irrigation from the tanks and wells, with 
which the country is covered wherever the local conditions have made 
it possible. The chief cultivating castes are Gujars, Jats, Merats, 
Rajputs, and Rawats. Of these, the Jats are by far the best agri- 

The principal crops, in order of extent of area cultivated, arc maize, 
jowar (great Indian millet), barley, cotton, oilseeds, bajra (bulrush 
millet), and wheat. These occupied respectively 20, 18, 16, 10, 7, 6, 
and 3-5 per cent, of the average cultivated area during the ten years 
ending 1900. Cultivation of fibres, spices, and other subsidiary crops 
is very restricted. The poppy is grown in the Todgarh tahsll, and 
sugar-cane in the Pushkar valley. Fruit and vegetable production is 
confined to the neighbourhood of the principal towns. The average 
yield varies from 9 cwt. per acre in the case of sugar-cane, and 7 cwt 
in the case of maize and barley, on irrigated land, to somewhat less 
than 1 cwt. in the case of til (oilseed) on ' dry-crop ' land. 

The autumn crops are generally sown in July and reaped in October 
and November. The spring crops are sown in October and are reaped 
in March and April. Owing to the poverty of the soil and the 
exhaustion of irrigated lands, which are frequently cropped tun e within 
the year, heavy manuring is essential, and many cattle are kept tor this 


purpose. Ashes, house-sweepings, and vegetable manures are also used. 
Night-soil is in considerable demand in villages near towns. Crops are 
varied on a system based on the results of local experience. For 
example, a cotton-field is left fallow in the ensuing harvest, when it is 
sown with maize in the autumn, barley in the following spring, maize 
again in the next autumn, after which it is left fallow during the spring 
before cotton is again sown in the autumn. 

Increase and decrease of cultivation during recent years have, for the 
most part, been synchronous with good and bad seasons. The intro- 
duction of more stringent excise rules in 1901 has, however, restricted 
the area under poppy in the Todgarh tahsll. The cultivators endeavour 
to retain the best grain of the previous year for seed. Agricultural 
implements are of the usual primitive description. The Land Improve- 
ment Loans Act of 1883 and the Agriculturists' Loans Act of 1884 have, 
by making money available at a reasonable rate of interest, done much 
to mollify the effects of famine. They have relieved the strain resulting 
from the contraction of private credit ; and the cultivator has been 
enabled to dig new wells, repair old ones, and purchase seed and cattle 
for the resumption of agricultural operations. The amount of private 
debt is large, and has been roughly estimated at over 20 lakhs, almost 
entirely owing to the professional money-lending classes. Rates of 
interest vary from \ to 2 per cent, per month. 

There is no indigenous breed of cattle deserving special mention. 
Those in use belong to four stocks, the Rindi Khan, Dhaora, Marwari, 
and Kewari, of which the first gives the best milch cows, while the 
others are popular for field work. The average price of a bullock is 
Rs. 30, of a cow Rs. 25, of a buffalo Rs. 40, and of a cow or buffalo 
calf Rs. 15. It is proposed to station Government bulls in central 
villages to improve the breeds. Horse-breeding is very restricted ; the 
animals in general use are of the baggage-pony class, with an average 
price of Rs. 50. Sheep and goats are numerous everywhere, at an 
average price of Rs. 3. Grazing lands are fairly extensive, but a pre- 
carious rainfall spoils the Province as a pastoral area. An important 
horse and cattle fair is held annually at Pushkar : thousands of animals 
are brought from surrounding States, and prizes are given by the Go- 
vernment. The Superintendent, Civil Veterinary department, Sind, 
Baluchistan, and Rajputana, controls the operations of the department 
in the Province. 

The prevalent cattle diseases are cow-pox, foot-and-mouth disease, 
black-quarter, and tympanitis. 

Irrigation is extensive, entirely from artificial tanks and wells. The 
principal crops thus raised are maize, cotton, chillies, wheat, poppy, 
barley, and tobacco. The frequency of irrigation depends upon the 
crop, varying from fifteen to twenty waterings in the case of chillies to 


two or three for maize. The majority of the tanks are formed by wide 
embankments of earth and masonry, closing gorges in the hills. In the 
open parts of the Province the embankments run a considerable distance 
from one rising ground to another. Many important tanks were a!: 
in existence before British rule. Among them may be mentioned the 
Anasagar and Bisala tanks in Ajmer, and those at Balad, Dilwara, 
Jawaja, and Kalinjar in Merwara. In the khalsa areas (the lands 
directly under Government) the tank embankments at present number 
531, of which 377 are managed by the Public Works department, the 
remainder being in charge of the village communities or municipalities. 
There are 1,802 tanks in istimrari and jagir lands, which are managed 
as part of the estates. 

The irrigation revenue is levied under three systems : namely, 
according to the crop and area irrigated, by fixed acreage assessment, 
or by an intermediate method depending on standard rates and areas. 

The average annual receipts from water revenue during the ten years 
ending 1890 amounted to Rs. 58,000. In the next decade the average 
had, owing to bad seasons, fallen to Rs. 57,000. In 1900-1, Rs. 38,497 
was collected, while Rs. 49,511 was outstanding. In 1902-3 the collec- 
tions were Rs. 35,626, and the arrears Rs. 38,900. 

Between 1880 and 1890, 2-2 lakhs was spent on tanks under capital 
outlay. During the next decade the expenditure, owing to a large 
construction of works during famine, rose to n -8 lakhs. In 1900-r the 
expenditure was Rs. 1,23,863, and in 1902-3 Rs. 89,439. 

The price of a masonry well ranges from Rs. 200 to Rs. 700, according 
to its depth, diameter, and the nature of the soil. A well without 
masonry averages about Rs. 50. In 1901, so far as can be ascertained, 
the total number of wells in use in the Province {khalsa) was 13,655. 
From these, 28,033 acres were irrigated, paying an assessment to Govern- 
ment of Rs. 43,193. The average irrigated area per well was therefore 
2 acres, with an average water rate of Rs. 1-8-7 P er acre - 

The table on the next page gives general agricultural statistics 
for the decades ending 1890 and 1900, and for the two years 1 900-1 
and 1902-3. 

Rents are usually paid in kind, the landlord's share varying from one- 
quarter to one-half of the produce, according to the quality and capacity 

of the holding and the terms of the tenancy. On 

° ... , . c Rents, wages, 

certain crops rents are paid in cash, varying trom and pr i ceSt 

Rs. 2-8-0 to Rs. 8 per acre. In the case of poppy 

the rents are paid partly in cash and partly in kind, the former varying 

from Rs. 10 to Rs. 20 per acre. A former owner remaining on the land 

is allowed to pay one-third less than the usual rates. There is no 

tendency to replace produce rents by cash rents. 

The average daily wage of an unskilled labourer is 2 annas in rural, 



and between 2 and 4 annas in urban areas. Masons, blacksmiths, and 
carpenters get an average wage of 4 to 8 annas a day. The railway 
locomotive and carriage and wagon shops at Ajmer employ a large 
number of hands on wages rising to as high as Rs. 7-8-0 a day. 

Statistics of Agriculture and Irrigation for 
Ajmer-Merwara (Khalsa area only) 

In rural areas potters, blacksmiths, leather-workers, barbers, village 
menials who do watch and ward (chauklddrs), priests, drummers, and 
carpenters get grain allowances every half-year, according to a fixed 
scale. Wages in the rural areas have not been much affected by the 
price of food-grains, as they are to a large extent paid in kind. There 
has been no extension of the railway system since 1881, nor have factory 
and mining industries developed so as to affect wages. The wages of 
domestic servants in the towns have risen considerably of late years. 

The table on the next page shows the average price of the staple 
food-grains and of salt during the decades 1871-80, 1881-90, 1891- 
1900 (excluding the period of acute famine 1 899-1 900), and for the two 
years 1901 and 1903. 

From 1 87 1 to 1890 there was a series of prosperous years in which 
prices were easy. Since then the average price of the principal food- 
grains has risen. There was famine in 1891-2, while in 1896-7 prices 
were raised by the famine in the United Provinces and the Punjab, 


whence large imports of corn are received. A defi< t< nt rainfall in igor 
produced famine conditions in Merwara, and prices were consequently 
higher on the whole in that year than in the decade 1 891-1900. In t he- 
famine of 1899-1900, grain was always procurable in the most distant 
parts of the Province at a price that nowhere exceeded 7 seers |" 1 






(averagi I. 






Seei . 

per rupee. 

per rupee. 

per rupee. 

pet rupee. 

pel rupee 

Wheat . 


l 5 




Barley . 


2 3 




Jozvdr . 






Bajra . 






Maize . 




u ) 


Salt . 





' = 

Note. — A seer is about 2 lb. 

The material condition of the urban population is satisfactory. A 
middle-class clerk has a sufficient income to enable him to live with 
comfort in a town. If he is in the service of Government he has a 
pension to look forward to, and if in that of the Railway, his Provident 
Fund savings. He can afford to dress well, to diet himself liherally, 
and can generally give his sons an English education. The condition of 
the cultivators and landless labourers is less satisfactory. The former 
are generally in debt, and the latter live from hand to mouth. But even 
these have access to conveniences and luxuries that were unknown to 
their grandparents. In towns, matches and kerosene oil are in common 
use among all classes, while cheap cloth from the Lancashire or Bombay 
mills is purchasable in every substantial village. The cultivate , a . .1 
class, are still suffering from the effects of the recent famines. 

The forests in Ajmer-Merwara are of three classes: state fori 
which are taken up under the Forest Regulation (VII of 1874), covering 
an area of 142 square miles ; protected forests ; and 
village estate commons. The last two are insig- 
nificant, and are voluntarily placed under local conservancy by their 
proprietors. About 947 acres are appropriated for nurseries and plan 
tation operations. Generally speaking, the hills in Ajmer are denudi d 
of trees, the denudation having been effected before British 
The general supervision of the forests is in the hands of an officer of the 
Provincial Forest service, who is under the control of the Commissioner 
of Ajmer-Merwara and of the Assistant Commissioners. 

The forest produce consists of grass and fuel. The villagers from 
whom the land was acquired are allowed to take as much grass as they 
require and fuel in certain quantities free of charge. They are also 
entitled to free grazing to a limited extent. The supply of fuel and 



fodder is sufficient for local needs. In times of famine the forests are 
thrown open for grazing and for the removal of dry wood for fuel at 
nominal rates. Forest fires occur occasionally in the hot season. The 
forest receipts in 1902-3 amounted to about Rs. 11,000, and the 
expenditure to Rs. 15,500. If the fodder, fuel, and timber which were 
given free had been sold, there would have been a surplus. 

The hills in Ajmer-Merwara are highly mineralized. Prior to and in 
the early days of British occupation, lead-mines were worked in the 

Taragarh hill, and copper and iron mines in a range a 
Mines and ^ t th th f A j mer The copper an( j j ron 

minerals. J r f 

mines did not pay the expenses of working ; and the 

lead-mines, which were of importance in the troublous times preceding 
annexation, were closed in 1846 as they could not compete with 
imported pig-lead. 

Since 1899 some progress has been made in developing mining 
industries. Asbestos and mica have been found both in Ajmer and in 
Merwara, and garnets in Ajmer. Stone products abound, and stone is 
largely used for purposes for which wood is employed elsewhere in India. 
The roofs of houses, for instance, are commonly made of slabs of stone. 
Marbles of various colours are quarried in the vicinity of Ajmer. 

Ajmer is not remarkable for arts and manufactures, while Merwara is 
altogether devoid of them. The principal hand industry is the weaving 
of cloth, and there is some cotton printing and dyeing, 
r san Bracelets of ivory and lac, of a style similar to those 

of Delhi but of inferior workmanship, are manu- 
factured. The turners of Ajmer make combs and rosaries of sandal- 
wood, which are purchased in large numbers by pilgrims to the Dargah 
of Muin-ud-din Chishti. There is nothing noteworthy about the 
jewellery. Carpets and rugs of handsome design are manufactured in 
the Ajmer jail. Iron, brass, and copper work, and pottery are produced 
only to a small extent. 

The Krishna Cotton Mill at Beawar, the only factory in the Province, 
was started in 1891. It is worked by a joint stock company, and has 
made fair progress. In 1903 the number of spindles was 12,312, and of 
looms 369, while the number of hands employed was 708. The out- 
turn was 827,000 lb. of cloth and 1,400,000 lb. of yarn, valued at 
Rs. 8,12,000. The produce is mostly exported to Agra and Cawnpore. 
There are hydraulic cotton-presses at Beawar, Kekri, and Nasirabad, and 
a ginning factory at Kekri, which are all paying concerns. The Census 
of 1 90 1 shows that 13,908 persons were supported by the cotton 

As early as 16 14 an agency was established at Ajmer, on behalf of 
the East India Company, by Mr. Edwards of the Surat Factory. For 
many years Ajmer formed the natural mart for the interchange of 

COM Ml XrCA TIOXS , s - 

Rajputana produce with European goods or wares from Northern 

India on the one side and Surat on the other; but the dimensions 

of the trade are not known. In modern times the 

trade of Ajmer, which had declined, has revived with Commerce 

the opening of the railway, and the major portion 

of the trade is now rail-borne. There is, however, a certain amount of 

transport by camels and bullocks into Marwar on the north, and south 

to Deoli and to the States beyond, while Merwara District is supplied 

with grain by cart traffic from Beawar. Ajmer, Beawar, and Naslrabad 

are the chief trade centres. 

The trade of Ajmer-Merwara is mainly under imports, the principal 
of these being grain and pulses. Next come sugar and jaggery, and 
then salt, metals, seeds, and piece-goods. The grain is brought chiefly 
from the United Provinces and the Punjab, and the former supplies 
most of the sugar and jaggery also. The salt comes from Pachbhadra 
in Marwar, and from Sambhar ; metals, seeds, and piece-goods from 
the surrounding States, and from Calcutta and Bombay. The principal 
export is cotton, for which Beawar is the great local mart, and which 
goes principally to Bombay. There is some export of grain and pulses 
to surrounding States, and a little wool is sent to Karachi. 

The Rajputana-Malwa main line (Ahmadabad-Delhi) passes through 

Ajmer and the north of Merwara from west to east for a length of 

<q miles, and the Aimer-Khandwa branch runs „ 
, . ' . _. . J , , . . . . r Communications, 

through Ajmer District due south of Ajmer city for 

41 miles. The main line was opened in 1879, the Khandwa branch 
in 1 88 1 ; and since 1885 both lines have been worked by the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway Company. Ajmer city is 275 miles 
from Delhi, which is the terminus of the main line on the north, and 
305 miles from Ahmadabad, the southern terminus. The opening of 
the railway has greatly benefited the Province, and the population of 
the towns of Ajmer, Beawar, and Naslrabad has increased steadily 
since 1881. Large locomotive and carriage and wagon shops have 
been established at Ajmer. A projected line from Baran to Marwar 
Junction will pass through Merwara District at Pipli. The earthwork 
of this section was constructed in 1900. In the same year the earth- 
work of a projected line from Naslrabad to Deoli was undertaken, as 
far as a point 55 miles south of Ajmer city. 

The total length of metalled roads in 1903 was 250 miles, and of 
unmetalled roads 274 miles. The principal metalled roads are the 
Ajmer- Deoli (71 miles), the Ajmer- Agra-Ahmadabad (74 miles), and 
the Naslrabad-Nimach (28 miles). Before 1868 the only metalled 
roads were from Naslrabad to Ajmer (14 miles), and a small stretch 
(7 miles) of the road from Ajmer to Agra. The famine of 1868-9 
gave a great impetus to road-making, and all the principal roads in 


Ajmer were made between that date and 1875. In Merwara, which 
had no adequate means of communication before 1869, a tolerable 
road was made during that year from Beawar to Todgarh, and others 
were constructed over the Sheopura and Pakheriawas passes into 
Mewar. All these are now metalled and in good order. Many roads 
were made during the famines of 1890-2 and 1898-1900, especially in 
Merwara. Owing, however, to want of funds to maintain them, some 
have already fallen into disrepair. 

The country carts are similar to those in other parts of Rajputana, 
and somewhat smaller than those usually used in the United Provinces. 
Springed and tired conveyances are little used outside the towns. 

Ajmer-Merwara lies in the Rajputana Postal circle, which is con- 
trolled by a Deputy-Postmaster-General, whose head-quarters are at 
Ajmer city. In 1904 the Province contained 39 Imperial and 11 
District post offices. 

The Province is peculiarly exposed to drought and famine. It lies 
in the 'arid zone,' and, when the rains fail, is exposed to a treble 
. famine, called trikal—oi grass, grain, and water. 

The monsoon frequently commences late, but it is 
not a delayed advent but a premature withdrawal which is to be 
dreaded. The majority of the population depend on the autumn 
harvest for their food-supply. 

The first recorded famine was that of the year 1661, and others 
occurred in 1746 and 1789, the last being of dire intensity. In 181 2 
there was another terrible famine which is said to have lasted five 
years. Ajmer bore traces of this visitation at the beginning of British 
rule. There was severe scarcity in 1819, 1824, 1832-3, and 1848. 

The next notable visitation was in 1868-9. F° r some years previous 
to 1868 the harvests had been irregular and poor. Jaipur and Jodhpur 
were also afflicted, while Gujarat and the Province of Agra suffered 
from scarcity. Local supplies failed and transport was not to be had. 
Emigration commenced in August, 1868, and relief works were opened 
in November. The rains of 1869 were late in breaking and were 
deficient. Locusts appeared and destroyed what crop there was. The 
distress became terrible and the price of grain reached 3-| seers per 
rupee. As a result of this visitation, one-fourth of the population and 
one-third of the cattle were lost. The Government expended 15 lakhs 
on relief, of which Rs. 2,30,000 was distributed gratuitously. An 
invasion of immigrants from surrounding Native States was one of the 
features of this famine. 

From 1869 to 1888 there was a series of prosperous years. In 1888 
and 1889, however, the seasons were irregular, and in 1890 the rains 
ceased prematurely. Relief works were opened in Merwara in October, 
1890, and in Ajmer in January, 1891. Up to July, 1891, the situation 


was not acute; but the rains failed that year also, and from September, 
when there were grain riots in parts of Ajmer District, tl 
deepened month by month until June, 1892, when the daily numbei ol 
persons in receipt of relief was 22,732, or 5 per cent, of the population. 
In Merwara the corresponding figure in July of the same yeai 
14,406, or 12 per cent. 'The works were closed in October, 
when copious rains had fallen. An epidemic outbreak of fever followed 
this famine and caused great mortality. The Government spent ovei 
21 lakhs on relief. 

In 1899, after four indifferent seasons, the rains again faile 
completely. Ajmer received only 8 inches and Merwara 5. famine 
commenced in Merwara in November, 1898, and by September, 1 
it had become general. Relief measures were commenced in Ajmer in 
September. Month by month the pressure increased; and in June, 
1900, 68,728 persons, or 16 per cent, of the population, were receiving 
relief in Ajmer. In Merwara the pressure, which had commen< 1 d 
earlier, was yet more severe. At one time 72 per cent, of the entire 
population were in receipt of Government relief, and the percentage 
remained at over 70 for a considerable period. A large invasion ol 
immigrants from the stricken States adjoining occurred, while emigra- 
tion from Ajmer-Merwara itself was very much restricted. Public 
order was, however, well maintained. The mortality among the cattle 
was enormous, and, as in 1891, water had to be brought into Ajmei 
city from Buddha Pushkar, a lake 7 miles away. A terrible fever 
epidemic swept over the Province in the autumn of 1900, causing the 
death of 44,000 persons. In 1900 a death-rate of 150 per 1,000 was 
reached in Merwara, and of 112 in Ajmer. These figures include, 
however, the deaths of numerous foreign immigrants. Infant mortality, 
as has been noted above, was especially high. The total outlay in this 
famine was 47-6 lakhs, of which 4-5 lakhs was given as advances under 
the Agriculturists' Loans Acts and 4-8 lakhs in the shape of remission 
and suspension of revenue. 

In 1902 famine again appeared in Merwara and just touched Ajmer. 
The highest number on relief of all kinds in the former District was 
30,400, or 35 per cent, of the total rural population, in August, 1902. 
In Ajmer the figures never went above 860. A small poorhouse was 
opened for six weeks, principally for beggars from surrounding Native- 
States. The visitation did not compare with the 1898-1900 famine in 
intensity, or as regards difficulties of administration and physical 
deterioration. The total amount of money spent in relief up to the end 
of September, 1902, was 2-3 lakhs, while advances and suspensions 
came to 2-7 lakhs. 

The Province is administered by a Commissioner, whose head 
quarters are at Ajmer city. In addition to ordinary administrative s 




revenue functions, he has the powers of a Civil and Sessions Judge, 
and has the control of Police, Forests, Jails, and Education. Each of 
the two Districts is in charge of an Assistant Com- 
missioner and District Magistrate, whose head-quarters 
are at Ajmer and Beawar respectively. The Agent to the Governor- 
General for Rajputana is ex-officio Chief Commissioner of the Province, 
and performs the functions of a chief revenue authority, being also the 
highest court of appeal, both civil and criminal. For purposes of 
administration the Province is subdivided into 3 tahst/s — Ajmer, 
Beawar, and Todgarh, the two latter being in Merwara — and 18 police 
stations, 13 in Ajmer and 5 in Merwara. The Todgarh tahsil com- 
memorates the name of Tod, well-known as the historian of Rajputana, 
who was connected with the early administration of that portion of 
Merwara. The Province is specially legislated for, when necessary, by 
Regulations passed by the Governor-General in Executive Council. 

The tables below give criminal and civil statistics 
for the decades ending 1890 and 1900, and for the 
two years 1901 and 1903 : — 

and justice. 

Criminal Justice 




for ten 

for ten 

tage of 



1 901. 





tions in 




Number of persons tried — 

(a) For offences against per- 

son and property . 

5>5 2 ° 





(b) For other offences against 

the Indian Penal Code . 






[c] For offences against Spe- 

cial and Local laws 


2,7 8 3 










Note. — Persons bound over to keep the peace and otherwise dealt with under the discretionary 
sections of the Criminal Procedure Code have been included. 

Civil Justice 


for ten 





for ten 






Suits for money and movable 
property .... 
Title and other suits 
Rent suits .... 














The increase of offences against the Penal Code in 190;, a 1 ompared 
with 1901 is due to agricultural distress, caused by an irregular rainfall, 
which in some parts of the Province prevented weeding and otherwise 
damaged the autumn harvest, and was followed by the depredations of 
swarms of locusts. The decrease of offences against Special and I 
laws is due to a more lenient application of the sections in the Police 
Act directed against obstruction to traffic in towns. The figures ui 
civil justice rise and fall with economic prosperity or distress. 

During the decade ending 1890, 1,360 documents were registered. 
The figures rose to 1,681 in the next ten years, and to 2,511 in 1901, 
falling to 1,540 in 1903, owing to a decrease in transfers of immovable 
property by sale and mortgage. 

The finances of this small Province are administered directly by the 

Government of India, and there are therefore only two classes of 

revenue, Imperial and Local. Under the former, the „. 

. , r , , Finance, 

principal sources of income are land revenue, 

opium, stamps, and excise : the salt consumed in the Province 

comes, as already stated, from Sambhar and Pachbhadra, and pays 

revenue there. 

The following statement shows the total Imperial receipts and the 

expenditure within the Province for the decades ending 1890 and 1900, 

and for the two years 1 900-1 and 1902-3 : — 

Receipts. Expenditure. 

Average for ten years ending 1890 . . 9.6 lakhs. 5-0 lakhs. 
,, ,, „ 1900 . . io-i ,, 9-9 ,, 

Year 1900-1 8-o ,, 13-0 ,, 

,, 1902-3 IO '4 >> 95 » 

The abnormal excess of charges over receipts in 1 900-1 was due 
principally to expenditure and remissions in connexion with the great 

Local receipts in 1902-3 amounted to 4-1 lakhs, of which 2-5 
belonged to municipal funds. 

The soil of Ajmer is held on tenures analogous to those which 
prevail in the adjacent Native States of Rajputana. These may be- 
broadly divided into two classes : khalsa or crown 

3 . . Land revenue, 

domain, and istimrari or land originally held by 

feudal chiefs under obligation of military service. Khalsa land might, 
however, be alienated by the crown to endow religious institutions, or 
mjag'ir as a reward of service to an individual and his heirs. Through- 
out Rajputana, the State in its khalsa territory retains the actual pro- 
prietary rights, standing in the same relation to the cultivators as the 
feudal chiefs stand to the tenants on their estates. Injdgfr lands these 
rights are transferred to the jagirdar. But immemorial custom in the 
khalsa of Ajmer allowed a cultivator who effected permanent improve- 
ment, such as sinking wells or constructing embankments, to acquire 


certain privileges in the land so improved. Such a cultivator was 
protected from ejectment by prescriptive law so long as he paid the 
customary share of the produce. He might sell, mortgage, or give 
away the well or embankment, together with the hereditary privileges it 
conveyed, and thus practically enjoyed proprietary rights. Unirrigated 
land being of little value in Ajmer, the State gradually became restricted 
in its proprietorship to the waste or grazing land; and since 1849 the 
British Government has abandoned its claim to the ownership, and 
transformed the khdlsa villages into communities owning the surround- 
ing soil in common. 

The istimrari estates were originally only j'dgfrs, held under obligation 
of military service. The Marathas, however, who found it impolitic to 
encourage the warlike tendencies of their Rajput vassals, commuted 
this obligation for a fixed tribute. The istimrari chieftains, accordingly, 
acquired the habit of regarding themselves as holders at a fixed and 
permanent quit-rent ; and although during the earlier period of British 
rule extra cesses were levied from time to time, in 1841 the Government 
remitted all such collections for the future. In 1873 sanads were 
granted to the various istimrarddrs, declaring their existing assessments 
to be fixed in perpetuity. There is, however, a special due (nazardna) 
on successions, its amount being stipulated separately in each sanad. 
There are altogether 66 istimrari estates in Ajmer District. The 
istimrarddrs are divided into tdzimi and non-tdztmi, the former being 
the native aristocracy of the Province and the latter persons of less 
consideration. The tdzimi istimrarddrs number 15, in the following 
order of precedence: (1) Bhinai, (2) Sawar, (3) Masuda, (4) Plsangan, 
(5) Junia, (6) Deolia, (7) Kharwa, (8) Bandanwara, (9) Mehrun, (10) 
Para, (n) Deogaon-Baghera, (12) Gobindgarh, (13) Tantuti, (14) Barli, 
and (15) Bagsuri. A full account of their genealogies is given in La 
Touche's Settlement Report, 1875. 

The tenure known as bhum next demands attention. It is peculiar 
to Rajputs. The word itself means ' land,' and bhumid signifies the 
allodial proprietor. The tenure consists essentially in a hereditary, 
non-resumable, and inalienable property in the soil. The title of 
bhumid is so cherished that the greatest chiefs are solicitous to obtain 
it, even in villages entirely dependent on their authority as well as in 
those outside their territorial jurisdiction. The Maharaja of Kishan- 
garh, the Thakur of Fatehgarh in Kishangarh, the Thakur of Junia, the 
Thakur of Bandanwara, and the Thakur of Tantuti are among the 
bhumids of Ajmer. The duties of bhumids were originally threefold : 
to protect the village in which the bhum is, and the village cattle, from 
robbers ; to protect the property of travellers within the village from 
theft and robbery; and to compensate sufferers from a crime which 
should have been prevented. This rude device for the protection of 


property, handed down from an earlier and a weakei government \\ 
now, practically speaking, obsolete, and the bhumias have become an 
armed militia liable to be called out for the suppression of riots or 
rebellion. There are in Ajmer 109 bhum holdings. Except in cases 
where a Raja or istimrardar is also a bhumia, the property passes to all 
the children equally. 

In Merwara, where no settled government existed before the British 
occupation, and the people found plunder more congenial than agri- 
culture, no revenue was ordinarily paid, and accordingly no special 
tenures grew up. At its first land settlement, therefore, the British 
Government acted as landlord, gave leases, built tanks, and collected 
one-third of the produce as revenue. At the settlement of 1851, 
however, all cultivators were recorded as proprietors. 

There are no figures available to show what revenue Ajmer paid to 
the Mughal emperors. The Marathas never collected more than about 
3§ lakhs, of which Rs. 31,000 represented customs. Their system was 
to exact all that they could under land revenue, which they called aen^ 
and under various cesses. The actual collections from the khalsa area in 
the year before Ajmer was ceded to the British amounted to Rs. 1,15,000. 

When Mr. Wilder took over charge of Ajmer in 1818, he found 'the 
city almost deserted and the people, though peaceable and industrious, 
sadly thinned by oppression.' He proposed to take half the estimated 
value of the crops as revenue, and the collections from khalsa areas 
during the first year of his administration amounted to Rs. 1,60,000. 
Between 181 8 and 1841 there were successive readjustments of the 
revenue demand. Mr. Wilder had made the mistake of over-estimating 
the resources of the District, and the baneful effects of this error 
extended over many years. This, added to several years of distress, 
particularly between 1837-41, reduced the District to a state of 
abject poverty. 

The first regular settlement of Ajmer-Merwara was made by 
Colonel Dixon between 1849 and 1851, and the system of collection 
adopted made it practically ryotwari. The collections were based on 
two-fifths of the produce in Ajmer and one-third in Merwara. The 
settlement was sanctioned for twenty-one years. The people accepted 
it with reluctance, and the Lieutenant-Governor of the North-Western 
Provinces, under whom the Province then was, also appeared to think 
that the revenue demand would press heavily on the people. Dixon 
had himself described the settlement in the following words : — 

' If the season be moderately favourable and the talaos (tanks) be 
replenished, the rents will be paid with ease and cheerfulness by the 
people. If drought ensues, we have been prepared to make such 
a remission that distress in paying the revenue shall not reach the 

vol. v. m 


For several years after the settlement seasons were favourable and 
remissions were small. With Colonel Dixon's death in 1857 the principle 
of his settlement was lost sight of, and remissions were granted only 
when coercive measures had shown that collection was impossible. 

Between 1872 and 1874 a resettlement of the Province was carried 
out by Mr. (now Sir James) La Touche. Various improvements were 
introduced in the methods of conducting the work, and the principles 
for fixing the assessment were clearly indicated in the instructions from 
Government. The assessment at a uniform rate of villages whose 
characteristics were very different was to be avoided. Fair rates for 
different kinds of soil were worked out to form the basis of the assess- 
ment. Specially bad seasons were to be dealt with by the application of 
extraordinary remedies. Water revenue was to be assessed separately. 
The land revenue demand under this settlement was Rs. 2,78,000. The 
assessment resulted in a reduction of 14 per cent, on Colonel Dixon's 
assessment of Ajmer, and of 25 per cent, on that of Merwara, and was 
equal to about one-sixth of the gross produce. The settlement was 
sanctioned for ten years, and under it the Province made substantial 

Between 1884 and 1887 the Province was again settled, for a period 
of twenty years, by Mr. Whiteway. His settlement was carried out on 
the same principles as the previous one, the chief innovation being the 
division of the Province into fluctuating and non-fluctuating areas, the 
assessment of the former being based on actual cultivation. The settle- 
ment resulted in a total demand of Rs. 2,99,000, the incidence being 
R. 0-10-4 per head of population. The revenue is collected through 
selected headmen, who are allowed 5 per cent, on the collection, and 
is, practically, a modified form of the mauzawar system. During the 
famines of 1890-2 and 1899-1900 large amounts were suspended and 
remitted. In 1895 special rules were introduced for the regulation of 
suspensions and remissions, which enable these to be made promptly on 
the occurrence of famine or scarcity. 

The opium revenue is obtained from the duty on opium exported to 

China, Ajmer city containing a Government depot for the receipt and 

weighment of opium from the adjoining Native States. 
Miscellaneous -. ., ,. ., 

revenue During the ten years ending 1890 the average area 

under poppy in the khalsa area of the Province was 

2,683 acres. In the next decade the average fell to 1,351 acres, and in 

1902-3 only 852 acres were so cultivated, the decrease being partly due 

to the more stringent measures for prevention of smuggling. During 

the same periods the average number of chests exported was i8r, 463, 

and 466 respectively. The Imperial opium receipts during the decade 

ending 1890 averaged i-i lakhs per annum. During the next ten years 

they averaged 1 lakh, and amounted to 1-31 lakhs in 1902-3. 


The arrangements for the control of the spirit traffi< r< embli 
District monopoly system of Bombay. A lease is granted to a contra* tor 
who must use a central distillery near Ajmer city. A still head duty is 
levied upon the liquor when it is removed to the main dep6t, from 
which the various depots and District shops are supplied. The duty is 
Rs. 2-4, Rs. 2-0, Rs. 1-4 per gallon, according as the liquor is 15 , 25°, 
or 50 under proof. The 15 tazlmi istimrardars of Ajmer an 
to maintain private stills solely for their own consumption. The receipt 
from liquors during the ten years ending 1890 averaged Rs. 93,000, and 
during the next decade Rs. 94,000. In 1 900-1 and 1902-3 they wire 
Rs. 75,000 and Rs. 77,000 respectively. 

Receipts from the local consumption of opium, and from hemp drugs, 
amounted in 1902-3 to only Rs. 32,55 1. Opium is taxed by vend fees. 
A quantitative duty of Rs. 4 per seer (2 lb.) is also levied on opium 
imported from Malwa, and a similar duty has been imposed on locally 
produced opium, with effect from April, 1905. The cultivation of the 
hemp plant is absolutely prohibited in the Province, and only licensed 
vend contractors are allowed to import hemp drugs on payment of duty. 
The principal source of hemp drug revenue is charas, the duty on which 
has recently been raised to Rs. 6 per seer (2 lb.). Taking all heads 
together, the incidence of Excise revenue per head of population in 
1902-3 was 4 annas. 

The material condition of the people is the chief factor in determining 
the consumption of excisable articles. English education and the 
general spread of modern ideas are leading, especially in the towns, to 
an increased demand for imported and European spirits. The duty 
paid on the latter rose from Rs. 2,168 in 1886-7 to Rs. 10,974 in 
1895-7, but fell to Rs. 9,426 in 1902-3. 

Between 1880 and 1890 the annual Stamp receipts averaged 
Rs. 1,14,000 from non-judicial, and Rs. 86,000 from judicial, stamps. 
During the next decade the former had fallen to Rs. 1,10,000, while the 
latter had risen to Rs. 90,000. In 1902-3 the figures were Rs. S6,ooo 
and Rs. 45,000 respectively, the decrease being due to agricultural 
distress. The annual receipts under income tax from 1886 to 1902 
averaged Rs. 78,000. 

There is one District board for the Province, consisting of 9 nomi- 
nated and 16 elected members. The 15 tazlmi istimrardars of Ajmer 

are also ex-officio members, and the Assistant Com- 

Locfl And 
missioner of Ajmer is the chairman. The board came municipal. 

into existence in December, 1888. Its principal 

functions are the maintenance of District roads, the management of 

schools, dispensaries, and similar establishments, roadside arboriculture, 

and the control of fairs. In times of scarcity the board has occasionally 

extended its ordinary works with a view to relieving local distn ss. The 



normal income of the board is about Rs. 36,000, of which 61 per cent, 
is derived from land cess and from education receipts. The chief items 
of expenditure are public works, education, and medical relief. 

There are three municipalities — Ajmer, Beawar, and Kekri. The 
first was established in 1869, the second in 1867, and the third in 1879. 
In all, the principal source of income is from octroi. The incidence of 
taxation is Rs. 1-0-9 per head of population in Ajmer, Rs. 1-3-0 in 
Beawar, and Rs. 1-6-4 m Kekri. The elective system came into force 
in 1884, and elections are held triennially. The Ajmer municipal com- 
mittee consists of 5 nominated and 17 elected members, the correspond- 
ing figures for Beawar being 5 and 1 5. In Kekri there are 8 members, 
all nominated. Most of the members are non-official natives ; the 
Ajmer municipality alone has a certain number of European members. 
The following table shows the details of income and expenditure 
of the three municipalities for the decade ending 1900, and for the two 
years 1900-1 and 1902-3 : — 

Income and Expenditure of Municipalities 


Octroi . 
Rents . 
Loans . 
Other sources 


Administration and collection of 

taxes .... 
Public safety . 
Water supply and drainage : 

(a) Capital 

(b) Maintenance 
Conservancy . 
Hospitals and dispensaries 
Public works 

Other heads . 


Average for 

ten years 
ending 1900. 




59, 6 o7 

2 ,54,924 











9 ',7 25 



1 1,966 


2,5 I >3io 




2 7,879 



1 4,556 


Ajmer-Merwara forms a single Public Works division in charge of an 
Executive Engineer, who is under the Superintending Engineer at Mount 

Abu and is assisted by three subdivisional officers. 

All the roads and many of the irrigation tanks have 
been constructed by the Public Works department, which is in charge 
of the District board and municipal roads, as well as of the Imperial. 

Public works. 


The total strength of the British and Native arm) stationed within the 
Province on June r, 1903, was as follows: British, 
789; Native, 1,726; total, 2,515 officers and nun. 

Ajmer-Merwara lies within the Mhow division of the Western G 
mand. The military stations in 1904 were Ajmer, 1 leoli, and Na 
Ajmer is also the head-quarters of the old Merwara Battalion, now the 
44th Merwara Infantry. This corps was raised in June, 1822, by 
Captain Hall, for service in Merwara; and its duties were to maintain 
order, to keep open the passes leading through the hills, and to suppr< 
dacoity and cattle-lifting. In 1839 the battalion was, for the first time, 
brigaded with regular troops and formed part of the Marwar Field 
Force, in which it acquitted itself well. In May, 1857, when most of 
the native troops at Naslrabad mutinied, the grenadier company of the 
Merwara Battalion made a forced march from Beawar to Ajmer, a 
distance of 37 miles, and took over charge of the treasury and arsenal 
from the 15th Bengal Infantry, then on the verge of joining the rebels. 
This prompt and loyal action undoubtedly saved Ajmer city. In [858 
a second battalion, called the Mhair Regiment, was raised. Both 
battalions saw service in Central India between 1857 and 1 S59, and in 
1861 they were amalgamated into one corps entitled the Mhair Military 
Police Battalion. The regiment continued as a military police force 
until 187 1, when it was again brought on the military establishment. 
In 1870 its head-quarters, which had till then been at Beawar, were 
transferred to Ajmer. The regiment, which saw service in the Afghan 
War of 1878-80, was in 1897 placed under the orders of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief and attached to the Bombay Command, having been 
prior to this under the orders of the Local Government. The 42nd 
Deoli Regiment, formerly the Deoli Irregular Force, is stationed at 
Deoli. It comprises a battalion of native infantry and a squadron oi 
native cavalry, and took the place of the old Kotah Contingent which 
mutinied in 1857. Ajmer city is likewise the head-quarters of the 2nd 
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway Volunteers, whose strength 
on June 1, 1903, was 344 officers and men. 

From the savings effected by the amalgamation of the two local 

battalions already described, a civil police force was organized which, 

from January 1, 1862, worked side by side with the mili- 

Police and 
tary police battalion. On the former devolved the work • j ls 

of suppressing, preventing, detecting, and prosecuting 

crime, and on the latter the guarding of treasuries, tahsilis, and jails, and 

the furnishing of guards and escorts. Treasury and tahsil guards, and 

escorts for treasure and prisoners proceeding to other Districts, arc still 

furnished by the 44th Merwara Infantry. In 1903 the strength of the 

regular police, which is under a District Superintendent, was 704 of all 

grades, giving one policeman to every 3-8 square miles and to ever) 



677 of the population. The cost of maintenance was Rs. 1,15,820, or 
3-9 annas per head of population. Of this the Government paid 
Rs. 88,662, while the balance was charged to the three municipalities 
and the Naslrabad cantonment, and to certain private individuals, such 
as the liquor contractor. The table below shows the results of cogniz- 
able crime cases dealt with by the police for the five years ending 1902, 
and for the year 1903. The five-year period includes the famine of 
1898-1900, when the crime incidence was very high. 

Average of 
five years kjo?. 
ending 1902. | 

Cases reported 

,, decided in the criminal courts . 
„ ending in acquittal or discharge . 
,, ,, conviction . 








Detection is fairly successful, notwithstanding the facilities criminals 
enjoy for hiding in the surrounding Native States. Finger impressions 
have resulted in the tracing of several previously convicted offenders. 
The organization of the rural police is backward. It consists of 
chaukidars paid by Government, those maintained by istimrarddrs and 
jaglrdars, and of village menials and messengers, who, for an annual 
contribution of grain, perform in a perfunctory way duties of watch and 
ward in the village and report crime and vital statistics. 

The Province possesses one Central jail, at Ajmer, with accommoda- 
tion for 432 prisoners ; and three lock-ups, at Ajmer, Naslrabad, and 
Beawar. The average daily population of the Central jail was 420 in 
1903, compared with 407 in 1891 and 429 in 1881. The jail mortality 
was 27 per 1,000 in 1891, 36 per 1,000 in 1901, and 7 per 1,000 in 
1903. Fever and pneumonia helped to swell the mortality in the earlier 
years. Carpets and rugs of excellent quality and good cotton darls are 
manufactured in the Central jail. 

The Commissioner is the local Director of Public Instruction, and he 
is assisted by the Principal of the Ajmer Government College, who 
is also Inspector of Schools, and by two Deputy- 
Inspectors. In the early days of British rule education 
was confined to the indigenous schools ; and beyond granting a monthly 
subsidy of Rs. 300 to a missionary, the Government apparently did 
nothing till, in 1836, a school was started in Ajmer, which was closed 
in 1843. In 1846-7 Mr. Thomason, the Lieutenant-Governor of the 
North-Western Provinces, visited Ajmer and gave the subject of 
elementary education his attention, and in 185 1 Colonel Dixon estab- 
lished 75 schools in Ajmer-Merwara. The people defrayed a large 
portion of the cost by means of a cess, which was very unpopular, and 



was withdrawn after Colonel Dixon's death. The Governmenl 
was reopened in 1851, and in 1868 it was rais.-d to the status ol a 
college. It is affiliated to the Allahabad University, has a boarding- 
house attached to it, and teaches up to the I'.. A. standard. 

In 1902-3 the Province obtained 23 passes in Matriculation (10 in 
the First Arts or Science examinations), and 8 Bachelor at the 

Allahabad University. Mission schools at Ajmer, Nasfrabad, and 
Beawar, and the Arya Samaj school and a Convent school at Ajmer, 
teach up to the matriculation standard. The length of college attendance 
necessary for the attainment of a degree (B.A.) is four years after passing 

In 1 881 Ajmer-Merwara possessed 9 public secondary schools with 
398 pupils. By 1902-3 the number of schools had risen to 14 with 
2,465 pupils, in addition to 19 advanced private schools with 450 pupils. 
The course of studies in public schools embraces instruction up to the 
matriculation standard in five schools, up to the vernacular final 
examination in five others, and up to the vernacular middle examination 
in the remaining four. English is taught in five schools, and is an 
alternative subject in the Kekri vernacular school. Government aid, 
which takes the form of a monthly grant, is given to four private- 
institutions. The attendance at secondary schools in 1902-3 comprised 
1'1 per cent, of the total male population of school-going age. 

Between 1881 and 1891 primary education progressed satisfactorily, 
and in the latter year 5,296 boys were under instruction in 47 public 
and 83 private schools. The famines of the next decade affected 
primary education, and in 1900-1 the attendance had fallen to 3.u<>4. 
In 1902-3, 4,718 boys were being taught in 50 public and 71 private 
institutions. English is taught in two schools. The general rate of pay 
of primary school teachers is Rs. 9 a month. No special arrangements 
have been made for the teaching of children of the agricultural cla 
In 1902-3 the proportion of boys at primary schools to the total number 
of school-going age was 12-5 per cent. 

Female education has made marked progress since 1881. In that 
year 77 girls were taught in public schools, and figures were not 
separately given for private institutions. The number of girls under 
instruction at public and private schools was 567 in 1891, and 1,840 in 
1903. Between 1891 and 1903 the percentage of girls attending school 
to the total of school-going age had risen from 1-5 to 5-4. This progress, 
coming after a decade of severe famine, indicates that the prejudice 
against female education is gradually disappearing. The United I 
Church of Scotland and the Women's Foreign Missionary Society have 
girls' schools and also undertake zanana teaching. 

There are four special schools in the Province, besides the Mayo 
Chiefs' College, for which see Ajmer City: namely, a training school 



for male teachers in primary and secondary schools at Ajmer ; a similar 
institution for teachers in village schools, maintained by the United 
Free Church of Scotland Mission ; and two industrial schools, main- 
tained by the same body, at Ashapura and Beawar, the latter of which 
is for girls. In 1902-3 there was an average daily attendance of 481 
at these special schools. 

European and Eurasian education is confined to the Railway and 
Roman Catholic Convent schools, both of which are aided secondary 
institutions. In 1902-3, 57 pupils attended the Railway and 88 the 
Convent school. 

In 1902-3 the percentage of Muhammadan males under instruction 
to the total of school-going age was 17-8, compared with 19 among 
Hindus. They are not, therefore, unduly backward in educating their 
boys, though as regards girls they are a long way behind. Many 
Muhammadans serve in various public departments, where the benefits 
of education are brought prominently before them. 

The general educational results show an improvement since 1881, 
notwithstanding the baneful effects on primary education of the famine 
of 1 898-1 900. In 1 90 1 the percentage of the total male population 
able to read and write was 12, as compared with 9-8 in 1881, the figures 
for females being o-8 and 0-4 respectively. 

The following table shows the expenditure on educational institutions 
in 1902-3, and the sources from which it was derived : — 














Arts college 





3 2 ,H9 

Training and 





Secondary boys 




4,°5 8 

6,33 1 


Primary boys' s 

ihools . 



J, 95i 



Girls' schools 









1 2,961 




Colonel Dixon, among other good works, had a dispensary constructed 
at Ajmer city in 1851, at a cost of Rs. 6,000, which was subscribed by 
the inhabitants. This building was used till 1895, 
when a larger General Hospital was built at a cost of 
Rs. 43,250, raised partly by subscriptions and partly by the sale of the 
old building. From subscriptions recently raised for a Queen Victoria 
Memorial, Rs. 40,000 has been set apart for improvements to this 
hospital. The extension of medical and vaccination work since 1881 


will be apparent from the table below. Vaccination npulsorv 

only in the municipal towns. 




Number of civil hospitals and dis- 

pensaries ..... 




Average daily number of — 

(a) In-patients .... 





(/') Out-patients .... 




Income from — 

(a) Government . . . Rs. 




6 59] 

(J>) Local and municipal funds Ks. 


1 ■).'>: 

2 ,475 


(V) Fees, endowments, and other 

sources .... Rs. 


2,79 6 



Expenditure on — 

(«) Establishment . . . Rs, 

4, J 97 


6 535 


{l>) Medicines, diet, buildings, &c. Rs. 






Population among whom vaccination 

was carried on .... 





Number of successful operations . 





Ratio of persons successfully vaccinated 

per i ,000 of population . 





Total expenditure on vaccination Ks. 





Cost per successful case (in annas) 





A trigonometrical survey of the Province was made in 1847-8, the 
District areas being given at 2,059 square miles for Ajmer and 902 lor 
Merwara. Between 1868 and 1875 a topographical 
survey was made, which resulted in the areas being 
adjusted to 2,069 and 641 square miles respectively. There was 
a cadastral survey between 1883 and 1886, but this extended only to 
portions of the two Districts. The patwdris did a considerable amount 
of survey work in the last settlement (1884-7), ar >d were pronounced to 
be very efficient by the Settlement officer. 

[Rdjputdna Gazetteer, vol. ii (1879).— C. C. Watson : District 
Gazetteer of Ajmer-Menvara (Ajmer, 1904). — Sir James La Touche : 
Settlement Report (1875). — Lieut.-Col. J. Tod: Annals and Antiquities of 
Rajasthan (1829-32) (frequently republished). — Lieut.-Col. C. J. 1 >ixon : 
Sketch of Mairwara (1850).— Sir George King: 'Flora of Raj pu tana' in 
The Indian Forester.— Col. Hendley : 'The Arts and Manufa< tures of 
Ajmer,' in vol. iii of the Journal of Indian Art. — Census Reports 0/ 
Ajmer-Menvara (1881, 1891, and 1901).— The Embassy of Sir Thomas 
Roe to the Court of the Great Mogul: ed. W. Foster (Hakluyt Society, 
1899).— Capt. T. D. Broughton : letters from a Mahratta Camp (new 
edition, 1892).— Akbar's pilgrimages to Ajmer are described in the 


Ajmer City. — A large and important city in Rajputana, and the 
administrative head-quarters of the small British Province of Ajmer- 
Merwara, situated in 26 27' N. and 74 37' E., 677 miles north of 
Bombay; 275 miles south of Delhi, 228 miles west of Agra, 305 miles 
north of Ahmadabad, and 393 miles north of Khandwa, the four 
principal termini of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. Population, (1872) 

Population 35' 111 ' ( l8Sl ) 48,735- ( l8 90 68,843, and (1901) 

73,839: namely, males, 39,467; females, 34,37 2 - 

Hindus numbered 43,622 in 1901 ; Muhammadans, 25,569 ; Jains, 

2,483; Christians, 1,871; Sikhs, 193; and Parsis, 101. The opening 

of the railway in 1879 brought with it a large influx of inhabitants, and 

since then the population has steadily increased. For the history of 

the city see Ajmer-Merwara. 

Ajmer lies at the foot of the Taragarh hill. It has some well-built 

open streets, contains many fine houses, and is surrounded by a stone 

_, . ,. wall, now in disrepair, with five gates. The ancient 

Description. . 

town stood in the Indrakot valley, through which 

the road leads to Taragarh. A small portion of the population, all 

Muhammadans, and known as Indrakotis, still reside at the entrance 

to the valley, immediately outside the Tirpolia Gate. The hill, on the 

summit of which the fort of Taragarh was built, towers in an imposing 

manner immediately above the city, commanding it at every point. It 

stands, with precipitous surroundings, at a height of 2,855 f eet above 

sea-level, and between 1,300 and 1,400 feet above the valley at its base; 

and it is partially enclosed by a wall some 20 feet thick and as many 

high, built of huge blocks of stone, cut and squared. The hill fort was 

dismantled in 1832, and since i860 has been used as a sanitarium for 

the European troops stationed at Nasirabad and Mhow. Within it 

stands the shrine of a Muhammadan saint, Saiyid Husain, known as the 

Ganj Shahldan (' treasury of martyrs '). 

Ajmer is rich in buildings of antiquarian interest. The most 

important is the mosque known as the Arhai-din-ka-Jhonpra, or ' two 

and a half days' shed.' This, originally a Hindu 

buildings college, established by the Chauhan king Visaldev, 

is said to have been converted into a mosque by 

order of Muhammad Ghori, the legend being that, as he passed the 

college, he ordered that it should be ready for him to pray in on his 

return in two and a half days. The pillars and roof of the college were 

permitted to remain, but the rest of the building was demolished and 

much of the carving on the pillars defaced. A facade of remarkable 

beauty was then erected, forming the front of the present mosque, which 

was surrounded by lofty cloisters, with a tower at each corner of the 

quadrangle. The cloisters have largely fallen in, and the surviving 

portion of the towers is very imperfect. The facade, however, and the 


mosque itself, are in good preservation, bavin- been i xtensively r< p 
during Lord Mayo's viceroyalty, while furthei r< storations w< 
out in 1900-2. The mosque is of about the same date as the Kutb 
Minar near Delhi. 

The embankment of the Anasagar lake supports the beautiful marble 
pavilions erected as pleasure-houses by Shah [ahan. ( )l the li\< 
original pavilions, four are still in good preservation ; of the fifth the 
remains are very scanty. The embankment, moreover, contains tin- 
site of the former hammam (bath-room), the floor of which still rem 
Three of the five pavilions were at one time formed into residen< 1 
British officials, while the embankment was covered with office build 
ings and enclosed by gardens. The houses and enclosures were finally 
removed in 1900-2, when the two south pavilions were re-erected, the 
marble parapet completed, and the embankment restored, as tar as 
practicable, to its early condition. 

The Dargah Khwaja Sahib, wherein is the tomb of the Muhammadan 
saint Muln-ud-dln Chishti, who died here about 1235, ' s another remark 
able building, and is an object of pilgrimage to Muhammadans from all 
parts of the country. The annual number of pilgrims is about 25,000. 
The shrine also contains a mosque by Akbar, another by Shah Jahan, 
and several more modern buildings. The gateway, though disfigured 
by modern colouring, is picturesque and old. The shrine contains 
the large drums and brass candlesticks taken by Akbar at the sack 
of Chitor. The saint's tomb, which was commenced in the reign of 
Shams-ud-din Altamsh and finished in that of Humayun, is richly 
adorned with gold and silver, but only Muhammadans are permitted to 
enter its precincts. A festival, called the Urs mela, which lasts six 
days, is held annually at the Dargah in the Muhammadan month of 
Rajab, at which the following peculiar custom is observed. There are 
two large cauldrons inside the Dargah, one twice the size of the other, 
known as the great and little deg. Pilgrims to the shrine propose t> 
a deg feast. The smallest sum for which rice, butter, sugar, almonds, 
raisins, and spices to fill the large deg can be bought is Rs. 1,000, 
while the donor has to pay about Rs. 200 more in presents to the 
officials of the shrine and in offerings at the tomb. The materials for 
the small deg cost half the sum required for the large one. Afl 
gigantic rice-pudding of this description has been cooked, it is scrambled 
for boiling hot. Eight earthen pots of the mixture are first set apart 
for the foreign pilgrims, and it is the hereditary privilege of tin people 
of Indrakot and of the menials of the Dargah to empty the cauldron ol 
the remainder of its contents. All the men who take part in the 
Mooting of the deg' are swathed up to the eyes in cloths to avoid the 
effect of the scalding mess. When the cauldron is nearly empty, the 
Indrakotis tumble in together and scrape it clean. There is no doubt 


that this custom is an ancient one, though no account of its origin can 
be given. It is counted among the miracles of the saint that no lives 
have ever been lost on these occasions, though burns are frequent. 
The cooked rice is bought by all classes, and most castes will eat it. 

The Ajmer fort was built by Akbar. It is a massive square building, 
with lofty octagonal bastions at each corner. The fort was used as the 
residence of the Mughal emperors during their visits to Ajmer, and was 
the head-quarters of the administration in their time and in that of the 
Marathas. The main entrance faces the city, and is lofty and imposing. 
It was here that the emperors appeared in state, and that, as recorded 
by Sir Thomas Roe, criminals were publicly executed. The ground 
surrounding the fort has been largely built over, and its striking appear- 
ance is thus considerably impaired. The interior was used as a 
magazine during the British occupation until 1857; and the central 
building, now used as a tahsil office, has been so much altered that its 
original shape and proportions are difficult to trace and restore. With 
the fort the outer city walls, of the same period, are connected. These 
surround the city and are pierced by the Delhi, Madar, Usri, Agra, and 
Tirpolia gates. The gates were at one time highly decorated, but the 
Delhi Gate alone retains any trace of its earlier ornaments. In the 
older city, lying in the valley beneath the Taragarh hill and now 
abandoned, the Nur-chashma, a garden-house used by the Mughals, 
still remains, as also a water-lift commenced by Maldeo Rathor, to 
raise water to the Taragarh citadel. The Daulat Bagh, or 'garden 
of splendour,' which was made by the emperor Jahangir in the seven- 
teenth century, stretches for some distance from the Anasagar embank- 
ment in the direction of the city. It contains many venerable trees, is 
maintained from municipal funds, and is a popular place of resort. 

Ajmer is an important railway centre, and the local emporium for 
the trade of the adjoining parts of Rajputana. The locomotive, carriage, 
and wagon shops of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway are 
industries established here, which employ about 7,000 hands, 
while the whole of the earnings of the railway are 
paid into the Ajmer treasury. Several Seth trading firms have their 
head-quarters at Ajmer, with branches throughout Rajputana, and also 
in Calcutta, Bombay, and other principal cities of India. They act 
chiefly as bankers and money-lenders, and transact considerable busi- 
ness with Native States. 

Ajmer has been a municipality since 1869. The municipal committee 

consists of twenty-two members, mostly natives. Its income in 1902-3 

. . . . .. was Rs. 1,83,000, or Rs. 2-8 per head of population, 

Administration. , . . , ' . v . . V 

the principal source of revenue being octroi. 

The city derives its water-supply from the Foy Sagar tank, some 

3 miles to the west of the city. It was built as a famine relief work in 


1891-2, the money being lent to the municipality by Government. The 
water is conveyed into the city and suburbs through pipes which an 
laid underground. The capacity of the tank is 150,000,000 < ubii 
and when it is full it holds, approximately, a two years' supply of wat< 1 
for the city, the civil station, and the railway workshops. When the 
water-level in the reservoir is below a certain depth, the water has to 
be pumped. 

The Mayo College and the Government Arts college are the principal 
educational institutions. The former was established at the suggi 
of Lord Mayo as a college where the sons of chiefs and nobles might 
receive an education to fit them for their high positions and important 
duties. The endowment fund, subscribed by seventeen of the Rajputana 
States, amounts to about 7 lakhs of rupees, and the interest on this sum, 
added to a Government subsidy, forms the income of the college. Some 
of the Native States have built boarding-houses, while the Government 
of India presented the college park, comprising 167 acres and formerly 
the site of the old Residency, and erected the main building, the 
residences of the principal and vice-principal, and the Ajmer boarding- 
house. It also provides the salaries of the English staff. The foun- 
dation-stone of the college was laid in 1878, and the building was 
opened by the Marquis of Dufferin in 1885. The main building is of 
white marble in the Hindu-Saracenic style. The Jaipur boarding-house 
stands apart, to the south of the main building, while the other nine 
boarding-houses are arranged in the form of a horseshoe, with the 
college in the centre of the base. A fine marble statue of Lord Mayo, 
by Noble, erected from funds subscribed by British and native residents 
in Rajputana, stands in front of the main building. The college is 
administered by a council, of which the Viceroy is president, and the 
Agent to the Governor-General for Rajputana vice-president. The 
chiefs of Rajputana and the Political officers accredited to them are 
members of the council, and the principal is secretary. The English 
staff was strengthened in 1903, and now consists of a principal, a vice- 
principal, and two assistant masters. The native staff has also been 
strengthened and improved. The college curriculum is not fettered by 
any prescribed code, but a course of studies is followed which experience 
has shown to be useful and practical. The total number of admissions 
from the opening of the college up to April 1, 1904, has been 359, of 
whom 88 are now on the rolls. The total includes several chiefs both 
in and out of Rajputana, whence the greater number of boys come. 

Ajmer possesses a Central jail, a large General Hospital, and two 
smaller hospitals. The United Free Church of Scotland, the ( 'hurch of 
England, the Roman Catholics, and the American Episcopal Metho 
have mission establishments here. It is likewise the head-quarters of a 
native regiment and of a Railway Volunteer corps. There are twelve 


printing presses in the city, from which eight weekly newspapers (mostly 
vernacular) issue, none of which, however, is of any importance. 

Ajmiriganj. — A large market in the Habiganj subdivision of Sylhet 
District, Assam, situated in 24 33' N. and 91 15' E., on the banks of 
the Surma river. Population (1901), 583. It is an important centre 
of trade, the chief exports being rice, dried fish, bamboos, and mats, and 
the imports, grain, oil, salt, tobacco, sugar, and piece-goods. Trade is 
carried on largely by country boats, though the village is a place of call 
for river steamers. 

Ajnala. — Tahsil of Amritsar District, Punjab, lying between 31 37' 
and 32 3' N. and 74 30' and 74 59' E., with an area of 417 square 
miles. It is bounded on the north-west by the Ravi, dividing it from 
Sialkot District. The Sakki, a sluggish perennial stream, which falls 
into the Ravi near the southern boundary, separates the alluvial low- 
lands from the upland plateau which occupies two-thirds of the area. 
The southern portion of the plateau is irrigated by the Bari Doab Canal 
and the northern by wells. Cultivation is less extensive than in the 
other tahslls, owing to the inferiority of the soil. The population in 
1901 was 209,869, compared with 224,836 in 1891. It contains 331 
villages, of which Ajnala is the head-quarters. The land revenue and 
cesses amounted in 1903-4 to Rs. 3,61,000. 

Ajodhya Estate. — A large talukdari estate situated in the Districts 
of Fyzabad, Gonda, Sultanpur, Bara Banki, and Lucknow, United 
Provinces, with an area of 762 square miles. The land revenue and 
cesses payable to Government amount to 5-9 lakhs, and the rent-roll is 
nearly n lakhs. The founder of the estate was Bakhtawar Singh, 
a Brahman, who entered the service of Nawab Saadat All Khan of Oudh 
as a trooper. He rose rapidly in favour, and Muhammad All Shah 
conferred on him the Mahdona estate in Fyzabad District with the title 
of Raja. Bakhtawar Singh became the first noble in the State, and was 
selected to accompany Sir William Sleeman on his tour through Oudh 
in 1849. His younger brother, Darshan Singh, also attained high rank. 
Darshan Singh died in 1844, leaving three sons, the youngest of whom, 
Man Singh or Hanuman Singh, was employed by the king of Oudh and 
rendered important services. In 1855 Bakhtawar Singh died childless 
and left his large property to Man Singh. In accordance with the 
general policy at the annexation of Oudh, Man Singh was deprived of 
almost the whole of his estates, and when the Mutiny broke out he was 
in confinement at Fyzabad. He was, however, released and requested 
to protect the European women and children, whom he received into 
his fort at Shahganj and escorted to the Gogra, where they embarked in 
safety. He then joined the rebel army before Lucknow, but withdrew 
in October on the arrival of Sir James Outram, and was subsequently 
instrumental in saving the lives of several European ladies, and gave 


valuable assistance in the pacification of the Province. Man Singh's 
estates were restored in 1858, and for his services he received the title 
of Maharaja and also the confiscated estate of the rebel Raja 
He became the most influential talukdar'xa Oudh, and rendered 
assistance in the settlement of the controversies about rights in land 
(see article on Oudh), for which he was appointed a K.CS.I. At his 
death in 1870 the estates were managed for a time under the Talukdars 
Relief Act. Man Singh was succeeded, after protracted litigation, by 
his grandson, Sir Pratap Narayan Singh, K.C.I.E., who held the per 
sonal title of Maharaja, and served as a member of the Imperial and 
Provincial Legislative Councils. He died in 1907. 

Ajodhya Town (in Sanskrit Ayodhya ; now known as Ajudhi 
Town in Fyzabad District, United Provinces, situated in 26 48' X. and 
82 12' E., on the right bank of the Gogra, and on a branch of the 
Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Population (1901), 21,584. The 
interest of Ajodhya centres in its ancient history. The old city has 
almost entirely disappeared, and only its outlines are marked by an 
extensive tract of elevated ground. But according to tradition Ajodhya 
was in remote antiquity one of the largest and most magnificent of 
Indian cities. It is said to have covered an area of 1 2 yojanas or 80 to 
100 miles in circumference, though the limits according to modem 
tradition extend only about 6 miles from Guptar Ghat on the west to 
Ram Ghat on the east. Ajodhya was the capital of the kingdom of 
Kosala, and contained the court of the great king Dasaratha, fifty-sixth 
monarch of the Solar line in descent from Raja Manu. The opening 
chapters of the Ramayana recount the magnificence of the city, the 
glories of the monarch, and the virtues, wealth, and loyalty of \\\> 
people. Dasaratha was the father of Rama Chandra, the hero of the 
epic, whose cult has experienced a great revival in modern times. With 
the fall of the last of the Solar line, Raja Sumintra, the one hundred and 
thirteenth monarch, Ajodhya became a wilderness and the royal family 
dispersed. From different members of this scattered stock the Rajas of 
Udaipur, Jaipur, &c, claim descent. Tradition relates that Ajodhya 
was restored by king Vikramaditya of Ujjain, whose identity is a matter 
of dispute. Ajodhya was of small importance in Buddhist times, when 
Saketa became the chief city of Kosala. It is still uncertain where 
Saketa was situated, and it has been suggested that it occupied part of 
the ancient city of Ajodhya. Numismatic evidence points to the rule 
of a line of independent Rajas, in or near Ajodhya, about the com 
mencement of the Christian era. The identifications of Ajodhya with 
the capitals of Sha-chi, 'O-yu-t'o, or Pi-so-kia, visited by the Chinese 
pilgrims, are all doubtful. 

Under the rule of the early Muhammadan kings of Delhi, Ajodhya 
or Awadh was the seat of a governor whose authority extended over a 


varying tract of country. When Akbar had firmly established his power 
in Northern India, the city became the capital of a Subah or province. 
In the eighteenth century it was for a time the nominal head-quarters 
of the early Nawabs of Oudh. In 1765, however, Shuja-ud-daula made 
his residence at Fyzabad, a few miles away, and Ajodhya lost all im- 
portance, except as a religious centre. 

The present town stretches inland from a high bluff overlooking the 
Gogra. At one corner of a vast mound known as Ramkot, or the fort 
of Rama, is the holy spot where the hero was born. Most of the 
enclosure is occupied by a mosque built by Babar from the remains of 
an old temple, and in the outer portion a small platform and shrine 
mark the birthplace. Close by is a larger temple in which is shown the 
cooking-place of Sita, the faithful wife of Rama. A lofty temple stands 
on the bank of the Gogra at the place where Lakshmana bathed ; and 
Hanuman, king of the monkeys, is worshipped in a large temple in the 
town, approached by an immense flight of steps, which bears the name 
Hanuman Garhl. Other noticeable temples built during the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries are the Kanakbhawan, a fine building erected 
by a Rani of Tikamgarh, the Nageshwarnath temple, Darshan Singh's 
temple, and a small marble temple built by the late Maharaja. 
Ajodhya also contains a number of Jain temples, five of which were 
built in the eighteenth century to mark the birthplaces of the five 
hierarchs who are said to have been born at Ajodhya. Besides the 
mosque of Babar, two ruined mosques, built by Aurangzeb, stand on 
the sites of celebrated Hindu shrines — the Swargadwara, where Rama's 
body was cremated, and the Treta-ka-Thakur, where he sacrificed. An 
inscription of Jai Chand, the last king of Kanauj, has been found in the 
latter. Three graves are reverenced by Musalmans as the tombs of 
Noah, Seth, and Job, and the two last are mentioned under those names 
in the Ain-i-Akbari. A large mound close by, called the Maniparbat, is 
said to have been dropped by Hanuman when carrying a portion of the 
Himalayas, while another tradition asserts that it was formed by the 
coolies who built Ramkot shaking their baskets as they left work ; it 
possibly covers a ruined stupa. 

Modern buildings include the spacious residence of the Maharaja of 
Ajodhya (see Ajodhya Estate) and two dispensaries. For adminis- 
trative purposes Ajodhya forms part of the Fyzabad municipality. 
There is little or no trade ; but three great fairs take place annually in 
March-April, July -August, and October-November, which are some- 
times attended by 400,000 persons. At special fairs the attendance has 
been estimated at as many as a million. There is one public school, 
while ten Sanskrit schools contain 350 students. 

Ajraoda. — Thakurat in the Malwa Agency, Central India. 

Akadia. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 


Aka Hills.— A section of the sub Himalayan lulls, lying north ol 
Darrang District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, between thi D ri and 

Dikrai rivers. The hills have steep ridges covered with di :, but 

owing to the inhospitable nature of the country and of its inhab 
they have never been explored. The Aka tribe is divided into 
sections, nicknamed the Hazari-khoas, or 'tribe supported by a thousand 
groups of ryots,' and the Kapas-chors, or ' thieves who lurk in the cotton 
fields'; and, in the time of the Assam Rajas, they regularly harried the 
inhabitants of the plains. For many years the chief of the Kapas choi 
tribe, Tagi Raja, violated the frontier, and in 1829 he was captured and 
lodged in the Gauhati jail. In 1832 he was released, but immediately 
resumed his attacks, and in 1835 massacred all the inhabitants of the 
police outpost and British village of Balipara. Six years later he sur 
rendered, and an agreement was made by which both sections of the tribe 
received a yearly allowance in consideration of good conduct. In 1883 
Medhi, the Kapas-chor chief, detained a mauzadar who had visited lus 
villages, while his brother carried off from Balipara a clerk and ranger 
in the employ of the Forest department. A punitive expedition was dis- 
patched which occupied Aka territory and recovered the captives, with 
the exception of the mauzadar, who had died. Since that date they have 
given little trouble ; but in 1900 a party of armed Akas forcibly entered 
the shop of a trader at Balipara, in order to exact the amount which 
they alleged was due to them for rubber tapped in the hills. A fine 
was imposed on the tribe ; but in order to minimize the chances of 
friction, it was decided to discontinue the practice under which coolies 
had been sent into the hills to tap rubber, and to leave the hillmen 
to bring down this product themselves. The Akas are apparently of 
Tibeto-Burman origin, and, though a small tribe, are warlike and in 
dependent. Their strength lies in their position, which enables them 
to attack British subjects without difficulty, while punitive expeditions 
sent into their hills are costly out of all proportion to the damage 
inflicted on the enemy. An account of the Akas will be found in 
Colonel Dalton's Ethnology of Bengal. 

Akalgarh. — Town in the Wazlrabad tahsil of Gujranwala District, 
Punjab, situated in 32 16' N. and 73 50' E., on the Wazlrabad Lyall- 
pur branch of the North-Western Railway. Population (1901), 4,961. 
The municipality was created in 1867. The income during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 5,500, and the expenditure Rs. 5.300. 
The income in 1903-4 was Rs. 6,400, chiefly from octroi ; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 6,400. The town is of no commercial important e ; 
and its best claim to note lies in its being the residence of a familj ol 
Khattrlsof the Chopra clan, to which belonged the celebrated Diwan 
Sawan Mai and his son Mulraj, governors of Multan in the later ^\ 
of Sikh rule. 

vol. v. n 


Akalkot State. — State in the Sholapur Agency, Bombay, lying 
between 17 18' and 17 44' N. and 75 56' and 76 28' E., with an 
area of 498 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Hyderabad ; 
on the east by a portion of the Kurandvad (junior) State and Hyderabad ; 
on the south by Bijapur District and Hyderabad ; and on the west by 
the District of Sholapur. Akalkot forms part of the table-land of the 
Deccan. The country is open, undulating, and remarkably free from 
tracts of waste or forest land. A few streams cross the State, but they 
are all small ; the Bori, the largest, is perennial, as also are the Bhlma 
and Sina, forming the south-west boundary. The State lies entirely 
within the limits of the Deccan trap, and is occupied by the basaltic 
rocks of that formation. They are largely covered with black soil. 
The climate is comparatively cool and agreeable, with an average rain- 
fall of 32 inches. The temperature rises to 108 in May and falls to 
62 in January, the average being 85 . 

In the beginning of the eighteenth century the Akalkot territory, 
which had formerly been part of the Musalman kingdom of Ahmad- 
nagar, was granted by Sahu, Raja of Satara, to a Maratha Sardar, the 
ancestor of the present chief, subject to the supply of a contingent of 
horse. In 1849, a f ter the annexation of Satara, the Akalkot chief 
became a feudatory of the British Government. In 1868 the con- 
tingent of horse was disbanded, and a yearly money payment of 
Rs. 14,592 was substituted. The family follow the rule of primogeni- 
ture, and hold a sanad authorizing adoption. In 1866, on account of 
his misrule, the chief was deposed, and the State placed under the 
management of the British Government until his son attained his 
majority in 189 1. In 1896, on the death of the latter, a minor was 
adopted, and the State is now again administered by Government. 
The chief ranks as a first-class Sardar of the Deccan. 

The population was 82,047 m x 9 oi j compared with 75,774 in 1891. 
The State contains one town, Akalkot, and 102 villages. Hindus 
number 70,000 and Musalmans 11,000. The principal castes are 
Lingayats (10,000), Vanis (9,000), Mahars (9,000), Marathas (8,000), 
and Dhangars (6,000). The Musalmans are chiefly Shaikhs (8,500). 
Half the population is supported by agriculture and 20,000 by in- 
dustries, mainly weaving. 

The soil is mostly black and mixed, and is watered chiefly from wells 
and budkis or lifts near the river banks. Of the total area, 13 square 
miles are forest land, and 39 are uncultivable. In 1903-4 the area 
under cultivation was 436 square miles, of which 16 square miles were 
irrigated. The chief crops are bdjra, jozvdr, rice, tier, linseed, gram, 
wheat, cotton, and sugar-cane. The chief's garden at Akalkot has large 
groves of coco-nut and areca palms. From 1882 about 50 square 
miles were set apart as forest Reserves, but recently this area was 


reduced to 1 3 square miles. In 1903-4 experiments wen carried oui 
in Mozambique ground-nuts, American sweet-potatoes, and 1 
cotton, of which only the first met with success. In tin ir the 

State purchased and exhibited improved implements of husba 
Since 1902-3 the State has maintained a land hank, which ad> 
money for the improvement and purchase of land-,. The only industry 
of any importance is the weaving of coarse cotton cloth, turbans, and 
saris. The chief exports are jowar, wheat, and linseed. Copper 
and brass utensils, salt, groceries, &c, are imported from Sholapur 
and Bombay. The Great Indian Peninsula Railway runs north 
west and south-east for 18 miles through the State, with two stations, 
one at Boroti and the other at Karabgaon, about 7 miles from Akalkot 
town. The Southern Mahratta Railway also crosses the south 
corner of the State, with a station at Tadval. Since the scan ity of 
187 1 and the famine of 1876 the State has suffered twice from famine, 
in 1896-7 and again in 1899-1902. Relief measures were necessarj 
on each occasion. 

The Collector of Sholapur is Political Agent for the State, and 
British laws have been adopted. The Political Agent has the powers 
of a Civil and Sessions Judge in deciding appeals. The revenue in 
1903-4 was \\ lakhs, chiefly derived from land (Rs. 3,16,000). The 
British Government pays Rs. 9,606 to the State annually in lieu of 
customs. No salt is allowed to be produced. Opium is supplied by 
the British Government, with whom the control of the excise system 
rests. The State was surveyed in 1866-71. A revised settlement was 
completed and new rates were introduced in 1894, guaranteed foi 
thirty years. The revised assessment, excluding water assessment on 
newly irrigated land, showed an average increase of 28 per cent. ov< 1 
the previous settlement. The average assessment per acre on cultiv- 
able land is about R. r. The army consists of 50 men : the police number 
67. In 1903-4 there were 35 schools in the State, attended by [,531 
pupils. The dispensary at Akalkot treated 11,000 patients, and a 
travelling dispensary treated nearly 2,000. In the same year 2,362 
persons were vaccinated. 

Akalkot Town.— Chief town of the State of the same name, 
Bombay, situated in 17 31' N. and 76 15' E., 7 miles from Karabgaon, 
on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901). 8,348. 
Akalkot contains a small mosque of some architectural merit. Then 
is a fine armoury in the palace ; and the public gardens, with the memo 
rial fountain and tombs of the chiefs, are very handsome. In 1903-4 
a new market and a school of industry were opened in the town 

Akbarnagar.— Old name of Rajmahal town, in the Santa! Parganas 
District, Bengal. 

Akbarpur Tahsll.— Central tahfll of Cawnpore District, United 

N 2 


Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, lying 
between 26 15' and 26 33' N. and 79 51' and 8o° n' E., with an 
area of 245 square miles. Population increased from 102,256 in 1891 
to 107,729 in 1 90 1. There are 199 villages and one town, Akbarpur 
(population, 4,734), the tahsil head-quarters. The demand for land 
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,16,000, and for cesses Rs. 35,000. The 
density of population, 440 persons per square mile, is below the District 
average. Three rivers flow through the tahsil and determine its physical 
features. The Rind crosses the north and forms part of the eastern 
boundary ; on its banks the soil is reddish and very fertile. The Non 
rises in a swamp and drains the central belt of loam, the fertility of 
which is diminished by barren usar and dhak jungle. The soil then 
deteriorates as the ravines of the Sengar, which marks the southern 
boundary, are approached. Irrigation is supplied by the Etawah 
branch of the Lower Ganges Canal. In 1903-4 the area under cultiva- 
tion was 131 square miles, of which 66 were irrigated, canals supplying 
two-thirds and wells most of the remainder. 

Akbarpur Tahsil. — South-eastern tahsil 'of Fyzabad District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Akbarpur, Majhaura, and (since 
1904) Surhurpur, and lying between 26 15' and 26 35' N. and 82 13' 
and 8 2 54' E. The area up to 1904 was 393 square miles, and is now 
537. The population of the old area increased from 241,702 in 1891 
to 243,929 in 1 90 1, and the total is now 344,859. There are 854 
villages and three towns, of which Jalalpur (population, 7,265) and 
Akbarpur (7,116), the tahsil head-quarters, are the largest. The 
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,25,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 52,000, increased by the transfer to Rs. 4,51,000 and Rs. 73,000 
respectively. The density of population of the reconstituted area, 
642 persons per square mile, is below the District average. Along the 
southern border flows the Majhol, while the Biswl and Marha unite in 
the west to form the Tons (Eastern). The tahsil contains many large 
jhils or swamps, and a considerable area in the south is barren usar 
land and thorny jungle. In the old area 242 square miles were under 
cultivation in 1903-4, of which 137 were irrigated. Wells supply about 
two-thirds of the irrigated area, and tanks ox jhils most of the remainder. 

Akbarpur Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name 
in Fyzabad District, United Provinces, situated in 26 26' N. and 
82 32' E., on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway and on the river 
Tons (Eastern). Population (1901), 7,116. The town contains the 
ruins of a fort in which is a fine mosque, and the Tons is spanned 
by a massive bridge. Both mosque and bridge were erected by one 
Mohsin Khan in the reign of Akbar. Akbarpur also has a branch 
of the Wesleyan Methodist Mission, a munsifl, and a dispensary. It 
is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about 


Rs. r,8oo. It has a considerable trade in -rain and i ,\ pro 

duces a large amount of cotton cloth. The school has 226 p 
the Mission maintains a girls' orphanage with about 25 ini 

Akbarpur Ghat. A famous ford across the Narbada .'■ Zila. 

Akcha.— Principal town in the district of the same name in \i 
Turkistan, situated in 36 55' N. and 66° io' E. ; r,o88 feet abo> 
sea. It is a walled town about 2 miles in circumference, with a lofty 
citadel, and generally contains a small Afghan garrison. It is unhealthy 
in the hot season, owing to fever caused by the irrigation carried on 
all around. Akcha has a good deal of trade, and is said to be 1 
often visited by Bokhara caravans than any other place in Afi 
Turkistan. About 1,200 Uzbeg families and some Hindu merchants 
reside in the town and suburbs. The number of shops and stalls open 
on the bi-weekly market days is given as 242. 

Akhas. — A hill tribe inhabiting the uplands of the Shan Stati 
Kengtung, in the extreme east of Burma, and known to the Shans as 
Kaws. They are the most widely spread community in Kengtung, and 
in 1901 numbered 26,020 persons. Judged by their language, which 
possesses no Mon-Anam or Chinese characteristics, the Akhas arc 
probably of Tibeto-Burman origin, and seem to be connected with the 
trans-Mekong Panna and Lote. They have long been in contact with 
the Chinese, occasionally intermarry with them, know the Ch 
language, and wear a modified pigtail, but are racially quite distinct. 
Compared with their neighbours they are tall and dark, and the cast 
of their features is less typically Mongolian than that of many of the 
surrounding races. The men's dress differs but little from that of the 
Shans and Chinese ; the women have a dress of their own, which vari< 5 
from clan to clan, but of which the most characteristic features 
very short coat, and equally short kilt, cloth leggings, and a head 1 
of bamboo framework elaborately decorated. The Akhas cultivate 
cotton and the opium poppy. Their villages are built at a considerable 
elevation above the ground, though not at the height chosen by some 
of the neighbouring hill tribes. Their houses are of small dimensions 
and squalid. They are great dog-eaters, and do not confine their 
attentions to any particular canine breed, as the majority of dog eating 
communities do. The religion of the Akhas is spirit or ancestor 
worship, and offerings to the dead are made at their festivals. The 
dead are buried and buffaloes are slaughtered at funerals. Their 
marriage customs are primitive, and unions with persons ot other than 
Akha stock are not unknown. The Akos, a tribe inhabiting portions 
of Kengtung, differ somewhat in physical characteristics, in dress, and 
in language from the Akhas, but are probably connected with them 
racially. The Akos numbered 1,506 in 1901. 

Akheri.— Village in Shimoga District, Mysore. See Ikkeri. 


Akola District. —District in Berar, lying between 20 17' and 
21 16' N. and 76 24/ and 77 27' E., with an area of nearly 2,678 
square miles. In 1905 the District was altered considerably, and 
a brief description of the new area will be found at the end of this 
article, which deals with the District before the change. It is bounded 
on the north by the Melghat hills ; on the east by the Daryapur and 
Murtazapur taluks ; on the south by the Mangrul, Basim, and Mehkar 
taluks ; and on the west by the Chikhll and Malkapur taluks and the 
Nimar District of the Central Provinces. The District is flat, and 
the scenery generally uninteresting ; but a small strip 

Aspects 1 of the Mel S hat nil1 c ountry, containing the fort of 

Narnala (3,161 feet), is included in the District; 
and in the south, in the neighbourhood of Patfir, the ground begins 
to rise towards the Balaghat. The river system consists of the Purna, 
which traverses it from east to west, with its affluents from the Melghat 
hills on the north and the Balaghat on the south, described in the 
account of Berar. The surface soil is nearly everywhere a rich black 
loam, sometimes of great depth. Where this does not exist, murum 
and trap are found, with a shallow upper crust of inferior light soil ; but 
sometimes the underlying murum is covered with a not unproductive 
reddish soil, the depth of which varies. 

The District, with the exception of the very small tract of hilly 
country on the north, is situated entirely in the central valley of Berar, 
the Payanghat, the geology and botany of which are generally described 
in the article on Berar. The most common wild animals are the 
antelope, wild hog, nilgai, and leopard. Tigers are not often found 
now, but wild dogs and wolves are occasionally seen. 

The climate is also described in the article on Berar, Akola 
being one of the two stations for which statistics of rainfall and 
temperature are given. For three months of the year intense heat 
prevails. ^Vhen the rains break, in June, there is a marked fall in 
temperature ; but the combination of moisture and heat is somewhat 
enervating. The months of November, December, and January are 
usually cool and pleasant. The redeeming feature of the hot season 
is the coolness of the nights. The fort of Narnala in the Melghat 
hills might form a suitable site for a small sanitarium. The climate 
is similar to that of Chikalda, but space is more limited ; for instead 
of the rolling plateau, which is a feature of Chikalda scenery, Narnala 
has only narrow hill-tops. 

The annual rainfall for the last twenty-five years averaged 34 inches. 
The District suffers greatly in years of drought, which have fortunately 
not been frequent, the mortality among cattle being very great at such 

As Akola has never been a separate political entity, its history consists 


chiefly of important events which have happened within its limits, 

as the battles of Argaon and Bai API R, and the two 

sieges of Narnala. In the reign of Akbar, the 

whole of the present District was included in the sarkat < >i Narnala, 

Akola itself being z.pargana town. 

Before the assignment, in 1853, the exactions of the farmers ol the 
revenue and of the Nizam's officials led to frequent outbreaks. In 
Mogal Rao planted the flag of the Bhonslas on the walls of famod in 
the north of the District. In 1844 a serious religious disturbam e took 
place at Akola, which was only checked by the prompt action 
British officer from Ellichpur. More dangerous outbreaks occurred in 
1849 under Appa Sahib, and had to be put down by military force. 

At the assignment Berar was divided into two Districts of West 
and East Berar, the head-quarters of which were at Akola and AmraorJ. 
In 1864 the District of South- West Berar, subsequently called Mehkar, 
and later Buldana District, was separated from Akola; and in 1875 
Basim, which had previously been an independent subdivision, was 
constituted a District. From 1867 to 1872 Berar was divided into the 
two revenue Divisions of East and West Berar, and during that period 
Akola was the head-quarters of the latter. 

The most interesting antiquities in the District are the forts at 
Narnala and Balapur ; the chhatrl or pavilion at the latter place : two 
vihards or cells cut in a rocky hill at Patur ; and various Hemadpanti 
temples, the best of which is at BarsI Taki.i. 

The number of towns and villages in the District is 97^. The 
population at each of the last four enumerations has been: (1867) 
481,050, (1881) 593,1*5, (1891) 574,964, and (1901) Population 
582,540. This was the only District of Berar of 
which the population decreased during the decade ending 1891 and 
increased during that ending 1901. These changes seem to have been 
caused by emigration and immigration, for the natural conditions 
prevailing are similar to those in the rest of the Province, where the 
movement of the population was in the contrary direction. The I district 
was divided into the five taluks of Akola, Akot, Balapur, Kham 
gaon, and Jalgaon, with their head-quarters at the towns from which 
each is named. The chief towns are the municipalities of Akoi \. 
Khamgaon, Akot, and Shegaon. 

The table on the next page gives the statistics of area, &c, according 
to the Census of 1901. 

The District stands second in Berar as regards both number and 
density of population. The vernacular of the people is MarathI, but 
the Musalmans speak Urdu. 

As in every other District of Berar, the Kunbis largely outnumber 
every other caste. They are here more numerous than elsewhere. 



numbering 187,000, or 32 per cent, of the total. The Mahars with 
71,000 come second in number, the Malls (58,000) third, and the 
Musalmans (54,000) fourth. Brahmans number 19,000. Other castes 
which appear in strength are Dhangars and Telis. Agriculture supports 
71 per cent, and industries 14 per cent, of the population. 





tr • 

- — 



Number of 




Population per 
square mile. 

Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 











District total 










+ 8-8 

— 0-2 

+ 2.7 

— 10-7 
+ 3-i 

3,9 6 2 




5 82 >540 


+ i-3 


There are two Protestant missions in the District, the Alliance Mission 
and the Peniel Mission. The former has established an industrial 
school which is doing good work. Of the 618 Christians enumerated 
in 1 90 1, 487 were natives, about half being Presbyterians. 

The soil is a rich black loam everywhere, except in the extreme north 
and south, where the District borders on the Melghat and Balaghat. 
In the north and south it is, as already described, of 
varying quality, but in all cases very much poorer 
than the loam. Agricultural conditions generally are described in the 
article on Berar, and no local peculiarities are to be noticed. 

With the exception of 42 jaglr villages, Akola is entirely ryotwari. 
The chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, areas being 
in square miles : — 









1 1 



The staple food-grain is jowar, or great millet, the area under which 
was 779 square miles, or 37 per cent, of the net area cropped. The 
principal crop is cotton, which covered no less than half of the net 
area cropped. The area under pulses was 90 square miles, and the 
only other product worthy of notice is wheat (41 square miles). 

Very little unoccupied land has been available for cultivation for 
many years. Akola is one of the most fertile tracts in the Province, 
and all available land was taken up soon after the assignment. But 


little advance has been made in agricultural practice. rh< firn 
stapled cotton, for which Berar was formerly well-known, has been 
gradually replaced by a coarser variety of short staple, less valuable but 
more productive. The cultivators take hardly any advanl 
Land Improvement Loans Act. 

The Khamgaon, or larger variety of Berari cattle, is the principal 
breed in the Khamgaon, Balapur, Jalgaon, and part of the Akot taluks, 
the Umarda, or smaller variety, being found elsewhere in the District. 
Owing to loss of cattle during recent famines importation has bet n 
extensive, and cattle of the Nimari, Sholapuri, Hoshangabadi, Malwi, 
Gujarati, and Surati breeds are not uncommon. Buffaloes are chiefly 
of the Nagpuri strain; but since the famine of 1899-1900, animals 
locally known as Malwi, having smaller heads and horns than the 
native stock, have been imported from Central India. The ponie 
locally are weedy and inferior, and the sheep and goats are also poor. 
Goats of the Gujarati breed, said to be good milch animals, are found 
in the towns. 

Only 11 square miles of land were irrigated in 1903-4. This was 
chiefly garden land, supplied from wells; but some portion of it, in all 
taluks except Akola, was irrigated by channels from tanks and streams. 
Forests, in so rich an agricultural District, are naturally unimportant ; 
and the fact was recently recognized when the Akola Forest division 
was abolished as a separate charge and united to the Buldana division. 
the two Districts forming one forest charge under an officer with head- 
quarters at Buldana. Forests reserved for the production of timber 
and fuel are distributed between three tracts. On the north and south, 
where the soil becomes poorer in the submontane tracts of the Melghat 
and the Balaghat, there are forests in which salai {Boswellia thurifera), 
khair {Acacia Catechu), aonla (Phyllanthus Emblica), and, more 
sparingly, teak (Tcctona graudis) are found, with other species. In 
the Piirna valley are a few babul bans, or groves of Acacia arabica, 
interspersed occasionally with linear (Acacia leucophloea) and two or 
three other species. Other forests or ramnas cover 13 square miles, 
and grazing lands 112 square miles. 

Brine-wells in the Prima valley formerly provided inferior salt for 
local consumption, and a trifling revenue was realized from the pro- 
duct; but after the opening of the railway the salt so obtained could 
not compete with that imported from Bombay, and the industrj 1 
a natural death. 

Arts and manufactures are unimportant. Cotton carpets are woven 
at Akot and Balapur, but are being ousted by imported articles of 
superior quality. The principal industry is the preparation of cotton 
for the market, and the District contains 42 ginning factories and 
18 cotton-presses, all worked by steam. 


The trade, though important, may be very briefly described. It 

consists chiefly of the export of raw cotton by rail to Bombay, the 

principal centres of the trade being Akola, Akot, 

comm^cTtfons. Khamgaon, Shegaon, Jalgaon, and Balapur. Cotton 

is ginned in steam factories at all these places, and is 

pressed in all of them except Balapur. From Akot and Jalgaon cotton 

is sent by road to Shegaon and Jalam on the railway. The imports 

consist principally of grain and pulse, coal and coke, salt, and sugar. 

The Nagpur branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway runs 
from east to west, its length in the I )istrict being about 50 miles. From 
Jalam a branch railway, 8 miles in length, constructed by the state but 
managed by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway Company, runs to 

The length of metalled roads is 84 miles, and of unmetalled roads 
127 miles; 66 miles of metalled and 81 of unmetalled roads are' 
maintained by the Public Works department, and the rest by the 
District board. The chief roads are that from Akola town towards 
Basim, the Akola- Akot road, and that from Khamgaon towards Chikhli. 

Akola cannot be differentiated from the rest of Berar in respect of 
its liability to famine. As there is no irrigation worth mentioning, it 
. follows that the crops of each year are wholly depen- 

dent on the rainfall ; but, though deficient rainfall 
occasionally causes some distress, famine is fortunately of rare occur- 
rence. The District suffered from famine, with great mortality among 
cattle, in 1862, and again in 1896-7, and was very severely affected by 
the famine of 1 899-1 900. In June, 1900, 89,880 persons were on 
relief works and 22,642 in receipt of gratuitous relief, and it is estimated 
that about half the cattle in the District died during the famine. 

The taluks have already been mentioned 1 . The Khamgaon and 

Jalgaon taluks constitute the Khamgaon subdivision under an Assistant 

Commissioner, who holds his court at Khamgaon ; 

Administration. , , .. , ,. . . , c , , c 

but this subdivision has, since 1905, formed part 01 

Buldana District. There is a tahslldar at the head-quarters of each 
taluk. The superior staff of the District consists of the usual officers, 
except that, as has already been mentioned, the District shares a 
Forest officer with Buldana. 

For judicial purposes this District and Buldana now form the Civil 
and Sessions district of West Berar. A District and Sessions Judge 
has his head-quarters at Akola, and is assisted by Subordinate Judges 
and Munsifs at Akola and Basim. Dacoities, house-breaking, and cattle- 
thefts fluctuate in numbers, as elsewhere, with the state of the season, 
but are not more than usually common. Jealousy is the commonest 
motive for murder. 

1 The District now (1907) contains six taluks. 


It appears from the Ain-i-Akbarl that the parganas included in the 
District of Akola, as constituted before 1905, paid a revenue of nearly 
24 lakhs, including suyurghdl— slightly more than that foi [903 4. 

After making due allowance for the extension of cultivation sin. 
sixteenth century, when Berar was frequently the seat of war, and for 
the rise in the price of agricultural produce since that time, it is sate to 
say that the slight actual fall in the land revenue demand repri sents a 
very great relative fall. The extent to which the District suffered from 
the wars and maladministration of the latter part of the seventeenth, 
the eighteenth, and the early part of the nineteenth century is clearly 
indicated by the fall in the land revenue demand in these same parganas, 
which in 1853 amounted, including Jdgirs, to little more than <S lakhs. 
With the extension of cultivation after the assignment the revenue 
rapidly improved, and between 1864 and 1869 the District was regularly 
surveyed and assessed. The demand amounted to 17-8 lakhs in 1894, 
before the revised rates had been introduced in any taluk. The revision 
survey took place between the years 1894 and 1899, and the pri 
demand is nearly 24 lakhs. The maximum, minimum, and average 
assessments per acre are Rs. 2-12-0, Rs. 1-10-0, and Rs. 1-12-0 re- 
spectively. Garden lands irrigated from wells were formerly assessed at 
special rates ; but lands irrigated from wells sunk before the original 
settlement are now assessed at the maximum ' dry ' rate of the village 
to which they belong, while those irrigated from wells sunk later are 
treated in all respects as ' dry ' lands, and assessed accordingly. A 
maximum combined soil and water rate of Rs. 8 per acre is applied to 
lands irrigated from streams and tanks, and rice land is uniformly 
assessed at Rs. 6 per acre. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 



1 900- 1. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 





3 ',39 

Outside the four municipalities of Akola, Khamgaon, Shegaon, and 
Akot, local affairs are managed by the District board and the five taluk 
boards subordinate to it. The expenditure of the District hoard in 
1903-4 was Rs. 2,57,202, the principal heads being education (Rs. ,i5, 000 ) 
and public works (Rs. 89,000). 

The District contains 19 police stations, 2 outposts, and 2 road-posts, 
besides one railway police station at Shegaon and 5 railway outposts, 2 
of which are within the limits of Buldana District, hut are under the 
control of the District Superintendent of Akola. The District and 
railway police number 603 of all ranks. 


The Akola District jail serves also as a Central jail for the Districts 
of Akola, Buldana, and Basim, and, so far as regards the collection of 
convicts to be dispatched to the Andamans, for the whole Province. 
The jail contained a daily average of 286 inmates in 1904. 

Akola stands third among the six Districts of Berar in the literacy of 
its population, of whom 5-2 per cent. (9-9 males and 0-5 females) are 
able to read and write. In 1903-4 the number of public schools was 
153, and aided and unaided schools numbered 105 and 7 respectively. 
The public schools contained 10,659 pupils and the other schools 
2,943 pupils. Only 1,121 were in secondary schools. Girls at school 
numbered 780. Of the male population of school-going age nearly 
14 per cent., and of the female population of the same age 1-3 per cent., 
were under primary instruction in 1903-4. There is a special school 
for Mahars and Mangs, which was founded at Akola by a well-to-do 
Mahar. The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 was i-6 lakhs, 
of which Rs. 18,000 was derived from fees and Rs. 63,000 was contri- 
buted by local bodies. 

The District possesses one civil hospital and eight charitable dispen- 
saries, containing accommodation for 58 in-patients. In 1903 the 
number of cases treated was 60,650, of whom 587 were in-patients, and 
1,920 operations were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 20,083, 
the greater part of which was met from Local and municipal funds. 

In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 39 per 
1,000, the mean for the Province being 36-6. Vaccination is com- 
pulsory only in the four municipalities. 

In August, 1905, the six Districts of Berar were reconstituted, and 
the limits of Akola District were considerably altered. It received the 
taluk of Murtazapur from AmraotI and the taluks of Basim and Man- 
griil from Basim, which ceased to exist as a separate District. On 
the other hand, the taluks of Khamgaon and Jalgaon were transferred 
to Buldana. The present area of Akola District is 4,111 square 
miles, and the population of this area in 1901 was 754,804. 

[Taluk Settlement Reports; Major R. V. Garrett, Akola (1896), 
Akot (1897); F. W. Francis, Malkapur, Khdmgaon, and Jalgaon 
(1892), Balapur (1895).] 

Akola Taluk. — Head-quarters taluk of Akola District, Berar, lying 
between 20 25' and 20 55' N. and 76 55' and 77 25' E., with an area 
of 739 square miles. The population rose from 137,988 in 1891 to 
150,222 in 1 90 1. The density, 203 persons per square mile, is higher 
than in any taluk in the District except Akot. The taluk contains 287 
villages and two towns, Akola (population, 29,289), the head-quarters 
of the District and taluk, and Barsi Takli (6,288). The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 5,71,000, and for cesses Rs. 45,000- 
The taluk lies chiefly in the fertile valley of the Purna, which bounds 


it on the north, but stretches southward as far as the northern 
of the Balaghat, the southern plateau of Berar. The Kata Purn 
northwards through the taluk to join the Purna. 

Akola Town.— Chief town of the District and taluk oi the 
name in Berar, situated in 20 42' N. and 77 2' E., on the Nagpur 
branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, 383 miles from Bomba) 
and 157 from Nagpur. The population in 1901 was 29,289, of whom 
21,045 were Hindus, 7,484 Musalmans, 358 Christians, and 226 fains. 
Akola is mentioned in the Ain-t-Akbari as the chief town of a rich 
pargana in the sarkar of Narnala. The walls of the town and th< 
were built for the most part by Asad Khan, Amlr-ul-Umara, in whose 
jagir Akola was situated in the latter part of the reign of Aurangzeb. 
The walls bear many inscriptions recording the dates of their erection 
and repair. Later, in the reign of Akbar Shah II of Delhi (1806 37) 
a citadel was built by Salih Muhammad Khan, who held the town, with 
a force of 5 elephants, 1,000 horse, and some infantry, for the Nizam. 
In 1803 General Wellesley halted at Akola on his way from Assaye to 
Argaon, 36 miles north of the town, where, on November 29, he defeated 
the Marathas under Venkaji, the brother of Raghuji Bhonsla. During 
the later years of the Nizam's rule, the importance of Akola declined 
owing to the malpractices of the tdlukdar, who robbed the people and 
did not keep off other marauders ; and many of the inhabitants emigrati 1 1 
to Amraotl. The town is bisected by the Murna river, Akola proper 
being on the west bank, and Tajnapeth, with the houses of Europeans 
and Government buildings, on the east bank. The municipality was 
created in 1867. The receipts and expenditure during the ten years 
ending 1900-1 averaged Rs. 59,000 and Rs. 61,000 respectively. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 62,000, chiefly derived from taxes and 
cesses; and the expenditure was Rs. 44,000, the principal heads being 
conservancy and education. 

The town is one of the principal centres of the cotton trade in Berar, 
and has many ginning factories and cotton presses. A cotton market 
has existed at Tajnapeth since 1868. Two Protestant missions are- 
situated at Akola. The educational institutions include a Government 
high school and a primary school for Mahar boys. 

Akola Taluka.— Taluka of Ahmadnogar District, Bombay, lying 
between 19° 16' and 19 45' N. and 73 37' and 74° 7' E., with an area 
of 572 square miles. It contains 157 villages, the head-quarters being 
at Akola. The population in 1901 was 70,566, compared with 68,009 
in 1891. The density, 123 persons to the square mile, is slightly below 
the District average. The demand for land revenue in 1903 4 was 
1 lakh, and for cesses Rs. 7,000. Akola consists mainly of the two 
valleys of the Pravara and Mula rivers, with the smaller valley of the 
Adula in the extreme north. The general character of the valleys 


very wild and rugged ; but that of the Pravara, at a little distance from 
Rajur village, exchanges its rocks and ravines for the flat alluvial plain, 
known as the desk of Akola, into which the Adula also breaks after 
a fall of 200 feet. The western half of the tdluka, which includes the 
crest of the Western Ghats, enjoys a very heavy rainfall, averaging from 
200 to 250 inches on its borders, whereas the desk or eastern portion 
rarely obtains more than 22 inches in the year. 

Akot Taluk. — Northern taluk of Akola District, Berar, lying be- 
tween 20 55' and 21 15' N. and 76 47" and 77 15' E., with an area 
of 517 square miles. The population hardly varied at all between 1891 
and 1 901, the census enumeration being 137,720 in the former and 
137,683 in the later year. The density, 266 persons per square mile, 
is the highest in the District and, with the exception of the Ellichpur 
taluk (311), the highest in the Province. The taluk contains 228 
villages and two towns, Akot (population, 18,252), a municipality and 
the head-quarters of the taluk, and Hiwarkhed (6,143). The demand 
for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 6,12,000, and for cesses Rs. 48,000. 
The taluk lies in the fertile valley of the Puma river, which bounds it 
on the south. On the north it is bounded by the Gawllgarh hills ; and 
a sharp curve in this northern boundary line includes in the taluk the 
old fort of Narnala, situated on the southern range of these hills. The 
village of Argaon, the site of Sir Arthur Wellesley's victory over the 
Marathas on November 29, 1803, lies 7 miles to the west of Akot. 
The taluk is well watered by streams flowing southwards from the 
Gawllgarh hills into the Purna ; but the area of irrigated land is, as 
elsewhere in Berar, insignificant. 

Akot Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Akola District, Berar, situated in 21 6' N. and 77 6' E. Population 
(1901), 18,252. The town is interspersed with garden land and mango 
groves, and is plentifully supplied with water from wells. Several good 
examples of building in carved stone occur. Municipal administration 
was established in 1884. The receipts and expenditure during the ten 
years ending 1 900-1 averaged Rs. 13,000. In 1903-4 the receipts were 
Rs. 15,000, chiefly derived from taxes and cesses; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 15,000, the principal heads being conservancy, education, and 
administration. Akot is a large cotton mart, cotton being dispatched 
to Shegaon and Akola. Good cotton carpets are manufactured here, 
the best sorts being made only to order. The town has several ginning 

Akra (Akarah). — Ancient site in Bannu District, North-West Fron- 
tier Province, situated in 33 N. and 70 36' E., near Bannu town. 
It is said to have been the seat of government of Rustam, son of 
Zal-i-zar, or 'Zal of the golden locks,' and a daughter of the Kabul 
Shah. Rustam's sister, Banu> held it as her apanage, whence the 


adjacent territory is said to have acquired the name oi Banu. In. raved 
gems of Greek or West Asian provenance, one in the late Mycenaean 
style, have been found on the site. 

[Furtwangler's Antike Gemmen, vol. ii, pp. 27, 59; and vol. iii, 

pp. 22, 23, and 25.] 

Akyab District (Sit-twe).— Coast District in the Arakan Division 
of Lower Burma, lying between 19 47' and 21 27' N. and 92' 1 1 
and 93 58' E., with an area of 5,136 square miles. It is bounded 
on the north by Chittagong District and Northern Arakan; on the 
east by Northern Arakan and the Arakan Ybma : on the southeast by 
Kyaukpyu ; and on the south and west by the Bay of Bengal and the 
Naaf estuary. 

The District consists of the level tract lying between the sea and the 

Arakan Yoma, and of the broken country formed by the western spurs 

of that range and the valleys which cover the portion 

east of the Lemro river. A pass leading across the 

r . ° aspects. 

range connects the District with Upper Burma, but 
it is difficult and is rarely used. The northern portion of the District is 
also covered with hills, from which three low ranges detach themselves 
and run southward. In the west, between the Naaf and the Mayu 
rivers and terminating near the mouth of the latter, is the steep 
Mayu range, the southern part of which lies parallel with, and not far 
from, the coast. Between the Kaladan and Mayu rivers two similar 
ridges run parallel to each other to within about 30 miles of Akyab 
town on the coast. The rivers in general flow from north to south, 
being separated from each other by abrupt high watersheds. The 
three principal streams are the Mayu, Kaladan, and Lemro, which 
flow from the northern hills as mountain torrents, but spread out in 
the plains into a network of tidal channels. The Kaladan is the 
largest and most important river in Arakan. Rising in the Chin HillSj 
it runs nearly due south through the Arakan Hill Tracts and Akyab 
District, receiving the waters of a large number of tributaries in its 
course, and enters the sea at Akyab, where its estuary is 6 miles 
in breadth, and forms the harbour of the town. The Lemro river 
is the second in importance. It receives the whole drainage oi the 
western slope of the Arakan Yoma, passes along the eastern side oi 
Northern Arakan and Akyab Districts, and flows into the Baj of B 
south of Akyab town. The Mayu flows to the west of the Kaladan, 
and west of the Mayu again is the Naaf stream, which forms part ol 
the boundary between Akyab and Chittagong. There are a few islands 
along the coast, of which the best known are the Boronga [slands at 
the mouth of the Kaladan, whence petroleum is obtained. 

Geologically the District, beyond the alluvium which skirts the .oast, 
may be divided into three distinct belts: namely, the Cretaceous (Ma-i 


group), embracing the outer spurs of the Yoma ; the eocene of the 
Lower Tertiary (Negrais rocks) ; and the Triassic beds (axial group), 
forming the crest of the Yoma, with an outcrop on the western side 
of about 10 miles in breadth. These three classes of rocks are very 
closely allied. They are all composed of shales and sandstones 
intersected by bands of limestone, but the Cretaceous beds are less 
hardened and metamorphosed than the other two. 

The coast and tidal creeks are bordered by stretches of mangrove 
and dani palm (Nipa fruticans). The constituent trees of the tidal 
forests are described in the botany paragraph of Hanthawaddy Dis- 
trict. The sandstone ridges opposite Akyab are covered with upper 
mixed forest, containing abundance of Xylia dolabriformis, but no teak. 
Melocanna baccifera is plentiful in some localities. Evergreen forests 
occur here and there, especially on Boronga Island. Inland are the 
prolongations of the Arakan Hill Tracts, clothed with forest vegetation 
of the type described under Northern Arakan. Farther east are 
the western slopes of the Arakan Yoma, covered with dense forest 
and bamboo jungle, as yet unexplored by the botanist. 

The most important wild animals are elephants, bison, tigers, and 
leopards (including the black variety). Sambar are plentiful on the 
hill-sides, hog deer are common in the low-lying jungle, and barking- 
deer are to be met with throughout the District. Wild hog abound, 
and, contrary to the usual rule in Burma, the jackal is found every- 

Owing to proximity to the sea, the same extremes of heat and 
cold are not met with as in Upper Burma. The cold season, from 
December to February, is the pleasantest part of the year. The wet 
season is trying, and the hot season is oppressive, although the actual 
temperature recorded is not extreme. The average maximum tem- 
perature for the whole year is 86° and the average minimum 74°, the 
average mean being 7 8°. 

The rainfall is heavy, amounting to 180 inches in 1903-4, and 
varying from 173 inches at Maungdaw to 203 at Akyab itself. 

The District has from time to time been visited by severe cyclones. 
A devastating storm occurred on November 13, 1868 ; and on May 17, 
1884, a cyclone of very similar character caused great destruction of 
property. There was another severe storm on April 25, 1895, but the 
damage caused was not so great as in 1884. 

The District formed part of the kingdom of Arakan, and its earlier 

fortunes are included in the history of that kingdom (see Arakan 

Division). During the first Burmese War, in 1825, 

a body of troops under General Morrison crossed the 

Naaf from Chittagong, and, co-operating with a flotilla that had come up 

the Kaladan, attacked the town of Myohaung or Old Arakan. The force 


was repulsed with some loss in the pass leading to Myohaung from 
the hills; but eventually a turning movement caused the Burmans 

to evacuate their position in the pass, and finally to retn 
the Yoma. Akyab became British with the rest of Arakan at the 
termination of the war in 1826. At Myohaung arc t<> he found 
the most important archaeological remains in Arakan. The ruins 
in their present state date chiefly from the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries. At Mahamuni, in the Kyauktaw township, is a pagoda, 
once famous as the receptacle of an image of Gautama of 
sanctity, which, on the conquest of Arakan in r 784, wa-> removed by 
the victorious Burmans from Mahamuni to Amarapura and enshrined 
there. It is now in the Arakan pagoda at Mandalay. 

The population of the District has steadily increased. At the last 
four enumerations it was: (1872) 276,671, (1881) 
359>7° 6 , (1891) 416,305, and (1901) 481,666. Its 
distribution in 1901 is shown in the following table: 



3 . 

Number of 


e S - 

H = B« 



en a; 







P. z 


and ii) 


1 sons a 





0- D. 








— 2 

1 3»56S 






+ 22 







+ II 


Pauktaw . 





+ 6 



4 fco 

2 95 



+ 17 







+ 18 






+ 15 



District total 





+ 27 







+ 16 


* Split up in 1906 into Rathedaung and Buthidaung. For details, see RATHEDAUNG. 

Portions of the District are hilly and sparsely populated ; and thus, 
though in the lowlands the population is very dense, the District as 
a whole contains only 94 persons per square mile. The head-quarters 
are at Akyab Town. The majority of the inhabitants are Buddhists 
(280,000), but a very considerable proportion (155,200) are Musalmans : 
in fact, nearly half the Muhammadan population of the Province in 
1901 resided within Akyab District. The number of Aniinists (31,700) 
is high, and Hindus numbered 14,000 in 1901. Arakanese is spoken 
by a little over half the population, and Bengali by about one-third. 

Of races, the Arakanese (239,600) showed the highest aggre{ 
in 1 901. The Burmans were only 35,800 in number, the Kamis 1 1,600. 
the Mros 10,100, and the Chins 9,400. The three last are hill tribes 
who inhabit the north and east of the District. Other indigenous 

VOL. V. O 


tribes are the Daingnets (3,400), a probably hybrid people living on 
the borders of Chittagong, and speaking a corrupt form of Bengali ; 
and the Chaungthas (250) and Thets (230), communities of Chin and 
Arakanese-Chin origin. The greater part of the non-Arakanese element 
is foreign. More than 150,000 of the inhabitants are Bengalis, or the 
offspring of Bengalis, from the adjacent District of Chittagong. In 
1901 the population dependent on agriculture was 350,100, or 72 per 
cent, of the total. About one-tenth of the total is dependent on 
taungya (shifting) cultivation. 

The number of Christians in 1901 was 720, of whom 230 were 
natives. Roman Catholics form nearly half the total. There is a 
Roman Catholic mission in Akyab town, which, since 1888, has been 
under the charge of the Fathers of the Congregation of the Holy 
Cross. A convent school founded in 1889 in connexion with the 
mission has nearly 100 pupils. 

Throughout the whole of the District the conditions of agriculture, so 
far as soil and rainfall are concerned, are easy in the extreme. The soils 
are loams, more or less sandy, and there are few clays. 
The land is usually very fertile, and the abundant 
rainfall allows even high-lying and sandy ground to yield a good out- 
turn in a normal year. The land in the delta and on the banks of the 
principal rivers is level, low-lying, and suitable for rice ; the higher land 
and undulating country at the foot of the hills is better adapted for 
garden and miscellaneous crops, and for grazing ; while on the hills 
themselves only taungya (shifting) cultivation is carried on. On lands 
that are occasionally flooded by the tide it is not considered necessary 
even to plough. Owing to the abundant rainfall, irrigation is not prac- 
tised, except on a very small scale, in the dry season, for the benefit of 
gardens which happen to be near a supply of water. In the settled area 
the methods of cultivation differ little from those obtaining in other 
parts of Lower Burma. Transplanting of rice is practically unknown, 
and the seed is sown broadcast on the rich muddy levels. 

Two features which make agriculture less profitable than might be 
expected are the laziness of the cultivator and the prevalence of cattle- 
disease. The amount of labour hired is very great, and in some cases 
the Arakanese cultivator even pays a manager to superintend his coolies, 
though as a rule he condescends to do his own supervision. The cost 
of cultivation in Akyab is higher than in most parts of Lower Burma. 
The wasteful system of taungya, or shifting cultivation, still prevails in 
the hills, and is responsible for the destruction of a vast amount of 

The area under cultivation was 575 square miles in 1881, 877 square 
miles in 1891, and 953 square miles in 1901. The main agricultural 
statistics for 1903-4 are given on the next page, in square miles. 



i ■ 

Akyal) ....... 



Rathedaung ...... 

1 ,269 

Ponnagyun ...... 



Pauktaw ...... 



Minbya ...... 



Kyauktaw ..... 



Myohaung ...... 



Maungdaw ...... 





The principal crop is rice, covering 931 square miles in 1903 4. It 
is all of the kaukkyi or cold-season variety ; no mayin or hot-season rice 
is grown. Tobacco and sugar-cane are little cultivated, except on the 
Lemro, east of Myohaung. There are 32 square miles of garden culti 
vation, for the most part in the Rathedaung, Maungdaw, and Myohaung 
townships. Chillies cover 4,000 acres, half of which arc in the Kyauk 
taw and Rathedaung townships ; mustard is grown on about 2,300 
acres in the Rathedaung and Maungdaw townships. The area under 
cotton has decreased rapidly. Flax for making rope is cultivated to 
very small extent in Maungdaw. The dani palm is grown throu§ 
the tidal region, the leaves being used for thatch, while the fermented 
juice or sap is the principal intoxicant consumed by the people. The 
average area of a holding is 9 acres. 

As the figures given above show, the area under cultivation has 
of late years increased largely. Akyab has proved a paradise to the 
emigrant from Chittagong, who is of a more frugal and industrious dis- 
position than his Arakanese neighbour, and is steadily ousting the latter 
as cultivator and landowner. As a very large area of cultivable land is 
still available, there is every prospect of further rapid extension of culti- 
vation. Good land being plentiful in ordinary years, there has 
little scope for agricultural advances. 

The buffaloes bred locally are, as a rule, superior to the plough 
bullocks. The price of an ordinary plough buffalo has been estimated 
at Rs. 75 and that of a bullock at Rs. 45. Sheep-breeding is not prac 
tised ; but goats are reared in numbers, chiefly by people from China 
gong and other natives of India, though no trouble is taken to improve 
the breeds by selection or otherwise. The grazing-grounds reserved are 
small in size, and are scattered throughout the District. 

The Forest department has only recently extended its operations over 
the District. There are a few teak plantations, which w< d by 

private enterprise in 1872-4. One at Myauktaung forests, 

comprises an area of 35 acres, and another at Nagara 
about 50 acres. The timbers mostly in demand at Akyab, the 
market, are pyingado {Xylia dolabriformis), pyinma {Lagerstroemi 

o 2 


Reginae), thitkado {Cedrela Toona), and kabaung (Strychnos Nux-vomicd), 

on which seigniorage is collected by the District officers. The forest 
receipts in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 8,800. 

There has been no detailed geological survey of the District, and 
its mineral resources remain to be exploited. Coal is found, but is 
said to be of an inferior quality, and has not been 
worked. Tradition has it that there are gold and 
silver mines in the interior, but they have yet to be located. About 
1,000 tons of laterite and sandstone are quarried annually for road- 
making, and some clay is extracted for making bricks and the rough 
local pottery. 

Oil-wells have been worked by two lessees in the Eastern Boronga 
Island for upwards of twenty years. The annual output has of late been 
about 50,000 gallons. The usual method of obtaining it is by lowering 
a metal cylinder with a valve in the bottom, which fills with oil and is 
then hauled up and emptied. After the water has been allowed to run 
off, the oil is stored and exported to Akyab town by boat. The oil is 
disposed of locally, and is used in native lamps without any refining. 
The depth of the wells varies from 300 to 700 feet, and the boring is 
done by steam-power. 

The salt-boiling industry finds employment for some of the coast 
population, but the annual production does not exceed 220 tons, or less 
than one-fifth of the consumption of the District. The methods em- 
ployed are crude in the extreme. The upper layer of earth, which the 
tide has impregnated with salt, is collected. The earth is then treated 
with salt water to dissolve the brine, and the resulting liquid is boiled 
down in a pan or cauldron till it has evaporated, leaving the salt as a 
deposit. The local product is of good quality and is preferred to the 
imported article. 

The chief hand industries are cotton- and silk-weaving, gold and 

silver work, carpentry, shoemaking, pottery, and iron-work. Weaving 

is entirely a home industry, and is carried on more or 

communications. less b y the ma J orit y of Arakanese women. Locally 
made hand-looms are used, and the fabrics are 
of coarse texture. The silks, however, are noted for their durability, 
and find a sale in Burma proper. The gold- and silversmiths are 
chiefly Arakanese, and their workmanship is inferior. The carpenters 
are Arakanese, or men from Chittagong and China, of whom the 
last are by far the best. There are a few boat-builders in Akyab 
town and elsewhere. Shoes for native wear are made by Chinese and 
natives of India, the leather used in their manufacture being tanned 
locally. Akyab town possesses two small potteries. The clay used is 
obtained locally, and the pots manufactured are of poor quality and 
cannot compete with those imported from Madras. Bricks are made 


when required, but are of a very interior description. I Ik 

come mostly from Chittagong, and their work lacks finish. I 

mats are woven by Arakanese and people from ( toil 

generally, the District is singularly poor in artificers of all kind 

the work turned out is of inferior quality. The only fai tory industry 

of importance is rice-milling in Akyab town, where there an 

small tanneries. 

Paddy and rice are naturally the staple trade products. Akj 
ordinarily the market for the whole District, paddy being brought there 
in boats from the surrounding rice-growing areas; but when pri< 
Chittagong are favourable, most of the rice grown in the M 
township is sent there direct, while a few cargoes generally find then 
way from the Naaf in small native craft to other parts of India. 
Statistics of the external trade of the District, practically concentrated 
in Akvab Town, are given in the article on that town. The internal 
trade is almost entirely water-borne. The Arakanese are being ousted 
as traders by the Chittagong people, who now control the bulk of the 
local traffic. Barter is still prevalent among the hill tribes in the 
remoter portions of the District. 

There is practically no vehicular traffic except in Akyab town and its 
environs. Outside the town, the only metalled cart-road of importaw e 
is that from Akyab to Yechanbyin, g\ miles long, maintained from 
Provincial funds. A good metalled road, 15 miles in length, leads 
from Maungdaw on the Naaf to Buthidaung on the Mayu river. The 
total length of metalled roads, excluding those within the limits of the 
Akyab municipality, is 40 miles, and of unmetalled roads 160 miles. 

The principal means of communication are by water. The steamer-. 
of the British India Company call at Akyab once a week for Kyaukpyu, 
Sandoway (during the fair season), and Rangoon, and once a week for 
Chittagong and Calcutta. From February to May, and often later, 
steamers take cargoes of rice to Indian and other ports. The river 
steamers of the Arakan Flotilla Company ply on as much of the 
Kaladan as lies within the District, and through the tidal creeks of 
the coast. The greater part of the District is intersected by these tidal 
creeks, and these and the principal rivers are largely used as highwa) s. 
Practically all articles of merchandise are brought to Akyab town, and 
distributed thence, in boats of local make, while passengers travel boil 
in these boats and in sampans rowed exclusively by Bengalis. 

The lighthouse on Savage Island, at the entrance to Akyab harbour, 
is a stone structure 138 feet high. It was built in 1842, and rai- 
its present height in 1891. The light is visible for 14 miles. F< urteen 
miles off the port of Akyab is the Oyster Island lighthouse (2c 5' V 
and 92 39' E.). It was first lighted with a permanent light in 

The District includes four subdivisions, AKYAB, Mint.n \ ; Kyau* 


and Buthidaung, the subdivisional officers being usually Extra-Assistant 
Commissioners, and nine townships, each under a 
myo-ok. The townships are : in the Akyab sub- 
division, Akyab, Rathedaung, and Ponnagyun ; in the Minbya 
subdivision, Pauktaw and Minbya ; in the Kyauktaw subdivision, 
Kyauktaw and Myohaung; and in the Buthidaung subdivision, 
Buthidaung and Maungdaw. At head-quarters are a treasury officer, 
an akunwun (in subordinate charge of the revenue administration), and 
a superintendent of land records. An officer of the Royal Indian 
Marine is Port Officer, Collector of Customs, and Superintendent of 
Mercantile Marine at Akyab. The Civil Surgeon is also Port Health 
Officer and Superintendent of the jail, Akyab ; and the District forms 
a subdivision of the Arakan Public Works division, with head-quarters 
at Akyab. Each village is in immediate charge of its headman, or 
ywdtkugyi, who is responsible (where there is no circle thugyi) for the 
collection of revenue, and has certain police and petty magisterial 
powers. The District contains 1,203 ywathugyi-%\\\^%. The old system 
by which a number of villages were grouped together for purposes of 
revenue into a circle, or taik, under a circle officer, or taikthugyi, is 
being gradually done away with. There are still, however, 27 circle 
thugyis, who are responsible for the collection of revenue, on which 
they receive commission, in their circles. Each of them is also head- 
man for the village in which he resides. 

The Commissioner of Arakan is Sessions Judge. Up to 1905 the 
Deputy-Commissioner was District Judge. In that year, however, a 
whole-time District Judge was appointed, who hears all civil appeals 
from township courts and tries all District court cases and cases from 
the Akyab subdivision of over Rs. 500 in value, and who is also senior 
magistrate with special powers under section 30 of the Criminal Pro- 
cedure Code. For Rathedaung-«^;«-Maungdaw, as also for Kyauktaw- 
tv/w-Myohaung, a special township judge is appointed, who sits for half 
the month at each of the township head-quarters. In Akyab town 
there are two additional magistrates with first-class powers, who also 
take up District cases if necessary. A special feature of the criminal 
returns is the large number of stabbing cases, the Arakanese being 
prone to the use of the clasp-knife in their quarrels. Opium smuggling 
is rife, and the number of cases under the opium and excise laws is 
very considerable. Occasionally there is an outbreak of dacoity. 

The revenue history of Akyab is a record of steady progress. In 
1832 the total revenue collected was 2-5 lakhs. In 1837 the taxes on 
forest produce, huts, boats, sugar-presses, handicraftsmen, and others, 
were abolished ; but their discontinuance did nothing to arrest the 
fiscal growth of the District. The tax on fisheries was imposed in 
1864-5, and brought in Rs. 6,800 that year. The first recorded settle- 


ment took place in 1866-7, when the land revenue a 1 men! luced 
5 lakhs. A revision of rates was undertaken in 187., -8o, and undei the 
new assessment the revenue rose to 7-7 lakhs. A further revision, the 
first regular assessment, as opposed to the previous summ 
ments, was carried out in 1885-8, when die land revenue in 
8-3 lakhs. The revenue on rice land for 1902-3, the last year oi the 
enforcement of these rates, amounted to 12 lakhs, showing an in< 
of 140 per cent, in the thirty-six years since the first settlement, during 
which interval the area under cultivation had more than doubled. The 
latest revision, carried out in 1 901-2, is expected to yield a further 
increase of about 25 per cent., and the area under cultivation is still 
increasing rapidly. The whole of the District has not yet been sur- 
veyed. Grants under the Waste Land Rules of 1839 -41, which were 
designed to promote extension of cultivation, are numerous in Akyab. 
There appear to have been at one time as many as ninety-four such 
grants; but in many cases the land has since reverted to the possession 
of Government, and there remain at present forty-two, covering an area 
of 150 square miles, and paying Rs. 65,000 as revenue and cess. 
These grants were usually given with twenty-four years' exemption from 
assessment, after which the rates payable were 10 annas per acre for 
six years; then Rs. 1-4 per acre for six years; and finally Rs. 1-10 
per acre for twelve years, after which a new settlement could be 
demanded. Revenue is, however, payable on only three-fourths of the 
land. When the grants were first cadastrally surveyed, it was found 
that the area actually granted exceeded the recorded area by 83 square 
miles, a difference largely owing to faulty surveying in the first instant e. 

The ordinary rates of assessment fixed in 1879-80 varied from 
8 annas to Rs. 2-8 per acre of rice land, and at the revision of 1885-8 
from Rs. 1-4 to Rs. 3. In the revision recently completed it has been 
proposed to increase the maximum rate on rice land to Rs. 4 per acre, 
leaving the minimum unchanged. Outside rice land, there were in 1903 
only two rates of assessment in the settled area : namely, Rs. 2 per acre 
on garden land and R. 1 on miscellaneous cultivation. In the 
unsurveyed portion the rates on garden land vary from Rs. 2-8 to 
Rs. 1-8, and on miscellaneous cultivation from Rs. 2-4 to R. 1. This 
gives a maximum rate of Rs. 2-8, a minimum of R. 1, and an av< 
of nearly Rs. 2 per acre. 

The growth of revenue since 1880-1 can be seen from the foil 
table, which gives the figures in thousands of rupees :— 





Land revenue 
Total revenue 







The figures for 1903-4 include Rs. 4,42,000 capitation tax and 
Rs. 2,70,000 excise. 

There is a District cess fund, the income of which amounted in 
1903-4 to Rs. 1,71,000. This fund is provided mainly from a 10 
per cent, levy on the total land revenue, and is expended by the 
Deputy-Commissioner on communications and other local needs. 
Akyab Town is the only municipality. 

The District contains eight police stations, one at each township 
head-quarters. Each police station is usually in charge of a head 
constable, assisted by one or more sergeants. There are also eight 
outposts, each in charge of a sergeant or first-grade constable. The 
strength of the civil police is 10 head constables, 19 sergeants, and 
305 rank and file. In addition to the civil police, the District has a 
detachment of military police from the Rangoon battalion, with 
a strength of 220 men. 

Akyab town contains a District jail, with accommodation for 
489 prisoners (459 male and 30 female). The chief industries 
carried on are carpentry, iron-work, tailoring, stone-breaking, mat- 
making, paddy-grinding, and cane-work. The products are disposed of 
to Government departments, the municipality, and private individuals. 

In consequence, no doubt, of the large Indian element in the 
population, Akyab occupies a low place for Burma in the matter of 
literacy. The proportion of literate persons in 1901 was 28-6 per cent, 
in the case of males and 3-4 per cent, in that of females, or 17-4 for 
both sexes together. The proportion of females is considerably below 
the Provincial average. Owing to the early age at which girls are given 
in marriage, and the seclusion in which they are usually kept after their 
tenth year, the majority of them leave school before they have had time 
to do more than learn the rudiments of reading and writing. The total 
number of pupils at school increased from 1,863 m 1880-1 to 6,384 in 
1890-1, and 12,782 in 1900-1. In 1903-4 there were 6 special, 
9 secondary, 258 primary, and 477 elementary (private) schools, with 
13,944 male and 957 female pupils. The Akyab high school is the 
only institution of individual importance. The total expenditure on 
education in 1903-4 was Rs. 40,000, made up as follows : fees, 
Rs. 15,700; municipal contributions, Rs. 10,100; Provincial grants, 
Rs. 7,800; Local grants, Rs. 6,200. 

There were till 1905 only two hospitals, with 122 beds in all, and a 
dispensary. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 42,240, of whom 
1,618 were in-patients, and 1,202 operations were performed. The 
total income was Rs. 26,800, towards which municipal funds contributed 
Rs. 14,500, Local funds Rs. 6,700, and subscriptions Rs. 3,000. A new 
hospital has lately been built by private charity at Buthidaung, and 
hospitals will shortly be constructed at Minbya and Kyauktaw. 


Vaccination is compulsory onl) in Akyab town. In 19 
number of persons successfully vaccinated w; 
14 per 1,000 of population. 

[H. Adamson, Settlement Reports (1887 and 1 \\. !.. I 

Settlement Report (1903).] 

Akyab Subdivision.— Subdivision oi Akyab I >i itrict, Low< 1 Burma, 
consisting of the Akyab, Rathedai ng, and Ponnagyun townshi] 

Akyab Township.— Township of Akyab District, Lowei Burma, 
lying between 20 6' and 20 16' N. and 92 45' and 92 56' I... at the 
mouth of the Kaladan river. The township is a very small om 
sisting of Akyab town and a stretch of country immediately surrounding 
it, 62 square miles in area. The population was 48,333 in 1891 and 
47,427 in 1901, for the most part centred in Akyab town and port. It 
contains one town, Akyab (population, 35,680), the head-quarters of the 
District and township, and 60 villages. The area cultivated in 1903 4 
was 30 square miles, paying Rs. 50,000 land revenue. 

Akyab Town. — Head-quarters of the Arakan Division and of Akyab 
District, Lower Burma, situated in 20 8' N. and 92 55' E., at the 
mouth of the Kaladan river. Akyab ranks fourth among the towns of 
the Province. The population was 19,230 in 1872, 33,989 in 1881, 
37,938 in 1891, and 35,680 in 1901. The decrease in the last de< ade 
is attributed to an unwonted paucity of coolies from outside at the time 
of the Census. The population is mixed, comprising Arakanese 
(11,531), Burmans, Chinese, and natives of India, notably Bengalis 
from the Chittagong coast (18,328). 

The origin of the name Akyab is unknown. Some authorities allege 
that it is a corruption of Akyat, the name of a pagoda which is sup; 
to be the shrine of the jawbone of Buddha, and was built by one of the 
ancient Arakanese kings. The Arakanese name of the town is Sit-twt 
(literally, 'where the war began'). There are no legends conn< 
with the origin of this name. Until the British occupation Akyab was 
merely a small fishing village, the capital of Arakan being Myoh 
After the annexation of Arakan, in 1826, Akyab was made the capital 
of the new province, and has since ranked as its chief port. The town 
is situated on well-wooded low-lying ground between the sea 
the Kaladan, which, flowing down from the north, opens out as 
reaches the sea into an ample roadstead, partially protected from the 
monsoons by the Boronga and Savage Islands. The latter of these lies 
at the seaward end of the port and is surmounted by a lighthouse. I he- 
harbour has an outer and inner bar. At high water vessels of any 
draught can safely enter or leave, but at low water a pilot is n< 
The harbour is provided with an iron wharf, a small stone pier, and 
several smaller wooden jetties. The town is really an island, triangul 
in shape and about 5 square miles in extent, cut off from the mainland 


by a creek which connects the Kaladan river on the east with the 
estuary of the Mayu river on the west, and open on the south and 
south-west to the sea. Two sides of the triangle run in a southerly 
direction to where the river meets the sea, and the apex is known locally 
as The Point. The houses of the European residents are built in the 
southern portion of this wedge, along the eastern shore of the harbour as 
far as the stone pier. The native town fills the north of the triangle 
between the pier and the Cherogea creek, which forms the northern 
boundary of the town proper, and along both banks of which the rice- 
mills are situated. The town is unhealthy, being subject to regular 
epidemics of cholera as well as to malarial fever, which formerly earned 
for Akyab the not altogether unmerited sobriquet of ' the white man's 

The principal public buildings are the jail, the hospital, the municipal 
high school, and the Government offices. There are Anglican and 
Roman Catholic churches, and the latter has a convent and a school 
attached to it. Most of the dwelling-houses are built of wood or mat, 
with thatched roofs. A clock-tower commemorates the first, and a race- 
stand the second, Jubilee of Queen Victoria. The jail is a second-class 
District jail, with accommodation for 489 prisoners. It was the scene 
of a serious outbreak in 1892, during the course of which the European 
jailor in charge was murdered by the convicts. 

There are eleven steam-power mills in the town, of which five mill 
white rice, and the remainder what is known as ' cargo rice.' From May 
to December most of the mills close, opening again in January. 
Recently short crops and high prices have led to much of the grain 
being exported in the husk. The rice trade is carried on extensively by 
natives of India. Besides the rice-mills there are no factories in the 
town deserving of note, except a saw-mill and a tannery, both of which 
are owned and worked by Chinese, and another tannery worked by 
natives of India. There are two banks in the town, several printing 
presses and local newspapers. All or nearly all of the unskilled 
labourers are imported from Chittagong. They usually return to their 
homes at the close of the busy season in April or May. Nearly all the 
skilled workmen are Indians. There are, however, a few Arakanese 
artisans, chiefly gold and silver workers. The Indian appears to be 
gradually ousting the indigenous handicraftsman here as elsewhere. 

The foreign trade of Akyab port was valued at 76 lakhs in 1903-4, 
and the trade with Indian ports at 157 lakhs. The exports consist 
almost exclusively of rice, ' cargo rice ' being sent ordinarily to the 
Mediterranean and white rice to Indian ports. The former was valued 
in that year at 74 lakhs, all but about 9 lakhs' worth being shipped to 
Europe. The rice exports to Madras coast ports were valued at 
34 lakhs, and those to Bombay at 15 lakhs. The total of imports in 


x 9°3-4 was made up for the most part of 37 lakh ol 
Calcutta, 31 lakhs' worth of commodities from tl 
17 lakhs' worth from Burmese ports, comprising gunn 
cotton, betel-nuts, &c. From foreign ports the import i an 

Akyab was constituted a municipality in 187.}. The munii 
committee consists of a president, vice-president, and fifti en mi n 
The Deputy-Commissioner is president and the Civil Sin- 
president. The elective system is in force, but the interest taki 
local self-government is not keen. A scheme is under consideration foi 
supplying the town with water from a reservoir to be constrm ti 
outside municipal limits. The municipal revenue and expenditure foi 
the ten years ending 1900 averaged a lakh. In 1903-4 the incomi 
expenditure came to 1-3 lakhs. The principal receipts were Ks. 20,000 
from houses and lands, Rs. 28,000 from conservancy fees, and 
Rs. 38,000 from tolls or markets and slaughter-houses, while the chiel 
items of expenditure were administration (Rs. 15,000), conservancy 
(Rs. 31,000), and roads (Rs. 20,000). The Port fund provides lights 
and buoys, and maintains the wharves. Its income, derived from 
shipping dues for the most part, was Rs. 99,000 in 1903-4. 

The municipality maintains a high school, which has upwards ol 
370 pupils. The total expenditure on education is about Rs. 24,000. 
A portion of this is met from school fees and a portion from contri- 
butions by Provincial and District cess funds, while about one-quartei 
is an actual charge on municipal revenues. 

There is a large general hospital with 114 beds. This, and the 
Shwebya dispensary (in which during the same year 6,543 persons were 
treated), are almost entirely supported by the municipality, which 
contributed Rs. 14,500 in 1903 towards their upkeep, the 1m 
being met out of subscriptions (Rs. 2,500). Attached to the general 
hospital is a European Seamen's Hospital, built in 1902, chiefly from 
funds derived from the accumulation of Sunday labour fees levied al 
the port. 

Alagarkovil.— A temple in the Melur taluk of Madura District, 
Madras, situated in io° 5' N. and 78 14' E., about 12 miles north easl 
of Madura city, at the foot of the south-eastern slope of the Alagar hills, 
sacred to the god Alagar. The building is very ancient and is held in 
special repute by the Kalians and other thieving communities, who are 
said to devote to the god a portion of their ill-gotten gains in 
expectation that they will thereby be successful in their criminal ex 
peditions. The temple is surrounded by an extensive outer wall win 
once served as a fortification. At the festival on the new moon daj 1 
the month of Adi thousands of worshippers from the neighbou 
Districts gather here. Several fine porches about it are now rapidly 
falling into ruins. Three miles away on the Alagar hills is a buildir 


containing a spring, the water of which is believed to possess power to 
cleanse from all sin. 

Alahyar-jo-Tando. — Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name 
in Hyderabad District, Sind, Bombay. See Tando Alahyar. 

Alaipur. — Village in Khulna District, Bengal, situated in 2 2° 59' N. 
and 89 39' E., at the junction of the Atharabanki and Bhairab rivers. 
Population (1901), 1,190. It has some local trade, and pottery is 
largely manufactured. 

Alamglr Hill. — Peak of the Assia range in the Jajpur subdivision of 
Cuttack District, Bengal, situated in 20 39' N. and 86° 14/ E. On the 
summit of the hill, 2,500 feet above the level of the surrounding 
country, stands the mosque of Takht-i-Sulaiman, a plain stone building 
consisting of a single room surmounted by a dome, built in 17 19 by 
Shuja-ud-din, the Oris'sa deputy of the Nawab Murshid Kull Khan. 

Alampur. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Alampur. — A small isolated pargana belonging to Indore State but 
situated in the Bundelkhand Agency, Central India, with an area of 
37 square miles, lying round the town of Alampur (2 6° 2' N. and 
78 50' E.). The pargana was formed in 1766 when Malhar Rao 
Holkar, the founder of the house of Indore, died suddenly at the 
village of Alampur. To provide for the up-keep of his last resting- 
place 27 villages were obtained from the neighbouring chiefs of Gwalior, 
Datia, Jalaun, and Jhansi, and their revenues devoted to this purpose. 
The Rajput chiefs, from whom the villages were probably taken by 
force, were long opposed to the erection of the dead Maharaja's 
cenotaph, and destroyed it several times when but partially complete ; 
finally, however, with the support of Sindhia, the work was finished. 
The pargana is managed directly from Indore, and yields a revenue of 
Rs. 59,000. The population in 1901 was 16,711, compared with 17,038 
in 1891. There are now 26 villages in the pargana. The largest is 
Alampur, also called Malharnagar, with a population (1901) of 2,843. 
A school, a dispensary, and a British post office are situated there. 

Alampur. — South-eastern taluk of Raichur District, Hyderabad 
State. Including j'dglrs, the population in 1901 was 30,222 and the 
area 184 square miles, the population having risen from 27,271 in 1891. 
The taluk has 43 villages, of which one is jdgir, and Alampur (popula- 
tion, 4,182) is the head-quarters. The river Kistna separates it from 
Mahbubnagar District on the north, and the Tungabhadra from the 
Madras District of Kurnool on the south. The confluence of these 
two rivers is situated in the extreme east of the taluk. In 1901 the 
land revenue amounted to 1-2 lakhs. The soils are alluvial and regar 
in the south, and sandy in the west. 

Aland. — Head-quarters of the paigah taluk of the same name in 
Gulbarga District, Hyderabad State, situated in 17 34' N. and 76 35' E., 


20 miles north-west of Gulbarga town. Population (1901), , 
Aland is a commercial centre of some importance. 

Alandi.— Town and place of Hindu pilgrimage in the Khed 
of Poona District, Bombay, situated in [8° 40' N. and 7- 54' 1 
the Poona-Nasik road. Population (1901), 2,019. The municipality 
was established in 1869, and its income during the de< 1 
1901 averaged Rs. 6,100. In 1903-4 the income w 
chiefly derived from a poll tax levied on the pilgrims, numbi 1 
thousands, who resort to Jnaneshvar's shrine. ("nam 
celebrated Sadhu, born in 1271, who is said to have died at Alandi 
in 1300. He wrote a Marathi treatise in verse on theology and 
metaphysics, based upon the Bhagavad Glta, performed several mil 1 
and is buried in an imposing tomb at Alandi. The wall on which h< 
rode to encounter Changdev is still shown to pilgrims. The town 
contains a dispensary, a small public library, and a school with 104 
boys and 5 girls. 

Alang. — Hill fort in Nasik District, Bombay. See K.ULANG AND 

Alapulai. — Seaport in Travancore State, Madras. See A1.1 eppey. 

Alapur. — Town in the Dataganj tahsll of Budaun District, United 
Provinces, situated in 27 55' N. and 79 15' E., 12 miles south-cast of 
Budaun town. Population (1901), 6,327. The town is said to have 
been founded by the emperor Ala-ud-din Alam Shah after his abdication 
in 1450. The only building of any interest is the mosque built during 
the time of Aurangzeb, which, however, contains a fragment of an older 
inscription dated 1307. Alapur is administered under Act XX of 1856, 
with an income of about Rs. 900. A market, held twice a week, is of 
some local importance. The middle school has 86 pupils. 

Alawakhawa. — A celebrated fair held annually in October or 
November at Balia village in the Thakurgaon subdivision of I >inajpur 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam (26 18' N. and 88° 2t' E.), on the 
occasion of the Rash-purnima festival in honour of Krishna. The 
name is derived from the offerings of dried rice with which th 
worshipped. The fair lasts from eight to fifteen days, and 1- attended 
by about 85,000 persons; it is principally a cattle fair, but much 
miscellaneous trading is also done. 

Alawalpur. — Town in the District and tahsll of Jullundur, Punjab, 
situated in 31 26' N. and 75 40' E. Population (1901), 4-4-3- The 
chief trade is in sFesl and gabrun cloth, and in agricultural produce. 
The municipality was created in 1867. The income during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 2,300, and the expenditure Rs. 2,400. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 2,roo, chiefly from octroi; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 2,200. The municipality maintain- a vernacular 
middle school. 


Alibag Taluka. — North-western taluka of Kolaba District, Bombay, 
lying between i8° 29' and 18 49' N. and 72 51' and 73 5' E., with 
an area of 193 square miles. It contains three towns, AlIbag (popula- 
tion, 6,055), tne District and taluka head-quarters, and Chaul (6,517) 
being the largest; and 177 villages. The population in 1901 was 
83,647, compared with 78,129 in 1891, the increase being attributed 
partly to an increased birth-rate, and partly to immigration from plague- 
affected tracts. The density, 433 persons per square mile, is the 
highest in the District. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
2-52 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 17,000. On the coast the climate is 
cooler than in other parts of the District. In the strip of salt rice land 
that borders the Amba river, the temperature is much higher. The 
average annual rainfall, 91 inches, is the lowest in the District. Alibag 
is broken by an irregular range of hills which runs roughly north and 
south. In the west and east stretch gardens of palm-trees and rice 

Alibag Town. — Head-quarters of Kolaba District, Bombay, and of 
the taluka of Alibag, situated in 18 39' N. and 72 53' E., 19 miles 
south of Bombay. Population (1901), 6,055. Alibag was named after 
a rich Muhammadan, who lived in the seventeenth century and who 
constructed several wells and gardens in and near the town, many of 
which still exist l . On approaching the roadstead, the buildings of the 
town are hid from view by a belt of coco-nut trees. The only object 
of mark is the Kolaba Fort, on a small rocky island, about one-eighth 
of a mile from the shore, once a stronghold of the Maratha. pirate 
captain Angria (see Kolaba District). Two miles out at sea, to the 
south-west of the Kolaba Fort, a round tower, about 60 feet high, 
marks a dangerous reef, covered at high water, on which several vessels 
have been wrecked. The town is supplied with drinking-water from 
a lake, constructed in 1876, distant a mile and a half to the north-east, 
on the road to Dharamtar. The gardens of Alibag, which yield coco- 
nuts and some fine varieties of grafted mangoes, are among the best 
in the District. The value of the trade at the port of Alibag during 
the year 1903-4 was: exports, 6-27 lakhs; and imports, 6-6i lakhs. 
The municipality, established in 1864, had an income during the 
decade ending 1901 averaging Rs. 9,600. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 11,000. The magnetic branch of the Bombay Observatory has 
recently been moved to Alibag. The town has a high school, belong- 
ing to the Free Church of Scotland Mission, with 22S pupils, and 
three other schools. Besides the usual revenue and judicial offices, 
there are a Subordinate Judge's court and a civil hospital. 

1 James Forbes {Oriental Memoirs) gives an interesting account of a visit to Alibag 
in 1 77 1. It then belonged to RaghujI Angria, who lived in the Kolaba Fort, but had 
his gardens and stables at Alibag. 


AHganj Tahsil. — Eastern tahsil of Etah District, United IV., 
comprising the parganas of Azamnagar, Barna, PatialT, and Nidhpur, 

and lying between 27 19/ and 27 54' N. and 78 52' and 79 17' I . 
with an area of 526 square miles. Population increased from [61 
in 1891 to 205,560 in 1901. There are 379 villages and six town 
largest of which is AlIganj (population, 5,835), the tahsil head qu 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,11,000, and foi 
cesses Rs. 38,000. The new settlement has raised the demand for 
revenue to Rs. 2,29,000. The density of population, 391 persons pei 
square mile, is the lowest in the District. The Ganges forms the 
northern boundary and the Kali Nad! the southern, and the tahsil thus 
lies entirely in the most precarious tract in the District. Bordering on 
the Ganges is a low area of alluvial land, stretching up to the old high 
bank of the river, below which the Burhiganga, which has been dee] 
and straightened, indicates the old bed. The banks of the Ganges and 
Kali Nadi are both marked by sandy ridges, and where the rivers 
approach each other the light soil almost meets. In the east is found a 
considerable area of rich loam. Heavy rain causes the whole tahsil to 
deteriorate, and reductions of revenue were made between 1891 
1893. In 1898-9 the area under cultivation was 287 square mill 
which 85 were irrigated. The Ganges tarai does not require irrigation 
as a rule ; but the upland portion is served by the Fatehgarh branch 
of the Lower Ganges Canal. Wells supply about two-thirds of the 
irrigated area. 

AlIganj Town.— Head-quarters of the tahsil of the same name, in 
Etah District, United Provinces, situated in 27 29' N. and 79 \\' E., 
34 miles east of Etah town on the road to Farrukhabad. Population 
(1901), 5,835. It was founded by Yakut Khan, a eunuch in the employ 
of the Nawab of Farrukhabad, who was killed in 1748 in battle with the 
Rohillas, and is buried here. The shops are chiefly of mud, but there 
are a few large brick-built houses, the residences of the wealthier traders. 
AlIganj contains a tahs'di and a dispensary. It was for some years 
a municipality, but is now administered under Act XX of 1856 
with an income of about Rs. 1,500. There is a small trade in the 
collection of grain and cotton, which are exported from Thana 
Daryaoganj station on the Cawnpore-Achhnera Railway, 9 miles away. 
The town school has 140 pupils. 

AHganj Sewan.— Town in Saran District, Bengal. See Siwan. 

Aligarh District. — A pargana of the State of Tonk, Rajputana, 
lying between 25 36' and 26 2' N. and 76 3' and 76° 20' E., with an 
area of about 157 square miles. It is hounded on the north, west, and 
east by Jaipur; on the southwest and south by Bundij and on the 
south-east by Kotah. The country is for the most put Bat and open, 
but a range of well-wooded hills passes through the south eastern corner. 


The population in 1901 was 17,063, compared with 19,623 in 1891. 
There are 86 villages. The principal castes are Mlnas, Chamars, Gujars, 
Malis, and Mahajans, forming respectively about 21, 15, 8, 7, and 6 per 
cent, of the total. The district takes its name from its head-quarters 
and, like it, was formerly called Rampura. Little is known of its early 
history. The Hara Rajputs of Bundi are said to have possessed it (or 
parts of it) from 1688 to 1748, and for the rest of the eighteenth century 
it was held alternately by Holkar or the Jaipur chief. The town and 
fort were successfully stormed by a British force under Colonel Don in 
May, 1804, but in the following year were restored to Holkar. However, 
in 1 81 8, on the final defeat of the latter's army at Mehidpur, the district 
was annexed by the British Government, and in 18 19, together with the 
town and fort, was made over as a free gift to Nawab Amir Khan. More 
than half of Aligarh is now held on special tenures by jaglrdars and 
others, and the actual khalsa area is about 67 square miles. Of the 
latter, 59 square miles are available for cultivation, and the net area 
cropped in 1903-4 was 34 square miles, or 58 per cent., only 3 square 
miles being irrigated. Of the cropped area, jowar occupied about 
43 per cent., wheat 20, and ///nearly 19 per cent. The soil is generally 
fertile, though somewhat light. The revenue from all sources amounts 
to about Rs. 36,000, of which five-sixths is derived from the land. The 
head-quarters of the district is a small town situated in 25 58' N. and 
76 5' E., about 24 miles south-east of Tonk city. Its population in 
1 90 1 was 2,584. It is said to have been founded in 1644 by one 
Basant Rai, a Bohra, and was called Rampura after a Rathor Rajput, 
Ram Singh, in whose estate it was situated. The name was changed to 
Aligarh in the time of the first Nawab, Amir Khan. The town lies low 
and is unhealthy in the rains ; it is surrounded by a rampart of consider- 
able strength, and possesses a post office, a lock-up, a vernacular school, 
and a small dispensary for out-patients. 

Aligarh District.— Southernmost District in the Meerut Division, 
United Provinces, lying between 27 29' and 28 n' N. and 
77 29' and 78 38' E., with an area of 1,946 square miles. It is 
bounded on the north by Bulandshahr District ; on the east and south 
by Etah ; and on the west and south by Muttra. The Jumna separates 
the north-west corner from the Punjab District of Gurgaon, and the 
Ganges the north-east corner from Budaun. Bordering on the great 

rivers lie stretches of low land called khadar. The 
asoects Ganges khadar is fertile and produces sugar-cane, while 

the Jumna khadar is composed of hard unproductive 
clay, chiefly covered with coarse jungle grass and tamarisk. The rest of 
the District forms a fertile upland tract traversed by three streams. The 
most important is the Kali Nadi (East), which winds across the eastern 
portion. Between the Kali Nadi and the Ganges lies the Nim Nadi, 


with an affluent known as the Chhoiya. In the west of the D 
the Karon or Karwan flows through u wide valley. The centn 
shallow depression, the drainage of which gradually collects in two 
streams named the Sengar and the Rind or Arind. 

The District is composed of alluvium ; but kankar <>r limi 
found in nodules and also consolidated in masses, from which it is 
quarried for building purposes. Large stretches of land are covered 
with saline efflorescences. 

The flora of Aligarh presents no peculiarities. At the commen< ement 
of British rule the surface of the country was covered with large tra 
jungle, chiefly of dhak {Butea frondosa). The jungle was rapidly cut as 
cultivation extended, and for many years was not replaced. Between 
1870 and 1900, however, the area under groves doubled, and is now 
about 18 square miles. The principal trees are babul {Acacia ara&ica), 
mm (Melia Azadirachta), and mango. Better sorts of timber for building 
purposes have to be imported. 

Wild hog are very numerous in the khadar, and are also found mar the 
canal. Antelope are fairly common in most parts. In the cold season 
snipe and many kinds of duck appear on the swamps. Fish are plentiful, 
but are not much eaten, and there are no regular fisheries in the District. 
The climate of Aligarh is that of the Doab plains generally. The year 
is divided into the rainy season, from June till October; the cold season, 
from October till April ; and the hot season, from April to June. 

The annual rainfall averages about 26 inches, and there is little 
variation in the District ; the north-east receives slightly more rain than 
the south-west. Fluctuations from year to year are considerable. In 
1894-5 the fall was 33 inches, while in 1896-7 it was only 19 inches. 

The few facts in the early annals of the District that can now be re- 
covered centre around the ancient city of Koil, of which the fort and 
station of Aligarh form a suburb. A popular legend 
informs us that Koil owes its origin to one Kosharab, 
a Kshattriya of the Lunar race, who called the city after his own name ; 
and that its present designation was conferred upon it by Balarama, 
who slew the great demon Kol, and subdued the neighbouring regions 
of the Doab. Another tradition assigns a totally different origin to 
the name. The District was held by the Dor Rajputs before the first 
Muhammadan invasion, and continued in the hands of the Raj 
Baran until the close of the twelfth century. In a.m. 1194 Kutb-ud- 
din marched from Delhi to Koil, on which occasion, as the .Muham- 
madan historian informs us, 'those who were wise and acute 
converted to Islam, but those who stood by their ancient faith 
were slain with the sword.' The city was thenceforward administered 
by Musalman governors, but the native Rajas retained mu h ol their 
former power. The District suffered during the invasion of Timur 
vol. v. p 


in the fourteenth century, and participated in the general misfortunes 
which marked the transitional period of the fifteenth. After the capture 
of Delhi by the Mughals, Babar appointed his follower, Kachak All, 
governor of Koil (1526). Many mosques and other monuments still 
remain, attesting the power and piety of the Musalman rulers during 
the palmy days of the Mughal dynasty. The period was marked, here 
as elsewhere, by frequent conversions to the dominant religion. But 
after the death of Aurangzeb, the District fell a prey to the contending 
hordes who ravaged the Doab. The Marathas were the first in the 
field, closely followed by the Jats. About the year 1757, Suraj Mai, 
a Jat leader, took possession of Koil, the central position of which, 
on the roads from Muttra and Agra to Delhi and Rohilkhand, made 
it a post of great military importance. The Jats in turn were shortly 
afterwards ousted by the Afghans (1759), and for the next twenty years 
the District became a battle-field for the two contending races. The 
various conquests and reconquests which it underwent had no per- 
manent effects, until the occupation by Sindhia in 1784. The District 
remained in the hands of the Marathas until 1803, with the exception 
of a few months, during which a Rohilla garrison was placed in the 
fort of Allgarh by Ghulam Kadir Khan. Aligarh became a fortress 
of great importance under its Maratha master, and was the depot 
where De Boigne drilled and organized his battalions in the European 
fashion. When, in 1802, the triple alliance between Sindhia, the Raja 
of Nagpur, and Holkar was directed against the British, the Nizam, 
and the Peshwa, Aligarh was under the command of Sindhia's French 
general, Perron, while the British frontier had already advanced to 
within 15 miles of Koil. Perron undertook the management of the cam- 
paign ; but he was feebly seconded by the Maratha chiefs, who waited, 
in the ordinary Indian fashion, until circumstances should decide which 
of the two parties it would prove most to their interest to espouse. In 
August, 1803, a British force under Lord Lake advanced upon Aligarh, 
and was met by Perron at the frontier. The enemy did not wait after 
the first round of grape from the British artillery, and Perron fled 
precipitately from the field. Shortly after he surrendered himself 
to Lord Lake, leaving the fort of Aligarh still in the possession of 
the Maratha troops, under the command of another European leader. 
On September 4 the British moved forward to the assault ; but they 
found the fortifications planned with the skill of French engineers, 
and defended with true Maratha obstinacy. It was only after a most 
intrepid attack and an equally vigorous resistance that the fortress, 
considered impregnable by the natives, was carried by the British 
assault ; and with it fell the whole of the Upper Doab to the very foot 
of the Siwaliks. The organization of the conquered territory into 
British Districts was undertaken at once. After a short period, during 


which the parganas now composing the District of Allgarh were dis 
tributed between Fatehgarh and Etawah, the nucleus of the present 
District was separated in 1804. Scarcely had it been formed when 
the war with Holkar broke out, and his emissaries stirred up the dis- 
contented revenue-farmers who had made fortunes by unscrupulous 
oppression under the late Maratha. rule to rise in rebellion against 
the new Government. This insurrection was promptly suppn 
(1805). A second revolt, however, occurred in the succeeding year; 
and its ringleaders were only driven out after a severe assault on their 
fortress of Kamona. Other disturbances with the revenue-farmers 
arose in 181 6, and it became necessary to dismantle their forts. The 
peace of the District was not again interrupted until the outbreak of 
the Mutiny. 

News of the Meerut revolt reached Koil on May 12, 1857, and was 
at once followed by the mutiny of the native troops quartered at Allgarh, 
and the rising of the rabble. The Europeans escaped with their lives, 
but the usual plunderings and burnings took place. Until July 2 the 
factory of Mandrak was gallantly held by a small body of volunteers 
in the face of an overwhelming rabble; but it was then abandoned, 
and the District fell into the hands of the rebels. A native committee 
of safety was formed to preserve the city of Koil from plunder ; but 
the Musalman mob ousted them, and one Naslm-ullah took upon 
himself the task of government. His excesses alienated the Hindu 
population, and made them more ready to side with the British on 
their return. The old Jat and Rajput feuds broke out meanwhile with 
their accustomed fury; and, indeed, the people indulged in far worse 
excesses towards one another than towards the Europeans. On 
August 24 a small British force moved upon Koil, when the rebels 
were easily defeated, and abandoned the town. Various other bodies 
of insurgents afterwards passed through on several occasions, but the 
District remained substantially in our possession ; and by the end of 
1857 the rebels had been completely expelled from the Doab. 

There are many ancient mounds in the District where carvings of 
the Buddhist and early Hindu periods have occasionally been exposed, 
but none of these has been explored. The principal Muhammadan 
buildings are at Allgarh and Jalali. 

The District contains 23 towns and 1,753 villages. At the last 
four enumerations the population was as follows: (1872) 1,073,256, 
(1881) 1,021,187, (1891) 1,043,172, and (1901) Population 
1,200,822. In 1876-7 the District suffered from 
famine, and in 1879 from fever. Owing to the extension of canal- 
irrigation, it escaped in 1896-7. There are six tahslls— AtraulI, 
Aligarh, Iglas, Khair, Hathras, and Sikandra Rao— the head 
quarters of each being at a place of the same name. The chief towns 

p 2 


are the municipalities of Koil or Aligarh, the head-quarters of the 
District, Hathras, Atrauli, and Sikandra Rao. The following 
table gives the principal statistics of population in 1901 : — 



Number of 



C.S- . 

1)— •'" 0>~ 

"o JUTJ 



r H c> 

fe*rt <« £ 




'■C <u 

C 4J "H C ~ 


"" E 



- rt 

8 c S § 

rt c 




ti' c a > c 





£ !2 u 








+ 20.7 





34 2 



+ 16.6 

n,5 2 3 

Iglas . 






+ io-S 








+ 18.7 








+ 8.3 


Sikandra Rao 
District total 






+ !5-5 







+ 15-1 


The most numerous castes among Hindus are the Chamars 
(leather-workers and labourers), 223,000; Brahmans, 131,000; Jats, 
108,000; Rajputs, 91,000; Banias, 45,000; Lodhas (cultivators), 
40,000 ; Gadarias (cultivators and shepherds), 36,000 ; Korls (weavers), 
30,000; Kachhis (cultivators), 22,000; and Khatiks (poulterers and 
gardeners), 21,000. Jats belong chiefly to the west of the United 
Provinces, and Kachhis and Lodhas to the centre. The Musalmans 
are for the most part descended from converted Hindus. Shaikhs 
number 26,000; Pathans, 20,000; Rajputs, 13,000; Saiyids, 6,000; 
and Mewatls, 6,000. Agriculturists form 47 per cent, of the total 
population. Rajputs own 23 per cent, of the total area, Jats 20 per 
cent., Brahmans 14 per cent., and Banias 13 per cent. Brahmans, 
Rajputs, and Jats hold the largest areas as cultivators. General labour 
supports 13 per cent, of the population, personal services 10 per cent., 
weaving 3 per cent., and grain-dealing 3 per cent. 

Of the 4,900 native Christians, more than 4,700 belong to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church,- which started work here in 1885 and 
has ten branches in the District. The Church Missionary Society 
has had a station at Aligarh since 1863, and also has a branch at 

In the western tahsl/s, Khair and Iglas, there are distinct sandy 
ridges, and the eastern part of the District also contains light soil. 
Ail There are other sandy tracts near the rivers. In 

the central depression the chief characteristic is 
the presence of extensive plains of barren land called usar. In many 
cases these are covered with saline efflorescences (reh). There is 
a sharp distinction between the homelands and the outlying portion 
of each village, the former receiving most of the manure. The best 
lands are double cropped, and sugar-cane is little grown. 



The tenures of the District are those commonly found, but a larger 
area than usual is held zamindari, which includes 2,199 tnahdh 
out of 3,334. Of the remainder, 649 tnahals are pattidari and 486 
bhaiyachara. There are also a few talukdari estates, the chief of 
which, Mursan, is described separately. Settlement is invariably 
made in these with the subordinate proprietors or biszvddars, who 
pay into the treasury the amount due to the talukdars. The principal 
agricultural statistics for 1903-4, according to the village papers, are 
given below, in square miles : — 







Khair . 
Sikandra Rao 



35 6 













1 1 


1,448 764 


The chief food-crops, with their area (in square miles) in 1903-4, 
are: wheat (386), barley (281), jowar (188), gram (203), maize (139), 
bdjra (148), and arhar (78). The most important of the other 
crops is cotton (138). 

Some experiments have been made in the reclamation of f/sar land) 
but only with partial success. The most important of these was the 
establishment of a dairy farm at Chherat near Allgarh. In some places 
plantations of babul trees have been made in barren soil. Satisfactory 
features are the increase in the area of wheat grown by itself for export, 
and in the double-cropped area. The area under gram is decreasing. 
From 1891 to 1900 the advances under the Agriculturists' Loans Act 
amounted to Rs. 61,000, of which Rs. 14,000 was lent in 1896-7. In 
1903-4, Rs. 1,700 was advanced. Slightly larger advances have been 
taken under the Land Improvement Loans Act, amounting to'Rs. 72,000 
during the ten years ending 1900, and to as much as Rs. 13,000 in 
1903-4. A large agricultural show is held annually at Allgarh. 
Important drains have been made in several parts of the District, 
especially in the central depression ; but in the south-west the spring- 
level has sunk considerably. 

There is no peculiar breed of cattle or sheep, and the best cattle are 
imported from beyond the Jumna. Horse-breeding has, however, 
become popular, and a number of stallions are maintained by Govern- 
ment. Since 1903 operations have been in charge of the Army Remount 

The Upper Ganges Canal passes through the centre of the District- 


East of the Kali Nadl the Anupshahr branch of the same work supplies 
part of the Atraull tahsil, and west of the Karon the Mat branch supplies 
Khair. The Lower Ganges Canal crosses the east of the District, but 
supplies no irrigation to it. The Iglas and Hathras tahslls are at present 
practically without canal-irrigation, but two distributaries have been 
projected to water the tract east of the Karon. The total area irrigated 
from canals in 1903-4 was 229 square miles. Well-irrigation is at 
present still more important, the area supplied in this way being 
515 square miles. Other sources are insignificant. The Irrigation 
department maintains about 330 miles of drains. 

The chief mineral product of the District is kankar, which is used 
for road-making and for building. In the Sikandra Rao tahsil saltpetre 
and glass are manufactured from saline efflorescences. 

The principal manufactures of the District are the weaving of cotton 

cloth and of cotton rugs and carpets, the latter being especially noted. 

Since 1904 the manufacture of indigo has been almost 

communications. abandone d ; and not one of seventy-five factories, 

which used to employ 4,500 hands, was working in 

that year. The postal workshops supply the Post Office department 

with numerous articles, and employ about 300 hands. There are three 

lock-works with 320 workmen. Although the area under cotton has 

decreased, there were more than twenty steam gins and presses with 

1,781 hands in 1903, and one cotton-spinning mill with 516 hands. 

The District also contains an important dairy farm, and there is a small 

manufacture of dried meat for Burma. The most striking feature of 

the industries in Aligarh is the large extent to which they have been 

developed and maintained by native capital and management. 

Grain and cotton are the principal articles of export ; but oil- 
seeds, saltpetre, and country glass are also considerable items. Sugar, 
rice, piece-goods, spices, metals, and timber form the chief imports. 
Hathras is by far the most important centre of trade, ranking second 
in the United Provinces to Cawnpore. The importance of Koil or 
Aligarh is, however, increasing, and Atraull and Harduaganj are also 
thriving. The commerce of the District is largely with Cawnpore, 
Bombay, and Calcutta. 

Aligarh is well supplied with means of communication. The East 
Indian Railway passes through it from south to north, and a branch 
of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway from Moradabad and Bareilly 
meets it at Aligarh. The south of the District is crossed by the metre- 
gauge Cawnpore-Achhnera section of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway ; 
and Hathras, which lies on this line, is also connected by a broad- 
gauge line with the East Indian Railway. 

There are 243 miles of metalled roads, all in charge of the Public 
Works department, though 125 miles are maintained at the cost of Local 


funds. Besides these, 338 miles of unmetalled roads are maintained 
by, and at the cost of, the District board. Every tahslli town is con- 
nected by metalled road with the District head-quarters. The through 
lines which cross the District are the grand trunk road, the Muttra- 
Kasganj road, and the Agra-Moradabad road. Avenues of trees are 
maintained on about 90 miles. 

Allgarh suffered severely from famine in former times. In 1783-4 
many villages were deserted, and the memory of this terrible famine 
long survived. Droughts periodically caused more or 
less severe scarcity in the early years of the nineteenth 
century, culminating in the great famine of 1837. By 1860-1 the canal 
had made its influence felt; and in 1868-9 distress was confined to the 
areas not protected, and grain was exported to the Punjab and Central 
Provinces. In 1887 there was considerable distress in the same areas; 
but in 1896-7 the District hardly suffered at all, owing to recent ex- 
tensions and improvements in the canal system. Private charity was 
sufficient to relieve the many immigrants from more distressed areas. 

The Collector is usually assisted by a member of the Indian Civil 

Service, and by three or four Deputy-Collectors recruited in India. 

A tahslldar is stationed at the head-quarters of each . . . . . A . 

„ . . . .. ~ _ . Administration. 

tahsil. Besides the ordinary staff, two Executive 

Engineers of the Upper and Lower Ganges Canals are stationed in 

the District. 

There are three Munsifs, a Subordinate Judge, and an additional 
Subordinate Judge. The District and Sessions Judge is assisted by an 
additional Judge, and both of these have civil and criminal jurisdiction 
over the whole of Bulandshahr (excluding the Sikandarabad tahs'tl), 
Aligarh, and Etah Districts. Organized dacoities are common, especially 
in the south of the District. Cattle-lifting is still prevalent in the tract 
bordering on the Jumna, where many small Gvijar and Jat landholders, 
in co-operation with receivers in the Punjab, levy blackmail from the 
owners of lost cattle, who prefer to recover their property in this 
way rather than call in the police. Haburas and Aherias are small 
criminal tribes, who are responsible for many thefts and burglaries ; but 
they differ widely, the former being mostly gipsies and the latter resident 
criminals. Infanticide was formerly prevalent, but no villages are now 

A District of Allgarh was first formed in 1804, but several additions 
and alterations were made both before and after 1824, when the District 
approximately took its present shape. The early land revenue settle- 
ments were for the usual short periods, and were chiefly remarkable for 
the length of time during which the revenue was farmed, instead of 
being settled direct with the village zamindars. In 1833 the first regular 
settlement was commenced, and the circumstances of the talukas were 



carefully examined. Where village proprietors did not exist, the talukdar 
received full proprietary rights ; where the original proprietors survived, 
settlement was made with them, and the amount payable to the talukdar 
through Government was fixed. The settlement, which was based on 
assumed rent rates, amounted to 18-4 lakhs on the present area. The 
revenue at the next revision between 1867 and 1874 was also based on 
soil rates ; but these were tested by the recorded rates, though the 
latter were generally rejected as inadequate, and the standard rates were 
modified according to the circumstances of individual villages. The 
demand was fixed at 21-5 lakhs. Another revision was made between 
1899 and 1903, when the rent-rolls were found to be generally accurate, 
but the competition rents were reduced in calculating the revenue, and 
the occupancy rents were enhanced. The new revenue amounts to 
24-5 lakhs, and the incidence is Rs. 1-9 per acre, varying from Rs. i-6 
to Rs. 3-4 in different tahs'ils. 

The total receipts, in thousands of rupees, on account of revenue 
from land and from all sources have been : — 

1 880- 1. 

1 890- 1. 



Land revenue 
Total revenue 


25 ; °7 




There are four municipalities and nineteen towns administered under 
Act XX of 1856. Outside these, local affairs are managed by the 
District board, which has an income of about 2 lakhs, chiefly derived 
from local rates. The expenditure in 1903-4 was 2 lakhs, of which 
Rs. 73,000 was spent on roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police is in charge of a force of 
4 inspectors, 96 subordinate officers, and 442 constables, besides 374 
municipal and town police, and 2,033 rural and road police. The 
District jail contained a daily average of 350 prisoners in 1903. 

In 1901 the number of persons able to read and write was 2-9 per 
cent. (5-2 males and 02 females), Musalmans showing a slightly higher 
percentage than Hindus. While the number of public institutions fell 
from 221 in 1880-1 to 204 in 1900-1, the pupils increased from 6,722 
to 10,060. In 1903-4 there were 226 schools with 11,760 pupils, 
including 563 girls, besides 350 private schools with 5,592 pupils, 
of whom 27 were girls. The most important institution is the 
Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at AlIgarh. Of the public 
institutions, 4 are managed by Government and 160 by the District 
and municipal boards, the rest being chiefly aided schools. In 1903-4 
the total expenditure on education was i-8 lakhs, of which Rs. 52,000 
was met from fees, Rs. 45,000 from Local and municipal funds, and 
Rs. 25,000 from Provincial revenues. 


There are 15 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
185 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 126,000, 
of whom 2,591 were in-patients, and 5,963 operations were performed. 
The total expenditure was Rs. 23,000, chiefly met from Local funds. 

About 42,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, repre- 
senting 35 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is compulsory only 
in the municipalities. 

[District Gazetteer (1875, under revision) ; W. J. I). Burkitt, 
Settlement Report (1903).] 

Aligarh Tahsil (or Koil). — Central northern taksil of Aligarh 
District, United Provinces, comprising the parganas of Koil, Morthal, 
and BaraulT, and lying between 27 46' and 28 8' N. and 77 55' and 
78 17' E., with an area of 356 square miles. The population rose 
from 229,767 in 1891 to 268,012 in 1901. There are 342 villages and 
three towns : Aligarh or Koil (population, 70,434), the District and 
tahsil head-quarters, Jalali (8,830), and Harduaganj (6,619). The 
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 4,57,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 76,000. On the east the tahsil is bounded by the Kali Nadi. In 
the centre lies a depression which has been much improved by two 
main-drainage cuts, and the tahsil is now one of the most prosperous 
in the District. Ample irrigation is provided by the Upper Ganges 
Canal. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 246 square miles, of 
which 167 were irrigated. 

Aligarh City. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of the same 
name in the United Provinces, situated in 27 53' N. and 78 4' E., on 
the grand trunk road, at the junction of a branch of the Oudh and 
Rohilkhand with the East Indian Railway, 876 miles by rail from 
Calcutta and 904 miles from Bombay. The native city lies west of 
the railway and is generally called Koil or Kol, Aligarh being strictly 
the name of a fort beyond the civil station, on the east of the railway. 
Population has increased, especially in the last ten years. At the last 
four enumerations the numbers were as follows: (1872) 58,539, (1881) 
62,443, 0891) 61,485, and (1901) 70,434. Hindus number 41,076 
and Musalmans 27,518. 

Various traditions explain the name of the city as derived from one 
Kosharab, a Kshattriya, or from a demon named Kol, who was slain by 
Balarama, brother of Krishna. Buddhist and ancient Hindu remains 
prove the antiquity of the place ; but nothing is known of its history 
till the twelfth century, when it was held by the Dor Rajputs, who were 
defeated by Kutb-ud-din, after a desperate struggle, in 1194. Koil 
then became the seat of a Muhammadan governor, and is recorded in 
the Ain-i-Akbarl as head-quarters of a sarkdr in the Subah of Agra. 
The later history of the place has been given under Aligarh District. 
The fort lies three miles from Koil, and is surrounded by marshy 


land and pieces of water which add to its strength, especially in the 
rains. It was called Muhammadgarh in the sixteenth century, after 
Muhammad, the ruler of Koil under the Lodis. About 1717 it was 
called Sabitgarh after Sabit Khan, another governor, and about 1757 
the Jats changed the name to Ramgarh. The name Allgarh was given 
by Najaf Khan, who took the place. It was strengthened by its 
successive holders ; and De Boigne and Perron, the European generals 
in Maratha employ, took great pains to render it impregnable. In 1803 
Lord Lake captured the fort by storm, and said in his dispatch : ' From 
the extraordinary strength of the place, in my opinion British valour 
never shone more conspicuous.' The native troops at Allgarh joined 
the Mutiny of 1857 ; and the town was plundered successively by the 
Mewatis of the neighbouring villages, by the passing rebel soldiery, by 
Nasim-ullah during his eleven days' rule, and by the British troops. 

The town of Koil has a handsome appearance, the centre being 
occupied by the lofty site of the old Dor fortress, now crowned by a 
mosque built early in the eighteenth century, which was repaired during 
1898-9 at a cost of more than Rs. 90,000, subscribed by residents in 
the District. A pillar, erected in 1253 to commemorate the victories 
of Sultan Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, was pulled down in 1862. In and 
about the town are several tombs of Muhammadan saints. Koil 
contains a general hospital with seventy-nine beds, and a female 
hospital with eighteen beds; and the Lyall Library, opened in 1889, is 
a handsome building. The civil station has been adorned by a magni- 
ficent clock tower and by a fine public hall opened in 1898. The 
chief want of the city hitherto was a satisfactory drainage scheme, as a 
large part of it is built on swampy land round the fort, and the excava- 
tions from which earth was taken have become insanitary tanks. The 
outfall drains for sullage have now been completed. 

Allgarh-Koil was constituted a municipality in 1865. During the 
ten years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged Rs. 64,000. 
In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 95,000, chiefly derived from octroi 
(Rs. 8r,ooo). Expenditure amounted to a lakh, including general 
administration (Rs. 9,000), public safety (Rs. 16,000), drainage 
(Rs. 22,000), and conservancy (Rs. 22,000). 

Koil has a considerable export trade in grain, indigo, and cotton, 
but it is not so important as Hathras. It is, however, becoming to 
some extent a manufacturing centre. The Government postal work- 
shop, which turns out numerous articles required by the department, 
includes a steam printing press, employing 220 men in 1903. There 
are three large lock factories, employing more than 300 hands, and 
a number of smaller concerns. Three cotton gins and one press 
employed 285 workmen in 1903. The dairy farm at Chherat, a few 
miles away, was opened by Government, but it is now privately owned 


and employs about 100 hands. There is also a small manufacture of 
inferior art pottery, and dried meat is prepared for export to Burma. 

The municipality manages three schools and aids two others, 
attended by 1,000 pupils. The District board maintains the District 
and tahslli schools with 287 and 175 pupils respectively, three branch 
schools with more than 300 pupils, and two girls' schools with 50. 
Allgarh is, however, chiefly celebrated for the Muhammadan Anglo- 
Oriental College. This institution owes its foundation to the labours 
of the late Sir Saiyid Ahmad Khan, K. C.S.I. , to improve the condition 
of his co-religionists. He founded a society, called the Allgarh Insti- 
tute, with the primary purpose of inquiring into the objections felt by 
the Musalman community to the ordinary education offered by Govern- 
ment. In 1875 a school was opened, which was attended by 59 
boys during the first year. Notwithstanding opposition and apathy, 
the movement progressed rapidly, and Sir Saiyid ultimately obtained 
support from all parts of India. The school was affiliated to the 
Calcutta University up to the First Arts standard in 1878, and up to 
the B.A. standard in 1881. It was subsequently affiliated to the 
Allahabad University, which was not founded till 1887. In 1904 there 
were 353 students in the school, 269 in the college, and 36 in 
the law classes ; 76 of the total number were Hindus. Since the 
foundation-stone of the permanent buildings was laid in 1877 there 
have been large extensions. The college now includes five quadrangles 
of students' quarters, and also hires several houses for students, and it 
contains a magnificent hall and a hospital. The income and expendi- 
ture amount to about a lakh, and the Government grant is Rs. 18,000 
annually. Students come from all parts of India, and even from 
Burma, Somaliland, Persia, Baluchistan, Arabia, Uganda, Mauritius, 
and Cape Colony. Between 1893 and 1902 the number of degrees in 
Arts taken by students of the Allgarh College was 24 per cent, of the 
total number conferred on Muhammadans in the whole of India. The 
Allgarh Institute society is extinct ; but the Gazette, which was formerly 
issued by it, is now issued by the honorary secretary to the college. 

Allgarh Tahsil. — -North-eastern tahsll of Farrukhabad District, 
United Provinces, comprising the parganas of Amritpur, Paramnagar, 
and Khakhatmau, and lying between 27 14'' and 27 40' N. and 79°32 / 
and 79 45' E., with an area of 182 square miles. Population increased 
from 73,218 in 1891 to 85,848 in 1901. There are 203 villages, but 
no town. Allgarh, the tahsll head-quarters, is a small village. The 
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,18,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 19,000. The density of population, 472 persons per square mile, 
is below the District average. The tahsil is a damp alluvial tract, lying 
along the left bank of the Ganges, and crossed by the Ramganga, 
which has an erratic course, changing almost every year. After heavy 


rains a large portion is under water, and several channels connect the 
two rivers. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was in square miles, 
of which 17 were irrigated. The wells are usually small shallow pits, 
from which water is raised in an earthen pot tied to a lever (dhenkli). 
Where floods are not feared, sugar-cane and poppy are largely grown. 

Alikher. — Head-quarters of the paigah taluk of Chincholi, Bidar 
District, Hyderabad State, situated in 17 51' N. and 77 17' E., 
21 miles north of the Manjra river. Population (1901), 5,740. 

AH Masjid. — Village and fort in the Khyber Pass, North-West 
Frontier Province. 

Alipore Subdivision. — Head-quarters subdivision of the District of 
the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, lying between 22 8' and 22 38'' N. 
and 88° 7' and 88° 39' E., with an area of 1,164 square miles, of which 
450 are included in the Sundarbans. The subdivision is a deltaic 
tract containing numerous marshes, and in the south there is a network 
of sluggish channels and backwaters. The population in 1901 was 
671,269, compared with 600,274 in 1891, the density being 577 per- 
sons per square mile. These figures do not include the suburbs of 
Calcutta. See Calcutta, Suburbs of. The subdivision contains six 
towns, South Suburbs (population, 26,374), Tollygunge (12,821), 
Rajpur (10,713), Baruipur (4,217), Jaynagar (8,810), and Budge- 
Budge (13,051) ; and 1,683 villages. The head-quarters are at Alipore, 
within the Calcutta municipality. 

Alipore Town {Alipur). — Head-quarters of the District of the 
Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, situated in 22 32' N. and 88° 21' E. 
Alipore is a southern suburb of Calcutta, and is included within the 
Calcutta municipality. It contains Belvedere House, the residence of 
the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, and is a popular quarter of residence 
for Europeans. It is also a cantonment for native troops, the force 
stationed there including a native infantry regiment and a detach- 
ment of cavalry. The receipts and expenditure of the cantonment 
fund averaged Rs. 2,500 during the decade ending 1901 ; in 1903-4 
the income was Rs. 2,600, and the expenditure Rs. 2,700. Orphanganj 
is a well-supplied market situated at Kidderpore less than a mile away, 
and managed by the Collector of the Twenty-four Parganas. Alipore 
contains the usual public offices. A large District and Central jail has 
accommodation for 1,837 prisoners, who are employed on the manu- 
facture of gunny cloth and bags, jute twine, iron and woodwork, and 
mustard oil, and in making up pice packets of quinine for sale in post 
offices. Almost all the products are sold to different Government 
departments, the profits earned in 1903 amounting to Rs. 58,000. 
There is also a reformatory, which contained 238 boys at the end of 
1903 ; the principal handicrafts taught are carpentry, canework, turning, 
painting and polishing, tinwork and smithy, printing and type-setting, 


book-binding, shoe-making, tailoring, and gardening. A distiller) at 
Russa is managed by the Collector of Excise, Calcutta. I he gard< n 
of the Agri-Horticultural Society are situated to the south of Belv< 
and the Zoological Gardens to the north. 

Alipur Subdivision. — Eastern subdivision of Jalpaiguri District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 26 24/ and 26 51' N. and 
89 2,' and 89 53' E., with an area of 1,142 square miles. The sub 
division is a level strip of country, intersected by streams that debouch 
from the mountains, and containing large stretches of forests ; but in the 
north-east the level surface is broken by the Sinchula hills, which tower 
abruptly from the plains. The population in 1901 was 119,353, com- 
pared with 72,447 in 1 89 1. It contains the military cantonment of 
Buxa (population, 581) and 178 villages, one of which, Alipur, is the 
head-quarters. The subdivision forms part of the Western Duars, 
and owing to the introduction of tea cultivation, has developed very 
rapidly since its acquisition from Bhutan ; but it is still sparsely 
populated and has a density of only 105 persons per square mile. The 
chief markets are at Alipur, Buxa, and Falakata. 

Alipur Village. — Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same name 
in Jalpaiguri District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 26 29' N. 
and 89 32' E., on the north bank of the Kaljani river. Population 
(1901), 571. Alipur is an important seat of trade on the Cooch Behar 
State Railway, and is connected by road with Jalpaiguri and Buxa. An 
annual fair is held, lasting for a month from the middle of February, at 
which agricultural produce and stock are exhibited and prizes given. 
The station contains the usual public buildings'; the subsidiary jail 
has accommodation for 22 prisoners. Alipur is the head-quarters of 
a detachment of the Northern Bengal Mounted Rifles. 

Alipur Tahsll. — Southern tahsll of Muzaffargarh District, Punjab, 
lying between 28 56' and 29 46' N. and 70 31' and 71 9' E., with an 
area of 924 square miles. The Indus bounds it on the west and the 
Chenab on the east, till they meet at the southern apex of the tahsll. 
The country lies low, and the southern portion remains under water for 
months during the hot season. The population in 1901 was 130,595, 
compared with 122,068 in 1891. It contains the towns of Alipur _ 
(population, 2,788), the head-quarters, and Khairpur (2,257); and 
182 villages. SItpur is a place of historical interest. The land revenue 
and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 2-7 lakhs. 

Alipur Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name in 
Muzaffargarh District, Punjab, situated in 29 23' N. and 70 55' E., 51 
miles south of Muzaffargarh town. Population (1901), 2,788. It is said 
to have been founded by All Khan, one of the Nahar princes of SItpur. 
The municipality was created in 1873. The income during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 5,700, and the expenditure Rs. 6,300. 


The income in 1903-4 was Rs. 6.300, chiefly from octroi; and the expendi- 
ture was Rs. 6,300. There is an export trade in molasses and indigo to 
Sind and Khorasan. Snuff is also manufactured largely for exportation. 
The municipality maintains an Anglo-vernacular middle school 

Alipura. — A petty sanad State in Central India, under the Bundel- 
khand Agency, with an area of about 73 square miles. It is bounded 
on the north, south, and east by the Hamlrpur District of the United 
Provinces, and on the west by the Garrauli j agir. The chief belongs to 
the Parihar clan of the Agnikula group of Rajputs. One Garib Das, in 
1708, entered the service of the Panna chief: and his grandson, Achal 
Singh, received the territories now forming this holding from Raja 
Hindupat of Panna, in 1757. When All Bahadur of Banda acquired 
possession of Bundelkhand, he confirmed Dlwan Pratap Singh in the 
jagir, who thereupon called the principal town Alipura after his suzerain. 
In 1808 Pratap Singh's possession was recognized by the British Govern- 
ment, and a sanad was granted to him. Pratap Singh had four sons, the 
eldest of whom, Rao Pancham, on succeeding in 1835, divided the 
into four parts. This gave rise to disturbances, and the division, 
which had never been reported to the British Government, was cancelled. 
Diwan Hindupat, who was in possession in 1857, was rewarded with a 
khilat of Rs. 5,000 for loyal service during the Mutiny. An adoption 
sanad was granted him in 1862. The present chief, Chhatrapati Singh, 
succeeded by adoption in 187 1. In 1 87 7 he received the title of Rao 
Bahadur, in 1887 the C.S.I., and in 1903 the title of Raja. The 
jagirdar bears the hereditary title of Rao. 

The population at the last three enumerations was: (1881) 14.891, 
(1891) 15,280, and (1901) 14.592. Hindus number 13.730. or 94 per 
cent., and Musalmans 796. The State contains 31 villages. Of the total 
area, 18 square miles, or 25 per cent., are cultivated, of which 3 square 
miles are irrigable : 10 square miles are under forest : 15 are cultivable : 
and the rest is waste. The soil is of moderate fertility, and grows fair 
crops of all the ordinary grains. 

The chief administers the State, and has power to try all criminal 
cases, except those of a serious nature involving a sentence of death, 
transportation, or imprisonment for life, which are dealt with by the 
Political Agent. The total revenue is Rs. 30,000, of which Rs. 23,000, 
or 76 per cent., is derived from land. Alipura, the chief town of the 
State, is situated in 25" 1:' X. and 79 c 21' E.. on the high road between 
Jhansi and Satna, 9 miles from Harpalpur station on the Jhansi- 
Manikpur branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, and 9 miles 
from the cantonment of Xowgong. It is picturesquely placed on rising 
ground about half a mile from the Harpalpur- Xowgong road, the 
principal building being a small fort, the residence of the chief. The 
town has a population (1901) of 2,493. 


Ali-Rajpur. — A guaranteed chiefship in Central India, under the 
Bhopawar Agency, Lying bet wren 22 o' and 22 34' N. and 7 : 
and 74 34' E., with an area of 836 square miles. It is situated in the 
Rath division of Malwa, and was formerly known as All, or All-mohan, 
from two forts, All and Mohan, of which the latter is now in the < 
Udaipur State. Its present name is derived from All, and the new 
capital town of Rajpur. It is bounded on the north by the Panch 
Mahals District of Bombay; on the south by the Narbada river ; on 
the west by the Rewa Kantha Agency of Bombay ; and on the east 
by several Thakurats of the Bhopawar Agency. The countrv is a poor 
one, intersected by numerous narrow valleys and successive rang* 
low hills, which are densely covered with jungle. It is watered by the 
Narbada river and many minor streams, of which the Sukar and Hatni 
are the most important. The climate is subject to extremes of heat 
and cold, the temperature ranging between 106 and 50 . The annual 
rainfall averages about 35 inches. 

Nothing very certain is known about the early history of this State. 
It was founded by one Ude Deo or Anand Deo. He is said to have 
been a Rathor of the same family as that now ruling in Jodhpur, who, 
after wandering in this part of the country, finally took up his abode 
at All and founded the fort there in 1437 : but the relationship is not 
admitted by the great Rajputana clan. Anand Deo had two great- 
grandsons, Gugal Deo and Kesar Deo. Of these, Gugal Deo succeeded 
to Ali-Rajpur, while Kesar obtained the territory which now forms 
the Jobat State. In 1818 the State was virtually in the power of 
a Makrani adventurer known as Musafir Makrani, who was acting as 
minister to Rana Pratap Singh. On his death, the Makrani managed 
the State in trust for the Rana's posthumous son, Jaswant Singh. He- 
was opposed by Kesri Singh, a nephew of the late chief, but the British 
authorities supported Jaswant Singh, the Makrani being put in as 
manager during the minority. An engagement was at the same time 
mediated between him and the Dhar Darbar by which, in lieu of tribute, 
the sayar (customs) duties in Ali-Rajpur were made over to that State. 
This system led to endless disputes between the officials of the two 
States; and finally an arrangement was effected in 182 1, when the 
Dhar Darbar handed over the pargana of Berasia to British manage- 
ment, by which the British Government was to pay the Dhar I )arbar 
Hdli Rs. 10,000 a year in lieu of tribute, and collect Rs. 11.000 
from Ali-Rajpur, all feudal rights on the part of the Dhar State ceasing 
with this new engagement. From the balance of Rs. 1.000, Rs. 250 
is paid towards the up-keep of the Agra-Bombay road police. Jaswant 
Singh died in 1862, leaving a will by which the State was to be divided 
between his two sons. The Government, after consulting the neigh- 
bouring chiefs, set it aside, and the eldest son, Gang Deo, succeeded, 


suitable provision being made for his younger brother. Gang Deo was 
deposed for incompetency in 187 1, and the younger brother, Rup Deo, 
succeeded. He died childless in 1881 ; and although no sanad of 
adoption is held by the chief, the British Government decided to forgo 
the escheat, and a boy named Bijai Singh was selected from the Sondwa 
Thakur's family. Opposition was made by Thakur Jit Singh of Phulmal, 
who also belonged to the ruling family. He raised the BhTls, and pro- 
ceeded to plunder and raid, but was suppressed by a force of the Malwa 
Bhll Corps and Central India Horse. Bijai Singh died in 1890, and 
was succeeded by his cousin Pratap Singh of Sondwa, the present chief, 
who was educated at the Daly College at Indore. The ruler bears the 
title of Rana, and is entitled to a salute of 9 guns. 

The population of the State has been : (1881) 56,827, (1891) 70,091, 
and (1901) 50,185, giving a density of 60 persons per square mile. 
Population decreased by 28 per cent, during the last decade, mainly 
through the severity of the famine of 1899- 1900 and the sickness which 
followed it. The number of villages is 307. Animists (mainly Bhilalas 
and Bhils) number 41,850, or 83 per cent, of the total; Hindus, 6,440, 
or 13 per cent. ; and Musalmans, 1,735, many of these being Makranis 
connected with the family of the former manager of the State. The 
Canadian Presbyterian Mission has stations at Amkhut, Sardi, and 
Mendha; but native Christians numbered only 15 in 1901. The chief 
castes and tribes are Bhilalas, 24,000, or 47 per cent. ; Bhils, 15,800, 
or 31 per cent.; and Patlias, 2,000. About 64 per cent, of the popu- 
lation are returned as supported by agriculture, and 21 per cent, by 
general labour. 

The soil is, generally speaking, poor and unproductive, while the 
Bhilalas and Bhils, who form the majority of the population, are very 
indifferent agriculturists ; their methods are primitive, and they cultivate 
little more than is required for their personal requirements. Of the 
total area, no square miles are cultivated, but only 282 acres are 
irrigated. Of the remainder, 317 square miles are cultivable and 250 
are under forest, the rest being uncultivable waste. Of the cropped 
area, bajra occupies 20 square miles ; maize, 19 ; jowar, 16 ; and sanwl 
(sanwan), n square miles. Since the famine of 1 899-1900, the 
cultivated area has diminished by 30 per cent. 

Trade generally is not in a very flourishing condition, owing to want 
of good communications. The principal means of communication is 
the Ratlam-Godhra branch of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India 
Railway, of which the Dohad and Bodeli stations are respectively 55 
and 50 miles distant from Rajpur. British post offices have been 
opened at Rajpur, Chandpur, and Bhabra. 

The State is divided into five parganas — Bhabra, Rath, Nanpur, 
Chhaktala, and Chandpur — each under a kamasdar, who is also magis- 


trate and revenue officer. The chief manages the State with the 

assistance of a minister, who lias the immediate control of the adminis- 
trative machinery, except that of the medical and forests departments, 
which are under the Agency Surgeon and Forest officer respectively. 
In general matters and in civil judicial cases the chief is the final 
authority. In criminal cases he exercises the powers of a magistrate 
of the first class, all cases beyond his jurisdiction being tried by the 
Political Agent. The British codes are followed as a general guide in 
the courts. 

Up to a recent date, the land revenue was collected in kind, but it 
is now taken in cash. The total normal revenue is 1 lakh, of which 
Rs. 43,000 is derived from land, Rs. 10,000 from customs, and 
Rs. 15,000 from excise. The expenditure on the general administration, 
including the chief's establishment, is Rs. 33,000 ; on police, Rs. 17,000 ; 
tribute (paid to Dhar State), Rs. 8,600; and a contribution of Rs. 1,271 
is paid towards the maintenance of the Malwa Bhll Corps. The land 
revenue is assessed on the ' plough ' of land, the rates varying from Rs. 8 
to Rs. 19 an acre. The police force consists of 191 men, and a jail is 
maintained at Rajpur. The State supports seven primary Hind! schools, 
with 187 pupils. Other institutions include one private English school, 
and the mission schools at Amkhut Sardi and Mendha. In 1901 only 
1-3 per cent, of the population, almost all males, could read and write. 
Dispensaries have been opened at Rajpur and Bhabra. 

The chief place in the State is Ali-Rajpur, better known locally as 
Rajpur, situated in 22 n' N. and 74° 22' E., 120 miles south-west of 
Indore ; 9,700 feet above the sea. Population (1901), 3,954. It was 
made the capital in place of the old capital of All about 1800 by Musafir 
Makrani, when he was dlwan to Rana Pratap Singh. A State guest- 
house, a sarai, a school, a public library, a jail, a hospital, and a British 
post office are situated in the town. 

Aliwal. — Village in the Jagraon tahsil of Ludhiana District, Punjab, 
situated in 30 56' N. and 75 38" E., the scene of the battle fought by 
Sir Harry Smith on January 28, 1846, against the Sikhs. The Sikh 
force, which amounted to about 15,000 men, was posted in the lowlands 
close to the Sutlej, with the right resting on the village of Bhundri on 
the high bank, and the left on Aliwal close to the river. East of 
Bhundri the high bank or ridge, which separates the valley of the Sutlej 
from the uplands, sweeps inwards in a semicircle to the distance of 5 
or 6 miles, crowned with villages at intervals, and leaving a wide open 
plain between it and the river. It was across this plain that the British 
army on the morning of January 28 moved to the attack, the capture of 
the village of Aliwal, the key of the position, being the first object. The 
Sikh guns were as usual well served ; but Aliwal was in the hands of 
inferior troops, and the resistance was spiritless. By the capture of the 

vol. v. Q 


village the Sikh left was turned ; but round Bhundri their right, 
composed of enthusiastic Khalsa troops (trained by Europeans), made 
a most determined stand, and the whole battle is still called by 
natives the fight of Bhundri. The most gallant part of the action was 
the charge of the 16th Lancers on the unbroken Sikh infantry, who 
received them in squares. Three times the Sikhs were ridden over, but 
they reformed at once on each occasion ; and it was not till the whole 
strength of the British was brought to bear on them that they were at 
length compelled to turn their backs. The Sikh troops were either 
driven across the river, in which many of them were drowned, or 
dispersed themselves over the uplands. The British loss was consider- 
able, amounting to 400 men killed and wounded. A tall monument, 
erected in the centre of the plain to the memory of those who fell, marks 
the scene of the action. 

Allahabad Division. — A Division on the south-western border of 
the United Provinces, extending from the northern terraces of the 
Vindhyas to the Ganges, and lying between 24° n' and 26 58' N. and 
78 io' and 82 21" E. On the north it is bounded by the Etawah and 
Farrukhabad Districts of the Agra Division ; on the north-east the 
Ganges divides the greater part of the Division from Oudh, a portion of 
Allahabad District extending north of the river ; Mirzapur District lies 
on the east ; and the southern and western boundaries are formed by 
Native States of the Central India Agency. The head-quarters of the 
Commissioner are at Allahabad City. The number of inhabitants at 
the last four enumerations was as follows: (1872) 5,377,928, (1881) 
5,588,287, (1891)5,757,121, and (1901) 5,540,702. The portion of the 
Division lying south-west of the Jumna, called Bundelkhand (British), 
suffered more severely than any other part of the Provinces in the 
famine of 1896-7. The total area is 17,270 square miles, and the 
density of population is 321 persons per square mile, compared with 
445 for the Provinces as a whole. The Division has the largest area, 
but is only fifth in regard to population. In 1901 Hindus formed 
90 per cent, of the total and Musalmans 9 per cent. Members 
of other religions included Christians (14,989, of whom 5,005 were 
natives) and Jains (13,240). The Division contained seven Districts, 
as shown in the table on next page. 

Cawnpore, Eatehpur, and part of Allahabad lie in the Jumna- 
Ganges Doab, and a portion of Allahabad extends north of the Ganges. 
The southern portions of Allahabad, Banda, Hamirpur, and Jhansi 
lie on the outer terraces of the Vindhyas, or are studded with outlying 
hills of the same system, while the remaining portions of these 
Districts and also Jalaun stretch northwards in a level plain. 

The Division contains 10,950 villages and 51 towns, but most of the 
latter are very small. The largest towns are Cawnpore (population, 


197,170 with cantonments), Allahabad (172,032 with cantonmei 
Jhansi (55,724 with cantonments), and Banda (22,565). Cawnpore 
is the largest trading and manufacturing centre in the Provii 
Allahabad is the seat of Government and an important religious centre ; 
and Jhansi derives its importance from its commanding position. 
The southern Districts contain a fine series of Hindu temples and 
fortresses, the memorials of the Chandel rulers of Mahoba. 



in square 



Land revenue 

and cesses 


in thousands 

of rupees. 

Cawnpore . 


Banda .... 

Hamlrpur . 

Allahabad . 









10,5 I 





Allahabad District (I/ahdbdd). — Easternmost District in the 
Allahabad Division, United Provinces, lying between 24 47' and 25 
47' N. and 8i° 9' and 82 21/ E., with an area of 2,811 square miles. It 
is bounded on the north by the Partabgarh District of Oudh ; on the 
east by Jaunpur and Mirzapur ; on the south by the Native State of 
Rewah and Banda District ; and on the west by Fatehpur. The Ganges 
forms part of the northern boundary and then crosses 
the District ; and the Jumna, after flowing along the 
southern border, meets the Ganges near the centre. 
These two rivers divide Allahabad into three well-marked subdivisions :- 
(1) The Doab or triangular wedge of land enclosed by the converging 
channels of the Ganges and Jumna. This consists of a fertile tract 
drained by the Sasur Khaderl, a tributary of the latter. Near the 
Ganges there is usually a stretch of alluvial land {kachhar or char), and 
along the Jumna and the lower course of the Sasur Khaderl are extensive 
ravines. The elevated plain between is rich and well wooded, while the 
ravines are bare and desolate. Near the Jumna stands the Pabhosa 
hill, which is the only rock found in the Doab. (2) The trans-Ganges 
tract lying north of that river. This is more fertile than the Doab, and 
is remarkably well wooded. It contains many swamps or jhlh near 
which rice is cultivated. (3) The trans-Jumna tract, lying south of the 
Jumna and Ganges, is the largest of the three and the most varied in 
its physical aspects. The drainage is entirely into the Ganges and the 
Jumna, the main feeder being the river Tons (Southern). Immediately 
south of the Ganges a low range of stone hills enters the District from 


the east. West of the Tons another set of hills form smaller ranges, 
which reach the Jumna. The country north of these hills resembles the 
ordinary Doab, but the south is composed of black soil interspersed by 
low rocky hills, and is really a part of Bundelkhand. Beyond the 
Belan, on the southern boundary of the District, the massive scarps o 
the Kaimur range rise in tiers from a small fertile valley. 

North of the Jumna and Ganges the District consists solely of 
Gangetic alluvium ; but in the south three subdivisions of the Vindhyan 
rocks are represented : the Kaimur, the Lower Rewah, and the Upper 
Rewah. The lowest or Kaimur is a massive sandstone with a bold 
scarp to the north ; the Upper Rewah forms a similar, but loftier, scarp 
of sandstone ; and the low ground between is formed of the Lower Rewah 
group of shales and sandstone. 

The flora of the District presents no peculiarities. North of the 
Ganges magnificent groves of mango are found, while the mahua (Bassia 
latifolid) grows plentifully in the west of the Doab, and the pipal 
(Fiats religiosa) south of the Jumna. Chhiul or dhak jungles (Butea 
frotidosa) exist in most parts, and the babul {Acacia arabica) grows on 
the black soil. 

In the Doab and trans-Ganges tract jackals and hog are the only 
common wild animals. South of the Jumna herds of antelope and wild 
hog commit serious inroads on the crops. ' Ravine deer ' (gazelle) and 
leopards are found in the hills, and occasionally a tiger is seen. 
Wolves are common. The usual species of game-birds are plentiful ; 
and all the rivers and the swamps north of the Ganges, and the 
artificial tanks south of the Jumna, provide fish. 

The Doab and trans-Ganges tracts are fairly healthy, and their climate 
is that of the Gangetic plain generally. South of the Jumna the heat is 
excessive. Even at Allahabad city the shade temperature reaches 113 
or 114 in ordinary years, the highest recorded being 120 . The hot 
season and rains last from April to November. 

The annual rainfall for the whole District averages 37 inches, the 
variations in different parts being small. From year to year, however, 
fluctuations are considerable. Thus in 1880 only 17 inches of rain 
were received, and in 1894 more than 76 inches. 

Tradition connects the country round Allahabad with Varanavata, 
where the Pandava brothers spent part of their exile ; but a similar 
__. claim is made for other places. Rama and Slta are 

popularly believed to have passed through the Dis- 
trict on their self-imposed exile. For a long time it was believed that 
Kosam, in the south, was the Kausambhi mentioned in the Maha- 
bharata and the Puranas. The earliest historical fact known about 
the District is that, about the fourth or fifth century, it was included 
in the dominions of the Guptas of Magadha. Early in the seventh 


century it appears from the narrative of Hiuen Tsiang, the CI 
pilgrim, that Allahabad was in the dominions of Harshavardhana, tin- 
great ruler of Kanauj. 

From this time nothing is known of the history ol Allahabad until 
the invasion of Shahab-ud-dln Ghori in 1194. The District was then 
conquered by the Musalmans, in whose hands it remained until the 
introduction of British rule. During the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries the country round Allahabad was included in the fief of Kara, 
at which town the governor had his head-quarters. Kara was the scene 
of the famous meeting between Muizz-ud-din and his father in 1286. 
The son had just succeeded Balban on the throne of Delhi, and the 
father was making his way up from Bengal to oppose him. They met 
at Kara, and, inspired with an aversion to bloodshed, conferred with 
each other from boats in the middle of the Ganges, and resolved to 
march together to the capital. Allahabad was in the possession of 
Ala-ud-din at the end of the thirteenth century; and it was in the Ganges 
sands between Manikpur and Kara that he basely murdered his uncle, 
the aged Sultan Flroz Shah. Under succeeding princes, the history of 
the District is a tedious narrative of ambitious revolts and their bar- 
barous suppression. About 1529 it was wrested from the Pathans by 
Babar. Prince Salim, afterwards known as the emperor Jahangir, 
resided at Allahabad as governor during the lifetime of his father ; and 
the mausoleum in the Khusru-bagh commemorates Sallm's rebellious 
son. Early in the eighteenth century, when the Bundelas under 
Chhatar Sal were beginning their national movement against the 
Mughal power, Muhammad Khan, the Bangash Nawab of Farrukhabad, 
was governor of the Subah of Allahabad ; and the western portion, now 
in Hamlrpur and Banda Districts, was overrun by Bundelaand Maratha 
chieftains. During the subsequent anarchy the Oudh Nawabs at 
one time held the supremacy ; at another the ubiquitous Marathas 
had brief possession; and still later, in 1765, the British restored the 
country to Shah Alam, the phantom emperor of Delhi. For some years 
Allahabad was the seat of the imperial court; but in 1771 Shah Alam 
removed to Delhi and threw himself into the arms of the Marathas. 
The British held that his eastern dominions were forfeited, and sold 
the abandoned province to the Nawab of Oudh for 50 lakhs of rupees. 
Shah Alam remained a state prisoner in the hands of the Marathas until 
1803, when the victories of Lord Lake set him free. Meanwhile 
difficulties arose from time to time with regard to the payment of the 
Oudh tribute, which was permanently in arrears; and in 1801 the 
Nawab agreed to a compromise, by which he made over his territory 
between the Ganges and the Jumna to the British Government in lieu 
of tribute. The District of Allahabad formed part of the tract thus ceded. 

During the Mutiny of 1857 the sepoys at Allahabad revolted (Juni 6), 



and massacred most of their officers. At the same time the populace 
rose throughout the city, set free the prisoners in jail, and murdered 
every European and Eurasian upon whom they could lay hands. 
Happily, however, the British forces held the fort with the aid of a 
Sikh detachment ; and on June 1 1 Colonel Neill arrived to take the 
command. The insurgents were promptly attacked and driven off; 
and within a fortnight after the outbreak the city and station were once 
more in the hands of the authorities. Soon afterwards Havelock 
arrived at Allahahad ; and, the position having been secured, the main 
army passed on for Cawnpore. No further disturbance arose, and 
the peaceful course of administration in the District has never since 
been interrupted. 

The District is rich in archaeological remains. Besides the objects 
of interest at Allahabad City, which range from a pillar erected by 
Asoka in the third century b.c. to buildings of the Mughal period, 
ruined temples and forts, coins, and other memorials of the past have 
been found at many places. Chief among these are Kosam, Jhusi, 
Garhwa, where interesting inscriptions of the Gupta kings were dug up, 
and Singraur. 

Allahabad contains 3,473 villages and 13 towns. Population in- 
creased from 1872 to 1 89 1, but decreased in the next decade, owing to 
the famine of 1896-7. The numbers at the last four 
enumerations were as follows : (1872) 1,396,241, 
(1881) 1,474,106, (1891) 1,548,737, and (1901) 1,489,358. There are 
nine tahslls — Allahabad, Sirathu, Manjhanpur, Soraon, Phulpur, 
Handia, Karchana, Bara, and Meja — each named after its head- 
quarters. The only considerable place is Allahabad City, which 
is both the administrative head-quarters of the District and the capital 
of the United Provinces. The following table gives the chief statistics 
of population in 1901 : — ■ 




Number of 


01 . 


c3 u 

n in 
n be- 







een I 
nd 19 

ons a 
ead a 








— 1.1 








I > 1 45 


Sirathu . 






- o-6 


Manjhanpur . 






- w 


Soraon . 






— 01 








- 2.9 


Handia . 





— 2-0 








- 5-6 









District total 











i,4 8 9>35 s 


- 3-8 

A G RIC UL TURK , 3 , 

Hindus form 86 per cent, of the total population, and Musaln 
13 per cent., and there are 6,800 Christians. In the hilly tracts south 
of the Jumna, population is not so dense as in the Doab and trans 
Ganges tracts, and the same part of the District suffered most sev< n Ij 
in the famine of 1896-7. About 90 per cent, of the population speak 
Eastern Hindi, chiefly the Awadhl dialect, and most of the remainder 
Western Hindi. 

As might be expected in one of the great religious centres of the 
Hindus, Brahmans are the most numerous caste, numbering 177,000. 
Other large castes are: — Chamars (leather-workers and cultivators), 
155,000; Ahlrs (graziers and agriculturists), 153,000; Kurmls (agricul- 
turists), 111,000; Pasls (toddy-drawers and labourers), 91,000; Rajputs, 
63,000 ; Korls (weavers and labourers), 45,000 ; and Kachhis (cul- 
tivators), 35,000. Kurmls, Kachhis, and Pasls belong chiefly to the 
central parts of the Province. There are 15,000 Kols in tin: jungly 
tracts of the trans-Jumna area, who are more numerous in Central 
India and the Central Provinces. The Muhammadans are largely 
descended from converted Hindus, though 72,000 call themselves 
Shaikhs. Julahas (weavers) number 34,000, and Pathans 20,000. 
Agriculture supports more than 69 per cent, of the total population, 
and general labour 8 per cent., the District being essentially agricultural, 
apart from the single large city. 

Of the 2,230 native Christians in 1901, 1,075 belonged to the 
Anglican communion, 349 were Roman Catholics, 253 Presbyterians, 
and 130 Methodists. The American Presbyterian Mission was opened 
here in 1836, the branch of the Church Missionary Society in 1858, 
and the American Methodist Mission in 1873. Allahabad is the head- 
quarters of the Anglican Bishop of Lucknow, and also of a Roman 
Catholic bishop. A village called Muirabad, situated close to Allah- 
abad city, is exclusively inhabited by native Christians. 

Along both banks of the Ganges are found rich alluvial lowlands 

called kachhar, which produce magnificent spring crops, though they 

are flooded in the rains. From the kachhar on the . 1x 

, , , • , r 1 •, • 1 Agriculture, 

north bank a high ridge of barren soil rises to the 

upland, which is at first composed of light loam, and then sink*; a little 

to the clay area, which includes good rice land. Sugar-cane is also 

grown in this tract to a larger extent than elsewhere. A similar 

distribution of soil is found in the Doab, where, however, jhlls are less 

frequent, and near the Jumna and Sasur Khaderl the clay and loam of 

the central portion turn to sand, while in the extreme south west a dark 

friable soil is found, resembling the black soils of Bundelkhand. This 

tract also produces rice. South of the Jumna the country is less fertile, 

consisting of a tract of the black soils which arc entirely dependent on 

seasonable rain for cultivation. Besides the ordinary food-crops, oil- 



seeds are the most important product of this tract ; but the jungles 
afford grazing, and cattle are kept in large numbers. A small fertile 
valley lies in the south between the Belan and the scarp of the 
Vindhyan plateau. 

In the trans-Jumna tract are a few large estates, some of which are 
held on talukdari tenure ; but the prevailing tenure is patt'idari. In the 
Doab and trans-Ganges tracts 3,300 mahals are held zamlndari, 2,001 
patt'idari, and 219 bhaiydchard. The main agricultural statistics for 
1903-4 are given below, in square miles : — 






Allahabad . 













5 1 



























Meja . 










Rice and gram covered 363 and 406 square miles respectively, or 
22 and 24 per cent, of the net area cropped. Barley (314 square miles), 
bajra (184), jowar (147), and wheat (168) are the other food-crops 
of importance. Oilseeds (65 square miles) are chiefly grown south of 
the Jumna, and cotton (15) in the Doab; poppy covered n square 
miles, and sugar-cane and hemp (sa/i) 13 and 18 square miles 

The agricultural conditions of the District have improved little within 
recent years. North of the Ganges a slight increase has taken place in 
the net cultivated area and a more decided rise in the area bearing 
double crops ; but the area in either case is largely occupied by the 
inferior food-crops of the people. In the Doab the net cultivation has 
not expanded, though the double-cropped area has increased. Less 
cotton is grown in both these tracts than thirty years ago, and the area 
under indigo has contracted still farther. The trans-Jumna tracts had 
advanced to some extent when the famine of 1896-7 threw them back 
considerably. In all three tracts a large area produces poppy, and 
in the trans-Ganges area and Doab an increase in the number of 
masonry wells is to be noted. A little has been done in the trans- 
Jumna tracts to prevent erosion of land and hold back water by making 
small earthen dams. Advances under the Land Improvement and 
Agriculturists' Loans Acts are not considerable, except in adverse 
seasons. A total of about 2-8 lakhs was advanced during the ten years 


ending 1900, chiefly between 1895 and [898. The average for thi 

four years was only Rs. 10,000. One or two small agricultural banks 
have recently been founded. 

The indigenous breed of cattle is very inferior, and all the best 
animals are imported. Dealers from Bharatpur and Hansi regularly 
bring cattle, while near the Jumna the small but sturdy bullocks of 
Banda. are common. There is no horse-breeding, and the ponies bred 
locally are very inferior. Goats are kept in all parts, but sheep are 
chiefly found north of the Ganges. 

The District depends mainly on wells and swamps or jhlls for irriga- 
tion. In 1903-4, 420 square miles were irrigated, or one-fourth of the 
net cultivated area. Wells supplied 219 square miles, jhih or tanks 170, 
and canals 28. Rivers are hardly used at all for this purpose, supplying 
only about 3 square miles. The canal-irrigation is confined to the 
Doab, and is supplied by distributaries of the Fatehpur branch of 
the Lower Ganges Canal. It is increasing rapidly, as the cultivators 
appreciate its advantages. There is very little irrigation in the trans- 
Jumna tract, and it is limited almost entirely to the area below the hills. 
The tank or swamp irrigation is most important north of the Ganges 
and in the Manjhanpur tahsll in the Doab. Water is invariably raised 
from the wells in a leathern bucket drawn by bullocks. 

The chief mineral product of the District is sandstone, which provides 
excellent building stone. Kankar is found abundantly in several places, 
and is used for metalling roads and for making lime. 

The District is mainly agricultural, and there are few industries 
beyond those connected with the simple requirements of the people. 
Sugar is refined in a few places north of the Ganges, 
and a little coarse cloth is made all over the District. commun j cat i ns. 
Sarai Akil is noted for the manufacture of brass 
vessels. In Allahabad city an iron foundry and a coach-building and 
furniture factory employ more than 300 hands, a brick and tile factory 
700 to 800, and three of the largest printing-presses 1,900 hands. The 
East Indian Railway has a castor-oil factory at ManaurT, employing 
400 or 500 persons. There are still about 20 indigo factories with 
about 2,000 hands. 

The agricultural products of the District— grain, cotton, oilseeds, 
sugar, and ghl— form the principal exports, while metals, salt, and piece- 
goods are the chief imports. Trade was formerly carried largely by 
river, and there is still a small import of country produce, such as grain 
and oilseeds, both on the Jumna and on the Ganges; but it is dwindling, 
and the export trade has ceased. Sirsa is the chief trading centre 
outside Allahabad city; but many smaller markets serve as collecting 
and distributing centres. 

The main line of the East Indian Railway [.asses through the I >istrict 


from end to end, close to the southern bank of the Ganges. A branch 
line leaves this just before it crosses the Jumna, opposite Allahabad city, 
and gives through communication with Bombay. A branch of the Oudh 
and Rohilkhand Railway connects Allahabad with Fyzabad, and other 
lines have been projected to unite it with Rae Barell, Jaunpur, and 
Benares. Communications by road are fairly good: 172 miles are 
metalled, and are maintained by the Public Works department, though 
the cost of 48 miles is charged to Local funds. The remaining 656 miles 
are unmetalled. Avenues of trees are kept up on 441 miles of road. 
The chief route is the grand trunk road, which runs close to the line of 
the East Indian Railway in the Doab, and crosses to the north side 
of the Ganges at Allahabad. Other good roads lead from Allahabad 
city towards Nagpur, to Fyzabad, and to Jaunpur. 

Allahabad suffered from famine in 1770 and in 1783, but not so 
severely as other Districts. In 1803-4, immediately after cession, famine 
was severe, and remissions of revenue and advances 
for seed and cattle were made. Distress was felt in 
1837-8, but the revenue was collected almost in full. The same remarks 
apply to the year 1 860-1 ; but in 1869 famine was severe in the trans- 
Jumna tract, and by May 8,000 to 10,000 labourers were employed on 
relief works. The distress was greatly aggravated by the form of 
paralysis known as lathyrism, which is caused by eating kisari ddl 
(Lathyrus sativus). The same tract suffered in 1873-4, but in 1877-8 
escaped lightly. Famine visited the District in 1896 and 1897, and 
again the trans-Jumna tract suffered most severely. The previous 
seasons had been adverse, and relief in the southern portion commenced 
in March, 1896, the numbers relieved reaching 9,500 in June. The 
rains of that year, however, ceased prematurely, and the whole District 
was involved. Immigrants poured in from Rewah State, and cholera 
broke out. In May, 1897, the average daily number of persons relieved 
rose to 289,000. Altogether 7-9 lakhs of revenue was remitted, and 
16-3 lakhs suspended. 

The Collector is usually assisted by two members of the Indian Civil 
Service, and by six Deputy-Collectors recruited in 
India. A tahslldar resides in each tahsil, and an 
officer of the Opium department is stationed in the District. 

The civil courts are those of the Munsif, Sub-Judge, Judge of Small 
Causes Court, and District Judge, the latter being also Sessions Judge. 
There is a Cantonment Magistrate in the Allahabad cantonment. Crime 
is of an ordinary character, and not specially remarkable ; but the city 
has a bad reputation for burglary, forgery, and cheating. Infanticide 
was formerly suspected, but no persons are now under surveillance. 

At the cession in 1801 the District of Allahabad included part of 
Fatehpur, which was removed in 1826. In the five years preceding 1801 


the Oudh government had collected about 15-6 lakhs annually, includ 
ing the revenue of the Fatehpur parganas. The first British settle 
ment, which was made in 1802 for three years, realized nearly 28 lakhs 
a year. It was in reality a farm to three persons, one of whom was the 
Raja of Benares, and was marked by severity and inequality. The three 
farmers took advantage of the numerous sales for arrears of revenue 
which followed to acquire land paying 6 lakhs. An improvement was 
effected in 1805, when the revenue was reduced to 23 or 24 lakhs, and 
engagements were taken directly from the village zaminddrs, but two 
fifths of the District still remained in the hands of contractors. In the 
succeeding settlements, which were for short periods, further advances 
were made in the method of settlement. From 1825 the special com- 
mission, appointed under Regulation I of 182 1, set aside many of the 
fraudulent transfers which had been made since the commencement of 
British rule. In a few villages settlement operations were carried out 
under Regulation VII of 1822 ; but the provisions of this law were too 
minute to be successful. The first settlement, preceded by a regular 
survey, was carried out in 1838-9, under Regulation IX of 1833. Rent 
rates were fixed on a consideration of the reports of subordinate officers 
and the previous assessments, and villages were hastily inspected. A 
lump assessment was then announced on a considerable area, and it 
was distributed over individual villages by the proprietors themselves 
The revenue on the present area was raised from 19-3 to 21 lakhs. 
This demand was revised between 1867 and 1878 by a number of 
officers. The general method was to select rates of rent found to be 
actually paid for different classes of soil, and value each village by 
applying those rates. Reductions of revenue and transfers of villages 
had brought the revenue down to 19-8 lakhs, and this was raised to 
23-8 lakhs. In 1901 the question of a revision of the settlement was 
considered, and it was decided to extend the term in the trans-Gang's 
and Doab tracts for ten years. The three trans-Jumna fa/isi/s, which 
suffered most severely in the famine of 1896-7, have, however, been 
resettled, and the greater part has been brought under the system of 
fluctuating assessments prescribed for Bundelkhand, under which the 
revenue is liable to revision every five years. The revenue demand in 
1903-4 was 23-5 lakhs, the incidence being Rs. 1-5 per acre, varying 
from R. o-S to Rs. 2-2 in different parts. The new assessment in 
the trans-Jumna tract will reduce the demand by 1-2 lakhs. 

Collections on account of land revenue and total revenue have been, 
in thousands of rupees :— 

1880-1. 1890-1. 



Land revenue 
Total revenue 

23,72 24,44 
28,99 40,19 


4°, 7 5 


Allahabad City is the only municipality in the District, but twelve 
towns are administered under Act XX of 1856. Beyond the limits of 
these, local affairs are administered by the District board, which had an 
income of 1-7 lakhs in 1903-4. The expenditure in the same year was 
i-6 lakhs, of which Rs. 73,000 was spent on roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police usually has two Assistants, 
and commands a force of 5 inspectors, 197 subordinate officers, and 
857 constables, besides 371 municipal and town police, and 3,803 vil- 
lage and road police. There are 35 police stations. The Central jail 
contained a daily average of 1,487 prisoners in 1903, and the District 
jail 598. A workhouse for European vagrants is maintained at 

The District takes a high place as regards the literacy of its in- 
habitants, of whom 4>3 per cent. (8 males and o-6 females) could read 
and write in 1901. The number of public institutions rose from 
170 with 5,593 pupils in 1880-1 to 214 with 8,777 pupils in 1900-1. 
There were 242 such schools in 1903-4 with 10,815 pupils, of whom 
972 were girls, besides 156 private schools with 2,303 pupils, including 
5 girls. Of the public institutions, 8 were managed by Government 
and 137 by the District and municipal boards. Three Arts colleges, 
a training college, and a normal school are situated at Allahabad city. 
The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 amounted to 3-4 lakhs, 
of which Rs. 68,000 was derived from fees, Rs. 1,45,000 from Provincial 
revenues, and Rs. 72,000 from Local funds. 

There are 19 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
259 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 160,000, of 
whom 2,800 were in-patients, and 7,300 operations were performed. 
The city of Allahabad contains the first eye hospital opened in the 
United Provinces. The total expenditure in 1903 was Rs. 71,000, of 
which Rs. 14,000 was derived from subscriptions and endowments. 

About 33,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, repre- 
senting the low proportion of 22 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination 
is compulsory only in the Allahabad municipality and cantonment. 

[F. W. Porter, Settlement Report, 1878; District Gazetteer (1884, 
under revision).] 

Allahabad Tahsil.— Head-quarters tahsil of Allahabad District, 
United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of Chail, lying 
between 25 17' and 25 35' N. and 8i° 28' and 8i° 55' E., with an 
area of 296 square miles. Population fell from 342,446 in 1891 to 
338,820 in 1901. There are 308 villages and two towns, including 
Allahabad City (population, 172,032). The demand for land revenue 
in 1903—4 was Rs. 3,07,000, and for cesses Rs. 51,000. The high 
density of population, 1,145 persons per square mile, is due to the 
inclusion of the city. The tahsil forms the eastern extremity of the 



Doab and lies entirely between the Jumna and Ganges, which meel 
on its eastern border. The Sasur Khaderi drains the centre and 
joins the Jumna. North of this river is a level, fertile upland pro 
ducing good crops, while to the south the soil is lighter and broken 
by ravines. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 210 square 
miles, of which 45 were irrigated. Wells supply more than two thirds 
of the irrigated area, and tanks or jhils about one-fourth, chiefly south 
of the Sasur Khaderl. A small but increasing area is served by the 
Fatehpur branch of the Lower Ganges Canal. 

Allahabad City (Ilahabad). — Head-quarters of the District of the 
same name, and also the seat of government for the United Provinces 
and a cantonment. It is situated in 25 26' N. and 8i° 50' E., on the 
left bank of the Jumna, on the wedge of land formed by its confluence 
with the Ganges ; distant by rail 564 miles from Calcutta and 844 from 
Bombay. The city is the fifth largest in the United Provinces. At the 
last four enumerations its population (including cantonments) was as 
follows: (1872) 143,693, (1881) 160,118, (1891) 175,246, and (1901) 
172,032. In 1901 the population included 114,679 Hindus, 50,274 
Muhammadans, and 6,000 Christians, more than half of whom were 
Europeans or Eurasians. The population in municipal limits was 
159,545, and in cantonments 12,487. 

The ordinary Hindu name of the place is Prayag or Prag (' place of 
sacrifice '), and for many centuries the junction of the two great rivers 
has been a holy spot. According to ordinary belief . 

a third river, the SaraswatI, which disappears in the 
sand south-west of the Punjab, reappears here, to unite with the 
Ganges and the Jumna. The earliest monument of antiquity is 
a pillar, now situated in the 'fort, which bears an inscription of 
Asoka of the third century B.C., another recording the victories 
of Samudra Gupta in the fourth century a.d., and a third of 
the Mughal emperor, Jahanglr. There is, however, reason to believe 
that the pillar was erected by Asoka some distance from its present 
position, as it contains an address to the rulers of Kausambhi (see 
Kosam). The Chinese pilgrim, Hiuen Tsiang, in the seventh century, 
found Prayag inhabited by many heretics (i.e. Hindus), who regarded 
the place as very holy. He describes a large temple with a great tree 
before it, from which people threw themselves down. Muhammadan 
writers repeat the story of suicide from this tree as late as the sixteenth 
century ; but Jahanglr is said to have cut it down. The priests in the 
famous underground temple in the fort still exhibit the stump of a tree, 
called the undying banyan, which shows a few sickly leaves when the 
great bathing fair is held, and, according to the sceptical, is renewed 
every year. 

In the early days of Muhammadan rule Prayag was included in the 


province of Kara, and was not of much political importance. Akbar, 
however, erected the magnificent fort, and from his time the place was 
known as Alhabas, Ilahabas, or Ilahabad, and became the capital of a 
Subah or province. Towards the end of Akbar's reign, prince Salim, 
afterwards the emperor Jahangir, held the governorship of the province 
and resided in the fort. Throughout the eighteenth century the town 
and province experienced the usual reverses of Upper India during the 
disastrous period of Mughal decline. From 1720 to 1729 they were 
held by Muhammad Khan, Nawab of Farrukhabad ; but he was recalled, 
as he had failed to repel the Bundelas, who had gained part of the 
province with the help of the Marathas. A few years later, in 1739, 
a Maratha raid reached the city itself; but in 1747 the government 
passed to Safdar Jang, Nawab of Oudh. After his victory over the 
Oudh forces at Khudaganj in 1750, Ahmad Khan of Farrukhabad 
advanced on Allahabad, and burnt the town, but had not reduced the 
fort when news of a Maratha advance on his own state caused his with- 
drawal in 1 75 1. The town and adjacent territory were transferred from 
the Nawab of Oudh to the emperor, Shah Alam II, after the battle of 
Buxar in 1764, and the fort was garrisoned by British troops. A few 
years later the emperor joined the Marathas and granted the Allahabad 
territory to them, whereupon the British declared it to have escheated 
and sold it to the Nawab of Oudh for 50 lakhs. In 1801 the city, 
with the District and other territory, was ceded to the British. The 
growth of administrative needs led to the establishment of a Board of 
Revenue and Chief Civil and Criminal Courts at Allahabad in 1831, 
and in 1834 the city became the head-quarters of a separate administra- 
tion ; but in the following year the capital was removed to Agra, though 
the Board of Revenue and Chief Courts were not transferred till 1843. 
After the suppression of the Mutiny Allahabad again became the 
Provincial capital. 

During the Mutiny of 1857, Allahabad was the scene of one of the 
most serious outbreaks which occurred in the United Provinces. The 

M „ . news of the mutiny at Meerut reached Allahabad on 

The Mutiny. __ _, \ . . 

May 12. The native troops in the cantonment con- 
sisted of the 6th Bengal Native Infantry, a wing of a Sikh regiment, and 
two troops of Oudh Irregular Horse. A small body of European 
artillerymen were brought in from Chunar fort when news of the spread 
of the rebellion arrived. Disquieting rumours soon prevailed in Allah- 
abad; but precautionary measures were taken in the fort and approaches 
to the city, and affairs remained quiet for some time. The sepoys 
volunteered to march against the rebels at Delhi, and at the sunset 
parade on June 6 the thanks of the Governor-General were read to the 
regiment for their loyalty. At nine o'clock that very evening they rose 
in open rebellion, fired upon and murdered most of their officers, and 


plundered the treasury. Many military and civil officers were in the 
fort at the time of the rising. The city rabble joined in the plunder 
and bloodshed ; the jail was broken open, the dwellings of the < Christian 
residents sacked and burnt, and every European and Eurasian captured 
was murdered in cold blood. The work of destruction only a 
from want of anything further to destroy, and a sort of provisional 
insurgent government was established in the city, under a man called 
'The Maulvi,' who proclaimed the restored rule of the Delhi emperor. 
The little garrison of Europeans and loyal Sikhs held together in the 
fort until the arrival of Colonel Neill with a party of the Madras 
Fusiliers on June n. On the morning after his arrival, Colonel Neill 
assumed the offensive against an insurgent rabble in the suburb of 
Daraganj, which was carried and destroyed. On June 15, after having 
dispatched the women and children to Calcutta by steamer, Neill 
opened the guns of the fort upon the suburbs of Kydganj and Mutthl- 
ganj, which were occupied after some opposition. On June 17 the 
Magistrate proceeded to the city kotwdll and re-established his autho- 
rity. The rebel leader, the Maulvi, escaped ; and on the morning of 
the 1 8th, Neill with his whole force marched into the city, which he 
found deserted. Havelock arrived shortly after, and the united force 
moved on to Cawnpore. Although the surrounding country remained 
for a time in rebellion, there was no further disturbance in Allahabad 

The native city occupies a well-drained site along the high bank of 
the Jumna some distance west of the fort, which crowns the point at 

which the Ganges and Tumna unite. The houses are 

, - .. . . , Situation, 

not, as a rule, 01 striking appearance, and they are 

arranged in a network of narrow streets, intersected by a few main 
roads. North of the city lie the civil lines and cantonments, most of 
which were laid out after the Mutiny in fine broad streets, extending to 
the bank above the low alluvial land bordering on the Ganges. The 
suburb called Daraganj, which lies north of the fort along the Ganges, 
contains the modern mansions of some of the wealthy merchants. 
Many changes have been made in the fort, which have greatly detracted 
from its picturesque appearance as a relic of antiquity. It now contains 
barracks, a magazine, and arsenal. A magnificent building which dates 
from Mughal times, and has hitherto been used as part of the arsenal, is 
now being restored, as far as possible, to its original condition. Below 
the fort stretches a wide expanse of sand on which is held the annual 
fair in January. Large crowds of pilgrims assemble to bathe at the 
junction of the great rivers, and in 1904 it was estimated that 250,000 
were present on the great bathing day. Every twelve years the gather- 
ing is much larger, and in 1894 a million people were present. "West of 
the native city is situated a garden originally laid (nit by Jahangir, which 


contains the tomb of prince Khusru, whose name the garden now bears, 
and the tombs of his mother and sister. Khusru was the eldest son of 
Jahangir, and after the death of Akbar attempted to seize the throne at 
Agra, but was defeated and imprisoned. The buildings are plain but 
massive, and the interior of the principal mausoleum is adorned with 
painted flowers and birds. Among noteworthy modern buildings are 
the Government Offices, the High Court and Bar Library, the District 
Courts, the European Barracks, the Anglican and Roman Catholic 
Cathedrals, several churches, the Muir Central College, the Mayo 
Memorial Hall, and the Thornhill and Mayne Memorial, which contains 
a public library and is situated in a beautiful park. Government House 
stands in a fine park-like enclosure, on slightly rising ground, and has 
a central suite of public rooms, with a long curved wing on either side 
containing the private apartments. The Central jail is situated at NainI 
on the south bank of the Jumna, and the workhouse for European 
vagrants is opposite the Collector's court. Besides being the seat of 
government, Allahabad is the head-quarters of a Superintending and 
of an Executive Engineer of the Roads and Buildings branch, and of an 
Inspector of Schools. Bishops of the Anglican and Roman Catholic 
Sees of Lucknow and Allahabad reside here ; and there are branches of 
the Church Missionary Society, the American Presbyterian and Metho- 
dist Missions, and two Zanana missions. A village inhabited by native 
Christians, named Muirabad after Sir William Muir, a former Lieutenant- 
Governor, lies north of the civil lines. A Volunteer rifle corps and 
a squadron of Light Horse have their head-quarters at Allahabad. 

Allahabad has been a municipality since 1863. During the ten years 
ending 1901 the income averaged 3-5 lakhs and the expenditure 
. . 3-7 lakhs. The former, however, included loans from 

Government, and the latter capital expenditure on 
water-works. In 1903-4 the income was 4*5 lakhs, chiefly derived from 
octroi (1-9 lakhs), water rate (Rs. 84,000), rents (Rs. 46,000), fees from 
markets, &c. (Rs. 6,000), sale of water (Rs. 20,000), and a grant from 
Government of Rs. 59,000. The expenditure was 4-5 lakhs, comprising 
1 lakh for interest and repayment of debt, Rs. 90,000 for conservancy, 
Rs. 61,000 for water-works maintenance, Rs. 41,000 for administration 
and collection, Rs. 33,000 for public safety, and Rs. 31,000 for roads 
and buildings. An excellent water-supply has been obtained from the 
Jumna, at a total capital cost of 17-2 lakhs, and the average daily con- 
sumption of filtered water amounted to 10 gallons per head in 1903-4. 

The Allahabad cantonments are divided into three portions, and are 
ordinarily garrisoned by British and native infantry, native cavalry, and 
field and garrison artillery. The income and expenditure of the canton- 
ment fund averaged Rs. 24,000 during the ten years ending 1901. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 32,000, and the expenditure Rs. 30,000. 


The successful working of a grass-farm and dairy, in connexion with 
the Allahabad cantonment, has led to the establishment of similar 
institutions in many parts of India. 

Allahabad is not famous for any particular trade or manufacture, bul 
it has long been a mart of considerable general importance. Its position 
on the East Indian Railway giving direct access to 
Calcutta, with a branch towards Bombay, adds to the 
trade involved in supplying a large population. The construction of 
branches of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway from Allahabad to 
Fyzabad and Jaunpur, with a bridge over the Ganges, will add to the 
importance of the city. At present it exports grain and oilseeds ; and 
the chief imports include grain, sugar, ght, oilseeds, piece-goods, and 
metals, some of which are re-exported in small quantities. Printing 
is the most important organized industry. In 1903 the Government 
Press employed 1,031 hands, and its branches in the Nairn jail 287, 
while the Pioneer Press employed 606, and there were about 35 
smaller presses. Large brick and tile works situated just outside the 
boundaries of the city employed 700 to 800 workers, an iron foundry 
gave employment to 135, and a coach-building and furniture factory 
to 178. Flour-mills are now under construction. 

Allahabad is the most important educational centre in the United 

Provinces. The Muir College was founded in 1872, and the foundations 

of the fine buildings in which it is housed were laid . 

. . , Education, 

in the following year. Spacious chemical and physical 

laboratories have recently been opened. The number of students in 
1904 was 340, of whom 21 were reading in the M.A. classes and 131 
in law classes. Several hostels are attached to this institution, and 
efforts are being made to establish others. It is proposed to make this 
college the nucleus of a teaching university. College classes are also 
held in three schools, with an average attendance of about 75. 
A training college for teachers, originally founded in Lucknow, was 
removed to Allahabad in 1900. It contained 48 students in 1904. 
The Allahabad Christian College, managed by the American Presby- 
terian Mission, was opened in T902 and had 70 pupils in 1904. 
There is also a normal school with ri7 pupils. The municipality 
maintains 8 schools and aids 15 others, with a total attendance of 
1,545. The largest institution is the Kayastha Pathshala, which con- 
tains both school and college classes and has 370 students, of whom 
53 are in college classes. A number of schools make provision for the 
education of Europeans and Eurasians, including one free school. 
Several English and vernacular newspapers are published at Allahabad, 
the Pioneer being the most important. 

Allahabad Tahsll.— Tahsll in the Bahawalpur State and nizamat, 
Punjab, lying south of the Panjnad, between 27 42' and 29° 1 2 N. and 

VOL. v. R 


70 38' and 71 5' E., with an area of 1,355 square miles. The popu- 
lation in 1 90 1 was 57,517, compared with 54,950 in 1891. It contains 
the town of Allahabad (population, 2,868), the head-quarters, and the 
two other municipalities of Khan Bela and Jaunpur ; and 65 villages. 
It is traversed by the Hakra, south of which lies the desert. The 
portion of the tahsll which lies in the lowlands along the river is the 
most fertile, and also the most unhealthy, in the State. Between this 
and the Hakra lie the central uplands. The land revenue and cesses 
amounted in 1905-6 to 2 lakhs. 

Allahabad Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name 
in Bahawalpur State, Punjab, situated in 2 8° 57' N. and 70 53' E., 
56 miles south-west of Bahawalpur town. Population (1901), 2,868. 
It was founded about 1730 by Nawab Sadik Muhammad Khan I of 
Bahawalpur. The town contains a rice-husking mill and has a large 
trade in rice and dates. It is administered as a municipality, with an 
income in 1903-4 of Rs. 3,100, chiefly from octroi. 

Allanmyo Township. — Township of Thayetmyo District, Burma. 
See Myede. 

Allanmyo Town. — Head-quarters of the Myede subdivision of 
Thayetmyo District, Burma, situated in 19 22' N. and 95 13' E., on 
the east bank of the Irrawaddy, almost immediately opposite Thayetmyo, 
the District head-quarters, and connected with it by a steam-launch 
ferry. Population (1901), 10,207. Allanmyo, so called after Major 
Allan, who demarcated the frontier line in 1854, has sprung up to the 
south of the old Burmese fort of Myede. It gradually became a trade 
centre, and up to the time of the annexation of Upper Burma was an 
important frontier station. The affairs of Allanmyo, together with those 
of the adjoining urban area of Ywataung, have been administered since 
1900 by a municipal committee. The income and expenditure of the 
municipal fund in 1903-4 were Rs. 28,000 and Rs. 21,000 respectively. 
The income is derived almost entirely from the municipal bazar. The 
chief items of expenditure were Rs. 4,100 spent on conservancy, and 
Rs. 5,100 on the hospital. Allanmyo is one of the main centres of the 
cotton trade of the Province, and has a steam factory for cotton-ginning, 
oil-pressing, and the manufacture of cotton-oil soap. 

Alleppey (Alapulai). — Chief seaport and third largest town in 
Travancore State, Madras, situated in 9 30' N. and 76 20' E., in the 
extreme north-west of the Ambalapulai taluk, a small portion extending 
into the adjacent taluk of Shertallai. It is 49 miles north of Quilon, 
the terminus of the Tinnevelly-Quilon Railway, and 35 miles south of 
Ernakulam, the terminus of the Cochin-Shoranur Railway. Population 
(1901), 24,918, including 11,940 Hindus, 7,150 Musalmans, and 5,827 
Christians. A sandy tract, overgrown with jungle till the middle of the 
eighteenth century, it was cleared and created a port by Maharaja Rama 


Varma, in order to put an end to the commercial supremacy of the 

Dutch, who with their factory at Porakad had monopolized all the n< nth 
Travancore commerce. Foreign merchants settled here on invil 
and the port was opened to foreign trade. To facilitate the trans] tort 
of merchandise, a canal was cut to connect the port with the interior 
backwaters. Towards the close of the eighteenth century warehouses 
and shops were built at State expense, a system of forest conservancy 
was introduced, and officers were appointed to collect and forward all 
hill-produce to Alleppey. The town soon increased in importance, ami 
by the first quarter of the last century it had become the premier port 
of Travancore, a position which it still maintains. It is a convenient 
depot for the storage and disposal of all forest produce, and possesses 
a harbour affording safe anchorage during the greater part of the year. 
This is formed by the natural breakwater which exists in the roadstead 
in the shape of a remarkable mud-bank, or floating mud-island, which 
breaks the force of the roughest seas and ensures shelter to vessels in 
the roadstead. A lighthouse at the entrance to the harbour bears 
a revolving light visible about 20 miles out at sea. A tramway worked 
by coolies conveys goods from the pier to the warehouses close by. 

Several oil-mills are in operation, and the manufacture of coir matting 
is carried on to a large extent. The chief exports are copra, coco-nuts, 
coir, coir matting, cardamoms, ginger, and pepper. The imports consist 
of rice, Bombay salt, tobacco, metals, and piece-goods. The customs 
revenue from exports averages about Rs. 1,90,000 per annum and from 
imports Rs. 10,000. The harbour returns show that shipping with an 
annual tonnage of 280,585 (steamers 260,000 tons and sailing vessels 
20,585 tons) touch at the port. 

In 1894 the town was placed under a town improvement committee, 
and since then Rs. 5,000 has been spent annually by the State on its 
improvement and conservancy. Alleppey contains the courts of a 
District and Sessions Judge, a Munsif, and the District first-class and 
second-class magistrates. 

Allur. — Town in the north of the Nellore taluk of Nellore District, 
Madras, situated in 14 41' N. and 8o° 3' E. Population (1901), 7,527, 
chiefly agriculturists. It is the head-quarters of a deputy-laftsilddr. The 
land revenue is the largest in the District, the demand being Rs. 53,000. 
The Iskapalli salt factory is situated on the coast, 5 miles distant. 

Allurv/ew Kottapatam. — Town and port in Guntur District, 
Madras. See Kottapatam. 

Almora District. — North-eastern District in the Kumaun Division, 
United Provinces, lying between 28 59' and 30° 49' N. and 79 2' and 
8r° 31' E., with an area of 5,419 square miles. It is bounded on the 
north by Tibet ; on the east by the Kali river, which divides it from 
Nepal; on the south by NainI Tal District; and on the north-west by 

R 2 


Garhwal District. With the exception of a small area, the whole of this 
vast tract lies within the Himalayas, stretching from the outer rampart 
which rises abruptly from the plains across a maze of ranges to the 
great central chain of snowy peaks, and to the borders of the Tibetan 
plateau beyond. The south-east corner extends into the Bhabar, a small 
tract at the foot of the hills, which is largely covered with forest, and 
resembles the Bhabar of Nairn Tal District. For 40 or 50 miles 

north of the outer ranges the hills form ridges with an 
yoica average height of 4,000 to 5,000 feet, sometimes rising 

to 7,000 or 8,000 feet. The ridges are distinct, though 
their windings and minor spurs give the beholder the impression of an 
inextricable tangle ; and each ridge runs with a general direction from 
south-east to north-west, and ends in a snowy peak in the central chain. 
North of a line from Kapkot to Askot the general elevation increases, 
glaciers appear, and finally the limit of perpetual snow is reached. On 
the western boundary, and partly situated in Garhwal, is the Trisul 
Mountain, named from its triple peaks having a fanciful resemblance to 
a trident, from 22,300 to 23,400 feet above the sea. To the north-east 
of Trisul is Nanda Devi, with an elevation of 25,661 feet, the highest 
mountain in British India ; and Nanda Kot, the ' couch ' of the 
great goddess Nanda, with a height of 22,538 feet. East of these is 
a magnificent mass of snow-clad mountains called Panch Chulhl, the 
two highest peaks reaching 22,673 ar >d 21,114 feet respectively. Another 
ridge with a mean elevation of 18,000 feet lies along the Tibetan frontier, 
forming the water-parting between the drainage system of the Indus and 
Sutlej on the north and the Kali on the south. Most of the drainage of 
Almora District is carried off by the Kali or Sarda. Its tributaries flow 
in the valleys between the lower ranges of hills — the Dhaullganga and 
the Gorlganga. rising in glaciers, the Sarju and Ramganga (East) just 
below the snow-line, and the Gomati, LahuvatI, and Ladhiya in the 
outer hills. A long watershed runs down the western border; but in 
the south it is pierced by the Ramganga (West) and the KosI, which 
are the principal rivers not forming affluents of the Kali. Apart from 
small areas in the river-beds and a few elevated plateaux, there are no 
areas of even tolerably level land above a height of 3,000 feet. 

The southern boundary of Almora begins among the probably very 
ancient, but unfossiliferous, slates, schistose slates, quartz-schists, and 
occasional massive limestones, sometimes marmorized, of the Lower 
Himalayas. These become invaded by enormous masses of gneissose 
granite in the central region of the main chain of snowy peaks, when 
their metamorphism is proportionately greater ; but this area has only 
been superficially examined. On the northern side of the central axis 
the great series of sedimentary marine deposits, extending from Lower 
Silurian to Cretaceous, make this elevated tract exceptionally rich from 


a geological point of view, and unsurpassed in any other part ol 

The flora of the District presents a striking variety, ranging from the 
submontane tropical growths of the Bhabar, through the temperate 
zone, where cedars, oaks, pines, and rhododendrons are found, and the 
higher ranges, where thickets of willow and birch appear, to the lofty 
hill-sides forming open pasture land, which is richly adorned in the 
summer with brilliantly-coloured alpine species of flowers. 

The District is rich in animal life. Elephants, tigers, the sloth bear, 
black and brown bears, leopards, wild dogs, wild hog, various species of 
deer and wild goats, and the yak, are found in different parts. The 
rivers abound in fish, including the mahseer, and numerous species 
of birds are found. In the Bhabar and lower hills immense pythons 
are sometimes seen. 

The Bhabar is sub-tropical in climate; but the southern portion of 
the hill tract is more temperate, though the heat in the deep valleys is 
occasionally intense. 

The outer ranges receive a heavy precipitation during the rains, and 
the annual fall there is about 80 inches. This rapidly decreases to about 
40 inches immediately north of the outer barrier. No records are kept 
of the fall of rain and snow in the higher country near the snow-line ; 
but it is much greater than in the central part of the District. 

Tradition connects many places in the hills with episodes in the 

religious books of the Hindus, especially the Mahabharata. The 

earliest historical account of the hill country is that XT . . 

given by the Chinese pilgrim in the seventh century, 

who describes a kingdom, named Brahmapura, situated in the hills and 

inhabited by a hardy and uncultivated race. It was bounded by the 

snowy mountains, near which resided a people ruled by a woman. 

The earliest dynasty known is that of the Katyurls, eventually supplanted 

by the Chand Rajas, the former reigning at Baijnath in the Katyur 

valley, at which place and also at Dwarahat architectural remains are 

still extant. The Chand Rajas, of whom the first, Som Chand, is 

said to have come from Jhusi, near Allahabad, probably in the tenth 

century, had their established seat of government at Champawat in 

Kali Kumaun. In 1563, when the Chands had obtained full authority 

over all the petty chiefs, including the last descendant of the Katyurls, 

the capital was transferred to Almora by Raja Kalyan Chand. His son, 

Rudra Chand, was a contemporary of Akbar, and made his obeisance 

to that emperor at Lahore in 1587. The Muhammadan rulers nevei 

obtained a fixed footing in the hills; but in 1744 Ali Muhammad 

Khan, Rohilla, sent a force to invade Kumaun. The resistance of the 

Chand Rajas was weak and ineffectual. The Rohillas captured Almora. 

Though their stay in Kumaun was short, its results to the Provim 


bitterly remembered ; and its intolerant character is still attested by the 
mutilated sculptures of some of the Kumaun temples. The Rohillas 
remained in the hills for seven months, when, disgusted with the 
climate and the hardships they were forced to suffer, they accepted a 
bribe of three lakhs of rupees and returned to the plains. But All 
Muhammad Khan was not satisfied with the conduct of his lieutenants ; 
and three months after their retreat, at the commencement of 1745, the 
Rohillas returned. They were defeated at the very entrance of the 
hills near Barakherl, and made no further attempt on Kumaun. These 
were the first and last Muhammadan invasions of the hills ; for the 
Delhi emperors never exercised any direct authority in Kumaun, 
although it was necessary for the Raja to admit their nominal supremacy 
for the sake of his possessions in the plains. These events were 
followed by disturbances and revolutions in Kumaun itself; and within 
the next thirty years the hill Rajas lost all the country which they had 
held in the plains, except the tract known as the Bhabar. 

In the middle of the eighteenth century, the Gurkha tribe, under their 
chief, Prithwl Narayan, had made themselves masters of the most 
important part of the present kingdom of Nepal. His successors 
determined, in 1790, to attack Kumaun. The Gurkha forces crossed 
the Kali, and advanced upon Almora through Gangoll and Kali 
Kumaun. The titular Chand Raja fled to the plains, and the whole 
of his territory was added to the other conquests of the Gurkhas. 
The Nepalese rule lasted twenty-four years and was of a cruel and 
oppressive character. In the early part of the last century the 
Gurkhas had been making numerous raids in the British possessions 
lying at the foot of the Himalayas. All remonstrance was unavailing ; 
and in December, 1814, it was finally resolved to wrest Kumaun from 
the Gurkhas and annex it to the British possessions, as no legitimate 
claimant on the part of the Chands was then in existence. Harak Deo 
JoshI, the minister of the last legitimate Raja of Kumaun, warmly 
espoused the British side. At the end of January, 1815, everything was 
ready for the attack on Kumaun. The whole force consisted of 4,500 
men with two 6-pounder guns. The first successful event on the 
British side during this war was the capture of Almora by Colonel 
Nicholls on April 26, 1815. On the same day Chandra Bahadur Sah, 
one of the principal Gurkha chiefs, sent a flag of truce, requesting a 
suspension of hostilities and offering to treat for the evacuation of 
Kumaun. Lieutenant-Colonel Gardner was deputed to hold a personal 
conference with Bam Sah, the Nepalese commander at Almora; and on 
the following day the negotiation was brought to a close by the con- 
clusion of a convention, under which the Gurkhas agreed to evacuate 
the province and all its fortified places. It was stipulated that they 
should be allowed to retire across the Kali with their military stores 


■ 17 

and private property, the British providing the necessary supplies and 
carriage. As a pledge for the due fulfilment oi the conditions, the 
fort of Lalmandl (now Fort Moira) was the same day surrendered to 
the British troops. Captain Hearsey, who had been taken and 
imprisoned at Almora, was released at the same time. The Gurkhas 
were escorted across the Kali by our troops, and the British took 
possession of Kumaun and Garhwal, 

Some interesting rock sculptures resembling the cup-jnarkings of 
European countries have been found in various places. An inscrip 
tion of the Katyuri Rajas is preserved at Bageshwar, but unfortunately 
it is not dated ; and Baijnath was once the capital of the same line. 
Champawat, the residence of the Chand Rajas, contains some in 
teresting ruins. A large number of copperplate grants are preserved 
in the temples of the District, and many others are in possession of 
private individuals. 

There are 4,928 villages, but only two towns. Population is increasing 
steadily. The numbers at the last four enumerations were as follows : 
(1872) 354,579. (1881) 360,967, (1891) 416,868, Population> 
and (1901) 465,893. A considerable annual migration 
takes place in the winter from the villages situated near the snows 
to more temperate parts, and from the outer hills to the Bhabar, 
the movement being reversed in the summer. There are two ta/islls, 
Almora and Champawat, each named from its head-quarters. The 
principal towns are the municipality of Almora and the cantonment 
of Ranikhet. The following table gives the chief statistics of popula- 
tion in 1 901 : — 

Tah si l. 

Area in square 

Number of 



O V) 


^ ^ c 






tween if 
and 191 


persons a 

read a 


Almora . 

District total 







+ 24-6 

+ 7-8 


5,4 ! 9 



465, s 93 

+ II-7 26,428 

Hindus form nearly 99 per cent, of the total population. There- 
are 4,051 Musalmans, 1,427 Christians, and 217 Buddhists. The 
density of population is very low, owing to the desolate nature of a 
large area. Central Pahari is the language ordinarily spoken, the 
particular dialect being called Kumauni ; but 8,000 persons speak 
Bhotia, and a few jungle tribes are found with peculiar languages of 
their own. 

About 97 per cent, of the Hindu population are included in the three- 
castes of Rajput or Kshattrl, Brahman, and Dom, who number 


224,000, 112,000, and 90,000. The Rajputs and Brahmans are divided 
into two main classes, according as they claim to have come from the 
plains or belong to the great Khas tribe, which is identified by some 
with the people of a similar name mentioned by the classical writers. 
The Doms are labourers and artisans, and with the extension of trade 
and road-building some of them are rapidly acquiring wealth. Among 
tribes peculiar to the hills may be mentioned the Bhotias, probably 
of Tibetan origin, who were formerly Buddhists, but are now rapidly 
becoming Hinduized (9,100); and the Gurkhas (1,100). More than 
half of the Musalmans are Shaikhs. Agriculture supports 92 per cent, 
of the population. 

There were 1,029 native Christians in the District in 1901, of 
whom 523 were Methodists and 163 Congregationalists. The London 
Mission has worked in Almora since 1850, and the American Methodist 
Mission since 1859. 

Cultivation depends largely on altitude and situation. The villages 
lying between a height of 3,000 and 5,000 feet and having access to 
forest land and grazing, and also to level land near the 
banks of a river, are best off. Two crops are taken, 
as a rule, in the autumn and spring ; but in the snow valleys of the 
extreme north, wheat and phapar or buckwheat {Fagopyrum tataricuni) 
are sown in May and reaped in November. When cultivation extends 
above 6,000 feet, it is usually inferior in method and in produce. 
As the country consists almost entirely of ranges of hills, the cultivated 
area is confined to terraces, except where the river valleys are 
sufficiently wide to allow tillage. 

The tenures of the District are those found in the Kumaun Division. 
In 1903-4, 463 square miles or 9 per cent, of the total area were 
cultivated. No record is prepared of the area under each crop. The 
staple food-crops are mania and rice in the autumn and wheat and 
barley in the spring, mania and wheat covering larger areas than rice 
and barley. Inferior millets, maize, and vegetables are also grown. 
Near the snows barley, phapar or buckwheat, and chua {Amarantus 
paniculatus) are cultivated. The other products of the hills are turmeric, 
ginger, chillies, and potatoes. Tea plantations cover about 2,100 acres. 

Between 1872 and 1902 the cultivated area increased by about 22 
per cent. Cultivation in the hills entails continual improvement, as each 
year more stones are removed from the terraces, the retaining walls 
are strengthened, and slopes are levelled. Improved communications 
have also led to a rise in prices. The wealthier cultivators plant English 
fruit trees near their villages. Very few advances are made under the 
Acts, though in 1891-2 they reached a total of Rs. 24,000. 

The domestic cattle are small and usually red or black, resembling 
the Kerry breed in appearance. In the Bhotia villages in the north 


the yak, and hybrids between the yak and ordinary kine, arc used foi 
carrying purposes. The ponies bred locally arc not of -nod quality, 
though much used as pack-animals. Sheep and goats arc bred in all 
parts, and are kept chiefly for their manure and wool, but they are also 
used as beasts of burden. Attempts have been made to improve the 
breed by crossing with Tibetan, English, and Australian stock, but with 
no perceptible results. 

About 8 per cent, of the total cultivated area is irrigated. Water 
is supplied from long channels led along the hill-sides, or by diverting 
water from the hill streams as required. Springs are also used. There 
are no wells, and water is never raised by artificial means. In the 
Bhabar, irrigation is supplied by a small canal from the Sarda. 

The 'reserved' forests cover more than 100 square miles, and a 
further area of 26 square miles is ' protected,' under the charge of the 
Forest department. These forests are situated at the foot of the hills 
or in the outer ranges. Sal (Shorea robustd) is the most valuable timber 
tree. Bamboos, turpentine, catechu, grass, and fuel are also extracted. 
Besides these tracts, however, the whole of the District, excluding 
the lands which were measured at settlement, has been declared 
District protected' forest; and this area, covering 4,832 square miles, 
is managed by the Deputy-Commissioner. 

Copper has been worked to some considerable extent in this District, 
but hitherto only by native methods \ A concession has recently been 
granted to a European syndicate. Graphite of poor quality is found 
near Almora town, and there are also ores of iron, lead, and sulphur. 

The District has few industries beyond agriculture. There are 23 
tea plantations, producing tea valued at about 1-7 lakhs annually. 
Blankets, woollen cloth, and shoes are made for 
local use at a few places. A brewery at Ranlkhet commun j ca ti ns. 
employs about 30 hands. 

The trade of the District is increasing. Chillies, turmeric, ginger, 
tea, and forest produce are the chief exports ; and grain, cloth, sugar, 
and salt are imported. Even more important is the through trade with 
Tibet. Borax, salt, and wool are the chief items received from Tibet, 
the value of wool passing through being nearly 2 lakhs annually. In 
recent years trade centres have moved. Almora was formerly the chief 
emporium ; and the merchants of that place had branch establishments 
at Bageshwar and Champawat, where they met the Bhotias, who brought 
down the products of Tibet. The Bhotias, however, now travel down 
to the submontane markets of Ramnagar, Haldwanl, and Tanakpur. ami 
are even venturing to Calcutta and Bombay. An extensive cart traffic 
is carried on between Baijnath, Almora, Ranlkhet, and Kathgodam ; 
and small bazars are springing up in many places. 

1 V. Ball, Manual of the Geology of India, pt. v, pp. 271 3. 


There are at present no railways in Almora, but the construction 
of a branch to the foot of the hills from Pilibhlt on the Lucknow-Bareilly 
metre-gauge line is contemplated. The District has 1,146 miles of road, 
of which 64 miles are metalled. The Public Works department is in 
charge of 409 miles of road, and the cost of 138 miles is met from 
Provincial revenues. In addition to the 64 miles of metalled road, 
108 miles are practicable for carts, but the other roads are used only by 
pack-animals. Avenues of trees are maintained on 3 miles. The cart 
roads lead from Ranikhet to Ramnagar and Kathgodam, and from 
Almora town towards Karnaprayag in Garhwal and to the Ranlkhet- 
Kathgodam road. Trade with Tibet is largely carried on a road, now 
being greatly improved, from Tanakpur to Askot, where tracks diverge, 
one leading by the Anta Dhura pass to Gartok, and another to the 
Neo Dhura, Lampiya Dhura, and Lipu Lekh passes, the last being 
the easiest route to the sacred resorts of the Hindus, Mount Kailas and 
the Manasarowar Lake. 

No general famine has taken place in Almora since the British gained 

possession of the District. The worst calamities of this kind were in 

. 1838 and 1867. In 1896 there was slight scarcity 

in the west of the District. Floods occasionally 

damage the cultivation in river-beds, as in 1840 and 1880. 

The Deputy-Commissioner is usually assisted by a member of the 

Indian Civil Service, and by two Deputy-Collectors recruited in India. 

. , . . . One of the latter is stationed at Pithoragarh in the 
Administration. , , „, , , , , 

hot season and at lanakpur in the cold season. 

There is a tahs'ildar at the head-quarters of each tahsil. 

The District is non-regulation, and the members of the District staff 
exercise civil, revenue, and criminal powers. The Deputy-Commissioner 
has the powers of a District Judge subordinate to the Commissioner 
of Kumaun, who sits as a High Court for civil cases. The Cantonment 
Magistrate of Ranikhet exercises jurisdiction as a Judge of Small 
Causes. The Commissioner is also Sessions Judge. Crime is extremely 

At the time of the conquest in 1815 the whole of the present Kumaun 
Division, excluding the Tarai and Kashipur subdivisions of Nairn Tal 
District, was constituted a single District under a Commissioner. From 
1837 Garhwal was placed in charge of an Assistant Commissioner, and 
in 1850 the Bhabar was made a separate charge. In 1891 NainI Tal 
District was formed ; and the remaining area forms the present District 
of Almora. 

When the District was acquired from the Gurkhas the land revenue 
demand was about Rs. 70,000, while in addition various dues and 
taxes were levied which brought in as much again. The latter were 
soon abolished, and for many years the assessments were based on 


■ i 

problematical returns of area, and were varied arbitrarily according to 

the apparent prosperity of particular tracts. The early settlements were 
made for short periods, and as late as 1836 the Commissioner repi 
that the people were strongly opposed to a settlement for twenty years. 
Between 1842 and 1846 the first regular settlement was carried out, and 
the revenue was raised from about a lakh to Rs. 1,07,000. This was 
the first partial attempt to measure and examine the capabilities of the 
land, and to form a record-of-rights. The measurements, however, were 
few and in no way constituted a survey. Between 1863 and 1873 the 
settlement was revised, and this revision was preceded by a complete 
measurement of the terraced land. The survey was of a simple nature, 
being carried out by means of a hempen rope. Land was divided into 
five classes according as it was irrigated or ' dry ' or merely casual 
cultivation, and a scale of the relative value of the classes was fixed. 
An estimate of the yield of produce was then made, and applied to the 
area. Other considerations were also taken into account, such as the 
price of grain, the increase in population, general prosperity, and the like. 
The land revenue demand amounted to Rs. 2,17,000. The latest 
revision was carried out between 1899 and 1902. Cultivation was 
valued at the' rates fixed at the previous settlement, and all-round rates 
for enhancement were estimated for each patti 1 , on a general considera- 
tion of the rise in prosperity. The patti rates were reduced where- 
necessary in the case of individual villages. In addition to the revenue 
of the hill tracts, a small income is derived from the area cultivated in 
the Bhabar, which is managed directly as a Government estate, and 
yields about Rs. 5,000 annually in rents. The total land revenue 
collections in 1903-4 amounted to 2-3 lakhs; the gross revenues are 
included in those of the Kumaun Division. 

There is only one municipality, Almora, and no towns are adminis- 
tered under Act XX of 1856. The District board had in 1903-4 
an income of one lakh, chiefly derived from Provincial grants. The 
expenditure was i-i lakhs, of which Rs. 61,000 was spent on roads 
and buildings. 

The Superintendent of police for the Kumaun Division, whose 
head-quarters are at Nairn Tad, is in charge of the police of Almora 
District. There are only 9 sub-inspectors and head constables, 24 
constables, 15 municipal, and 4 rural policemen in the whole District. 
These are stationed in the towns of Almora and Ranikhet, and police 
duties are generally supervised by the patwaris, who have approximately 
the status of sub-inspectors in the plains. The District jail contained 
a daily average of 59 prisoners in 1903. 

Almora takes a high place as regards the literacy of its inhabitants, 

1 A patti in the hill tracts is a subdivision ol&pargana, not a fraction of a village 
as in the plains. 


of whom 5-7 per cent, (n males and 03 females) could read and write 
in 1 90 1. The number of public institutions increased from 119 with 
6,8r7 pupils in 1 880-1 to 154 with 6,970 pupils in 1900-1. In 1903-4 
there were 183 such institutions with 8,109 pupils, of whom 503 were 
girls, besides one private school with 54 pupils. About 940 pupils 
were in classes beyond the primary stage. One school is managed by 
Government, and 105 by the District board. Out of a total expenditure 
on education of Rs. 53,000, Rs. 34,000 was charged to Local funds, 
and the balance was met from fees and subscriptions. An Arts college 
is maintained at Almora. 

There were 9 hospitals and dispensaries in 1903, with accommodation 
for 81 in-patients. About 45,000 cases were treated during the year, 
including 984 in-patients, and 1,957 operations were performed. The 
expenditure in the same year on the principal hospitals at Almora and 
Ranikhet amounted to Rs. 7,600. 

In 1903-4, 31,000 persons were successfully vaccinated, giving an 
average of 68 per 1,000 of population, which is exceptionally high. 
Vaccination is compulsory only in the municipality of Almora and the 
cantonments of Almora and Ranikhet ; but the inhabitants of the hills 
are more alive to its benefits than those of the plains. 

[Gazetteer of Himalayan Districts, 3 vols. (1882-6, under revision) ; 
J. E. Goudge, Settlement Report, 1903.] 

Almora Tahsil. — Tahsil of Almora District, United Provinces, 
comprising the parganas of Johar, Danpur, Chaugarkha, Gangoll, 
Barahmandal, Phaldakot, and Pali Pachhaun, and lying between 29 26' 
and 30 49' N. and 79 2' and 8o° 30' E., with an area of 3,164 square 
miles. Population increased from 318,900 in 1891 to 343,870 in 1901. 
There are 3,466 villages and two towns, including Almora Town (popu- 
lation, 8,596), the District and tahsil head-quarters. The demand for 
land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,65,000, and for cesses Rs. 21,000. 
The tahsil is situated entirely in the hills, and extends beyond the snowy 
range to the Tibetan frontier, including the whole variety of physical 
features which have been described under Almora District. The 
south-west drains into the Ramganga, but most of the drainage passes 
east or south-east to the Kali. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation 
was 294 square miles, of which 25 were irrigated. 

Almora Town. — Head -quarters of Almora District, United 
Provinces, situated in 29 36' N. and 79 40' E. Population, in- 
cluding cantonment (1901), 8,596. Almora became the capital of the 
Chand Rajas in the sixteenth century. In 1744 the Rohillas sent a 
Muhammadan force for the first time into the hills. They captured and 
plundered Almora, but after a few months retired, disgusted with the 
poverty of the country and the rigours of the climate. At Sitoli, close 
to Almora, was fought the decisive battle with the Gurkhas, which ended 



in the cession of the whole of Kumaun to the Hritisli in 1S15. Tin- 
station is situated on a bare ridge running north west and south east 
for about 2 miles, with an elevation of 5,200 to 5,500 feet. It is 
the head-quarters of the London Mission and the American Methodist 
Episcopal Mission in the District, and contains a leper asylum and 
a dispensary. Almora was constituted a municipality in 1864. During 
the ten years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged 
Rs. 9,500. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 12,300, chiefly derived from 
octroi (Rs. 8,000) ; and the expenditure was Rs. 20,000, including 
Rs. 6,000 spent on water-works. An excellent water-supply has recently 
been perfected. The cantonment is usually garrisoned by Gurkhas, and 
the cantonment fund had an income and expenditure of Rs. 3,000 in 
1903-4. Almora has a considerable trade, being a distributing centre 
for the products of the plains and imported goods. The chief educa- 
tional institution is the Ramsay College, which includes a small colle- 
giate class of about 13 pupils, and a school department with 301. The 
municipality maintains four schools, attended by 166 pupils, and there 
are two other schools with more than 300 pupils. 

Alor. — Ruined town in Sukkur District, Sind, Bombay. See Aror. 

Alta. — Village in the Alta taluka of Kolhapur State, Bombay, 
situated in 16 45' N. and 74 18' E., about 12 miles north-east of 
Kolhapur city and 6 miles south of the Varna river, surrounded on three 
sides by wooded heights. Population (1901), 4,965. Objects of interest 
include a Musalman prayer-place called Ramzan Dargah, which enjoys 
rent-free lands assessed at Rs. 613 per annum ; and westward of the 
village the temples of Sidoba, Dhulaba, Alam Prabhu, a Lingayat 
saint, and of Ramling. Annual fairs are held at all these shrines. 
The temple of Alam Prabhu is supposed to have obtained its name 
from the emperor Alamglr or Aurangzeb, who is said to have presented 
a footstool to it on the occasion of a visit. Live-burial or jivantsamadh 
used to be performed by devotees of Siva in front of the shrine, the last 
authentic case having occurred in 1808. The cave-temple of Ramling 
is probably of Buddhist or Jain origin, but has been adapted to 
Brahmanical worship. In front of it is a massive Hemadpanti structure 
on stone pillars. 

Alur.— Eastern taluk of Bellary District, Madras, lying between 
1 5 8' and 15 44' N. and 76 57' and 77 26' E., with an area of 
686 square miles. The population in 1901 was 98,568, compared with 
88,088 in 1891, giving an increase during the decade of nearly 12 per 
cent., one of the highest rates in the District. In the famine of 1876-8, 
however, it suffered more severely than any other taluk in Bellary, and 
the inhabitants in 1901 were only a few hundreds more than in 187 1. 
It contains 106 villages but no town, the head-quarters, Alur, being 
an ordinary agricultural village. The proportion of the area of Alur 

254 ALUR 

which is arable is higher than in any other taluk ; and its cotton soil, 
which covers 77 per cent., is of the typically heavy variety and the best 
in the District, the average assessment per acre on ' dry ' land being 
as high as Rs. 1-4-0. The incidence of the land revenue per head 
of the population is also much higher than in any other taluk. The 
demand for land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to Rs. 4,14,000. 
A bumper crop from its rich lands gives the ryots enough to tide them 
safely over a succeeding year of failure ; but the high proportion of 
cotton soil, in which the cultivation depends entirely upon the rainfall, 
and the almost complete absence of irrigated land leave no part of it 
protected against a succession of bad seasons ; while the facts that it 
has the smallest area of forest land in the District and that (especially 
along its eastern border) water is extremely scarce, lying at a great depth 
and being often brackish, tell severely upon the cattle in time of famine. 
C ho lam and korra are the staple crops, and the area under cotton is 
the largest in the District. 

Alvar Tirunagari. — Town in the Srivaikuntam taluk of Tinnevelly 
District, Madras, situated in 8° 37' N. and 77 57' E., on the right bank 
of the Tambraparni river, 21 miles south-east of Tinnevelly town. 
Population (1901), 6,630. It derives its name from the fact that it 
was the birthplace of Nammalvar, one of the leading saints of the 
Vaishnavite sect, in whose honour a large temple has been built. 
A tree shown in the temple is said to be the identical one under which 
the saint sat and meditated. The annual festivals in February and 
May attract large crowds from the adjoining Districts. A sugar refinery 
is working here. Local affairs are managed by a Union panchayat. 

Aiwa. — Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay. 

Alwar State. — Native State in the east of Rajputana, lying be- 
tween 27 3' and 28 13' N. and 76 7' and 77 13" E., with an area 
of about 3,141 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the 
Gurgaon District of the Punjab, Kot Kasim (of Jaipur), and Bawal 
(of Nabha) ; on the north-west by Narnaul (of Patiala) ; on the west and 
south by Jaipur ; on the east by Bharatpur ; and on the north-east by 
Gurgaon. It is in shape a fairly regular quadrilateral, 

Physical ^^ a g reatest i en ath from north to south of about 

aspects. . ° 

80 miles, and a greatest breadth of about 60 miles. 

Ridges of rocky and precipitous hills, for the most part parallel, are a 

feature observable throughout the State, which, however, is generally 

open to the north and east. The main range, a continuation of the 

Aravallis, runs due north and south through the centre of the territory 

from Mandawar past Alwar city to the Jaipur boundary, a distance of 

about 56 miles. The hills on the western border rise boldly and 

abruptly from the plains on either side, presenting an almost impassable 

wall of rock ; and they contain the highest peak in the State (2,542 feet 


above the sea), near Baragaon. Speaking generally, it may be said 
that the hills decrease in height and breadth from south to north, 
and from west to east. The principal river, the Sahibi (or Sabi), rises 
in Jaipur, and after flowing in a general north-easterly direction for 
about 50 miles in, or along the borders of, the Alwar Slat. | 
into the Kot Kasim district of Jaipur, and thence into Gurgaon. It 
dries up after the rains ; its bed is too sandy for cultivation, and, owing 
to its high banks, it is useless for irrigation. The Ruparel river, also 
known as the Barah or Laswari, rises in the Thana Ghazi hills and flows 
east through the centre of Alwar for about 50 miles, till it enters Bharatpur 
territory, where it is immediately held up by the Sikri band. The divi- 
sion of the waters of this river has always been a source of contention 
between Alwar and Bharatpur. The two States are supposed to share 
equally ; and in 1855 it was ruled that Alwar should receive its equivalent 
from the Siliserh band, which intercepts part of the catchment drainage, 
and be at liberty to erect temporary dams in the stream during the eight 
rainless months, October to June, while Bharatpur had the right to the 
unrestricted flow during the rest of the year. Since then Alwar has 
repeatedly complained that it did not receive its proper share, and 
a settlement more favourable to this State has recently been arrived at. 

The Alwar hills have given their name to the quartzites forming the 
upper division of the Delhi system, of which they are largely composed. 
They are described as well-bedded quartzites of light grey colour and 
fine grain, in which ripple markings and sun-cracks on the surface of 
the beds are common. They also include a number of thick bands of 
contemporaneous trap. The older rocks of the Aravalli system, upon 
which they rest, consist of schists and slates with bands of crystalline 
limestone; inliers of gneiss also occur among them. At the southern 
extremity of the Alwar hills the quartzites overlap the slates and lime- 
stone, and rest directly upon the gneiss. Copper is found at several 
localities, notably at Darlba, where it is disseminated through the slates ; 
and there are some old lead-workings in the Thana Ghazi district. 

Besides antelope, ' ravine deer,' and the usual small game in the 
plains, tigers, hyenas, and sambar {Cervus unkolor) are found in the 
hilly country, and leopards almost everywhere. Wild hog are fairly 
numerous in parts, and wolves are occasionally met with. 

The climate is generally dry and healthy. There are no continuous 
statistics of temperature ; but it may be said that the northern part of 
the State, where the soil is light and the country open, has a lower 
average temperature in the hot months than the hilly portion with its 
burning rocks, and the region east and west of it with its harder soil. 

The annual rainfall for the whole State averages about 22 inches, of 
which four-fifths are received in July, August, and September. The 
rainfall varies from over 26 inches at Alwar city in the centre, and 


Thana Ghazi in the south-west, to less than 17 inches at Lachhmangarh 
in the south-east ; and the eastern tahsils generally have less rain than 
the western. The yearly fall has varied from nearly 50 inches at the 
capital in 1884 and again in 1887, to a little over 2 inches at Behror in 
the north-west in 1887. 

The chiefs of Alwar belong to the Lalawat branch of the Naruka 
Rajputs, an offshoot from the Kachwaha Rajputs of whom the 
Maharaja of Jaipur is the head ; and they claim 
descent from Bar Singh, the eldest son of Udai 
Karan who was Raja of Amber (Jaipur) in the latter half of the four- 
teenth century. Bar Singh is said to have quarrelled with his father 
and to have surrendered his right to succeed him at Amber, and for 
the next 300 years his descendants held estates of varying size in Jaipur 
territory. The first of these to settle in the country now called Alwar 
was Rao Kalyan Singh, who, for services rendered to Jai Singh (the 
Mirza Raja of Jaipur), received from him mjaglr the estate of Macheri 
about 167 1. Passing over the three or four immediate successors of 
Kalyan Singh, we come to Pratap Singh, the founder of the Alwar 
State. He was born in 1740, and at first possessed but 2\ villages: 
namely, Macheri, Rajgarh, and half of Rajpura. Entering Jaipur 
service at the age of seventeen, he soon distinguished himself by 
coercing his turbulent clansmen, the Narukas of Uniara, and by reliev- 
ing the fort of Ranthambhor, where the imperial garrison was besieged 
by the Marathas ; but his success is said to have excited the envy of 
the nobles, who aroused the jealousy of the Jaipur chief against him by 
drawing attention to the rings in his eyes, which were held to indicate 
one destined for regal dignity. He had in consequence to flee from 
Jaipur, and took service first with Suraj Mai, the Jat chief of Bharatpur, 
and next with his son, Jawahir Singh. When, however, the latter 
announced his intention of marching with an army through Jaipur to 
the Pushkar Lake, Pratap Singh, regarding this as an act of hostility to 
his hereditary suzerain, refused to join in the expedition and proceeded 
to Jaipur, where he gave warning of the impending danger and offered his 
services. The Jat chief accomplished his march to Pushkar, but on 
his return was attacked by the Jaipur forces at Maonda (in Torawati) 
and severely defeated in 1766. Alwar traditions ascribe the main 
credit for this victory to the strategy and valour of Pratap Singh, who 
was taken back into favour by the ruler of Jaipur and was permitted to 
build a fort at Rajgarh, his estate of Macheri being at the same time 
restored to him. For a few years Pratap Singh maintained a nominal 
allegiance to Jaipur ; but a minority in that State afforded an oppor- 
tunity for aggrandizement too tempting to be neglected, and between 
1 77 1 and 1776 he succeeded in establishing independent power in the 
greater part of the territory which now forms the southern half of Alwar. 


At this period also he joined forces with Najaf Khan and aided him in 
defeating the Jats of Bharatpur at Barsana and Dig, for which ser 
he received from the titular emperor (Shah Alam II) the title of Rao 
Raja and a sanad authorizing him to hold Macheri direct from the 
crown. This gave a legal basis to his conquests, and was soon followed 
by an event which laid the foundation of the State. The Alwar fort 
was still held by a Jat garrison, but their pay had been for months in 
arrear, and the news of the disasters which had overtaken the Bharat- 
pur forces had made them lose heart. Accordingly in 1775 the Jat 
commander surrendered the fort to Pratap Singh, who transferred his 
capital thither, and made it a stepping-stone to the extension of his 
conquest over the rest of the State. His brethren of the Naruka clan 
now began to acknowledge him as their chief ; and before he died in 
1 791, he had secured possession of seven tahslls and parts of two 
others, besides a large tract subsequently recovered by Jaipur. 

Pratap Singh was succeeded by his adopted son, Bakhtawar Singh, 
who completed the conquest of the remaining half of the Govindgarh 
tahsll. At the commencement of the Maratha War he allied himself 
with the British Government, and sent a small force to co-operate with 
Lord Lake. After the famous battle of Laswari (November 1, 1803), 
in which the Marathas were practically annihilated, Lake marched 
towards Agra and was joined at Pahesar (near Bharatpur) by Bakhtawar 
Singh, with whom a treaty of offensive and defensive alliance was con- 
cluded on November 14, 1803. As a reward for his services, certain 
districts in the north and north-west were conferred on Bakhtawar 
Singh ; but in 1805 three of these were given up in exchange for the 
tahslls of Tijara, Kishangarh, and Kathumar. The boundaries of Alwar, 
as recognized by the British Government, have remained fixed since that 
date. In 181 1 the chief of Alwar interfered in the affairs of Jaipur in such 
a manner as to attract the notice of Government, and a fresh engagement 
was made with him expressly prohibiting political intercourse with other 
States without the cognizance and approval of the British Government. 
In 1 81 2 Bakhtawar Singh took possession of certain forts belonging to 
Jaipur, and refused to restore them on the remonstrance of the Resident 
at Delhi. A British force was moved against him ; and it was not until 
it had arrived within a march of his capital that he yielded, restored the 
usurped territory, and paid 3 lakhs as the expenses of the expedition. 

On Bakhtawar Singh's death in 181 5 a dispute arose as to the 
succession. He had announced his intention of adopting his nephew, 
Banni Singh, but had died before the formal ceremony was completed, 
and the other claimant was Balwant Singh, his illegitimate son. Both 
were minors. A makeshift arrangement was sanctioned by the Govern- 
ment, according to which Banni Singh was to have the title, while 
Balwant Singh was to exercise power ; but this was never really acted 

VOL. V. S 


upon, and for nearly ten years the State was torn asunder by the 
struggle between the rival factions. In 1824 Banni Singh seized 
the reins of administration, and made his cousin a prisoner ; and about 
the same time an attempt was made on the life of Ahmad Bakhsh 
Khan, Balwant Singh's chief supporter. This crime was traced to the 
instigation of persons at the court of Alwar, and the chief was required 
to surrender them ; but it was not till 1826, after the fall of Bharatpur, 
that he complied. Banni Singh was at the same time (February, 1826) 
compelled to make a provision, half in land and half in money, for 
Balwant Singh and the lawful heirs of his body ; but on Balwant Singh's 
death without issue in 1845, the lands reverted to Alwar. Banni Singh 
had not succeeded to a peaceable inheritance. An old chronicle 
describes his people as 'singularly savage and brutal robbers by pro- 
fession, never to be reformed or subdued,' but he accomplished the 
difficult task of bringing them into comparative order. The Meos were 
the most numerous and troublesome ; and it was not until after the 
infliction of signal chastisement, by burning their villages and carrying 
off their cattle, that he succeeded in subduing them. The government 
had previously been carried on without any system, but with the aid of 
certain Musalmans introduced from Delhi and appointed ministers in 
1838, great changes were made. The land revenue began to be 
collected in cash instead of in kind, and civil and criminal courts were 
established ; but these and other reforms brought more into the pockets 
of the ministers than into the State treasury, and enormous peculations 
were discovered in 185 1. Banni Singh built an extensive palace in 
Alwar city, the smaller but more beautiful one (called after him Banni 
Bilas) a short distance to the south-east, and the dam which forms the 
Siliserh Lake. Before he died in August, 1857, he proved his loyalty 
to the British Government by sending a contingent of 800 infantry 
(mainly Musalmans), 400 cavalry (all Rajputs), and four guns to the 
assistance of the beleaguered garrison at Agra ; but the Musalmans 
deserted, and the force was severely defeated near Achhnera by the 
Nimach and Naslrabad mutineers. 

Banni Singh was succeeded by his son, Sheodan Singh, then about 
twelve years of age. He at once fell under the influence of the Muham- 
madan ministers, whose proceedings excited an insurrection of the 
Rajputs in 1858, in which several of the ministers' followers were killed 
and the ministers themselves were expelled from the State. A Political 
Agent was appointed, a council of regency formed, and several 
reforms were introduced, notably the placing of the land revenue 
administration on a sound basis. Sheodan Singh was invested with 
power in 1863, and shortly afterwards the Agency was removed. The 
affairs of the State at once fell into confusion. The expelled ministers 
regained their ascendancy, and wielded all real power from Delhi ; and 


in 1876 the disbanding of the Rajput cavalry, the wholesale confi ication 
of jagfr grants, and the extravagance of the- chief and his Muhammadan 
sympathizers brought about another general uprising ol the Rajputs, 
and the authoritative interference of Government became necessary. 
Sheodan Singh was deprived of power, and a council under the pri i 
dency of a Political Agent was formed. British copper coinage was 
introduced in the State in 1873 ; the railway from Delhi on the north 
east to Bandikui on the south was opened in 1874 ; and in October of 
the same year Sheodan Singh, who had received the right of adoption 
in 1862, died without leaving any legitimate descendant, lineal or 
adopted. The State consequently escheated to Government ; but it 
was decided to allow the selection of a ruler from the collateral branches 
of the late chief's family. The choice between those having the 
strongest claims was left to the twelve Kotris, as the Naruka families 
are called; and the selection fell upon Thakur Manga! Singh of Thana, 
who was accordingly recognized by Government as ruler of Alwar. As 
he had only just completed his fifteenth year, the State was administered, 
as before, by the Political Agent and the council until 1877, when he 
was invested with ruling powers. Mangal Singh was the first pupil to join 
the Mayo College at Ajmer, and the first chief to take advantage of the 
Native Coinage Act of 1876, having in the following year entered into 
an agreement with the Government of India for the supply from the 
Calcutta mint of silver coins bearing the Alwar device. In 1885 he 
was gazetted an honorary lieutenant-colonel in the British army, in 1886 
he was created a G.C.S.I., and in 1889 the hereditary title of Maharaja 
was bestowed on him. He died suddenly in 1892. Other events of 
his rule deserving mention were the great famine of 1877-8; the Salt 
agreement of 1879, under which the manufacture of salt within the 
State was prohibited, and import, export, and transit duties were 
abolished on all articles save spirits, opium, and other intoxicating 
drugs ; the gift in 1887 of Rs. 50,000 to the Lady Dufferin Fund ; the 
foundation of a hospital for women ; and the organization in 1888 of a 
regiment of cavalry and another of infantry to aid in the defence of the 
empire. Maharaja Mangal Singh was succeeded by his only son, Jai 
Singh, the present chief, who was invested with powers in 1903. During 
his minority the administration was carried on by a council acting 
under the general supervision of the Political Agent. The chief of 
Alwar is entitled to a salute of 15 guns. 

The number of towns and villages in the State is 1,762, and the 
population at each of the three enumerations was : (1881) 682,926, 
(1891) 767,786, and (i 9 ot) 828,487. The territory is Population# 
divided into twelve tahsils and one jdgir estate, and 
contains seven towns (all municipalities), the most important being 
Alwar City and Rajgarh. 

s 2 



The following table gives the chief statistics of population in 1901 :— 

Number of 

*° a - S* 

u— §00 - 
bo = • 2 - 





2-2 a c <> 

J! a « £ 

•2 K>T3'C 



a. l-o 

1- £■* c 

E S rt % 

3 u ^ 



S S a «5 rt 

^2 U 



(t, ^ J5 


Alvvar tahsil . 




+ 1 1 -4 

Rehror ,, 


£ 3 2 


+ 2-3 


Bansur „ 



+ 11. 2 


Govindgarh ,, 




- 4-8 


Kathnmar ., 


4I.I5 2 

+ 5-6 


Kishangarh „ 



+ 1 1.4 


Lachhmangarh „ 



+ 2-0 


Mandawar ,, 



+ 1 1.8 


Rajgarh ,, 



90,1 l6 

+ i-3 


Ramgarh ,, 




+ 12-7 


Thana Ghazi ,, 


5 ',955 

- 4-7 


Tijara ,, 




+ 27-1 


Nimrana (estate) 



+ 19-8 







+ 7-9 


In 1901 Hindus numbered 618,378, or more than 74 per cent, of the 
total, the majority being Vaishnavas ; Musalmans numbered 204,947, or 
more than 24 per cent., nearly all belonging to the Sunni sect ; and 
Jains, 4,919. The languages mainly spoken are Hindi and Mewatl, the 
latter being one of the four main groups of Rajasthanl. 

The most numerous tribe is that of the Meos, which numbers 1 13,000, 
or more than 13 per cent, of the total. The Meos are all Musalmans, 
and are mainly agriculturists, being greatly helped in the fields by their 
women, who do not observe parda, and generally do better work than 
their husbands. A further account of them will be found in the article 
on Mewat. Next come the Chamars (92,000, or more than 11 per 
cent.), who are cultivators, workers in leather, and village menials. The 
Brahmans (79,000, or over 9 per cent.) belong mostly to the Gaur, 
Saraswat, and Kanaujia divisions ; some are agriculturists and fairly 
industrious as such, while others are in State or private service. The 
Ahlrs (66,000, or nearly 8 per cent.) take the lead as thrifty, peaceful, 
industrious, and prosperous cultivators. The Mlnas (49,000, or nearly 
6 per cent.) may be divided into two main classes, zamindari and 
chaukidari. The former are well behaved and fair agriculturists, while 
the latter were the hereditary thieves and cut-throats of these parts, but 
they have now greatly settled down and perform police duties in 
villages, though still inclined to return to their former predatory habits 
when opportunity offers. The Gujars (46,000, or over 5 per cent.) are 
agriculturists and breeders of live-stock, and show little of the cattle- 
lifting tendencies with which they were formerly credited. The Mahajans 
(45,000, or over 5 per cent.) are mostly traders and shopkeepers, but 


some hold responsible posts in the State service, and some an 
culturists, and not highly spoken of as such. The Jats (36,000, or 
over 4 per cent.) are little inferior as cultivators to the Alms, but .in- 
more litigious and extravagant. Of the Rajputs (34,000, or over \ per 
cent.) nearly 6,000 are Musalmans who still maintain Hindu usages in 
the celebration of marriages, and usually intermarry only with the 
Musalman Rajputs of Hariana. The Hindu Rajputs are mostly of the 
Kachwaha and Chauhan clans ; some possess estates, others are in State 
service, chiefly the army, while some follow agricultural pursuits, but are 
poor cultivators, and only dire necessity will make them work with their 
own hands. Altogether about 60 per cent, of the people live by the 
land, 4 per cent, are partially agriculturists, and about 7 per cent, are 
engaged in the cotton and leather industries. 

Out of 95 native Christians enumerated in 1901, 40 were Presbyterians, 
30 Baptists, and 17 Roman Catholics. The United Free Church of 
Scotland Mission has had a branch at the capital since 1880, and there 
is an out-station at Rajgarh. 

The soils may be divided into three natural classes. Chiknot is a 
stiffish clay which, though somewhat difficult to work, yields the heaviest 
crops ; it is found in every tahsil except Tijara in the . . 

north-east and Behror in the north-west, and is most 
common in Thana Ghazi in the south, Alwar in the centre, and 
Lachhmangarh and Ramgarh in the east. Mattijdr is a loamy soil easier 
to work than chiknot, but requiring more manure ; this is the prevailing 
soil of all the tahsils except Tijara and Bansur, and in the plain tahslls 
of Govindgarh and Kathumar (in the east) it forms seven-eighths of the 
whole. The bhur or sandy soil is most common in Tijara and Bansur. 
Taking the State as a whole, 15 per cent, of the soil falls in the first class, 
nearly 62 per cent, in the second, and about 23 per cent, in the third. 

Agricultural statistics are available only for the khdlsa area, or land 
paying revenue direct to the State. This is liable to fluctuate, but may 
be put at about 2,751 square miles, or 86 per cent, of the total area. 
From this must be deducted 1,018 square miles occupied by forests, 
rivers, villages, &c, leaving 1,733 square miles as available for cultivation. 
The net area cropped in 1903-4 was 1,431 square miles, or 52 per cent, 
of the total khdlsa area, and more than 82 per cent, of the khdlsa area 
available for cultivation. Of the various crops, bdjra occupied about 
40 per cent., jowilr 10, gram and barley 8 each, cotton 5, wheat over 2, 
and maize and til about 1 per cent. each. There are generally a few 
square miles under linseed and san (Indian hemp), and a few acres 
under tobacco, sugar-cane, indigo, rice, and poppy. 

The cattle of Alwar are in no way remarkable, but a good many of 
them are exported. Sheep and goats of the ordinary type are reared in 
large numbers. The Darbar maintains an excellent stud at the capital. 


which helps to supply remounts for the Imperial Service Lancers and 
carriage horses for the State stables. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, about 212 square miles, or 
nearly 15 per cent., were irrigated : namely, 36 square miles from canals 
and tanks, 168 from wells, and nearly 8 from other sources. There are 
now about 175 irrigation dams and 15,000 wells in the khalsa villages; 
and the total amount spent on the construction and repair of the former 
since 1890, when a regular Public Works department was established, 
exceeds 7 lakhs. The commonest form of irrigation is from wells. The 
charas or leathern bucket, worked by a rope attached to a pair of 
bullocks, and running over a wooden pulley, is always used. The cost 
of a masonry well varies from Rs. 400 to Rs. 1,500 according to depth, 
while a well can be made of roughly-hewn stones without any mortar to 
cement them for from Rs. 200 to Rs. 400. One of the latter kind does 
not ordinarily last for more than twenty years, but a masonry well in a 
favourable situation should last for a century. Where the water is within 
15 feet of the surface, shallow wells are dug. They are worked by a 
dhenkll or long wooden pole supported on a pivot, with an earthen jar 
or pot dipping into the well at one end, balanced by a lump of clay or a 
stone at the other. A dhenkll costs but a few rupees to construct, and 
irrigates about one blgha (five-eighths of an acre). 

Forests cover an area of about 367 square miles, and have recently 
been placed under a trained officer lent by the United Provinces Govern- 
ment. They consist of rundhs .or grass preserves, and 
bannis or wooded forests, and are to be found mostly 
in the hilly country in the south-west. Four zones or types of forest- 
growth are met with. In the first, occupying the summits and higher 
slopes, the sdlar {Boswellia thuriferd) is most common, and associated 
with it are found the small bamboo, the urn {Saccopetalum totnentosum), 
the dhdman {Grewia piiosa), the go I {Odina JVodier), and the tendu {Dios- 
pyros tomentosd). Below this group is the dhao {Anogeissus penduld) zone, 
extending usually to the foot of the slopes. The third zone occupies the 
level lands at the bottom of the valleys, where the principal trees are 
dhak {Butea frondosd) and khair {Acacia Catechu). In the fourth zone 
are to be found, besides the small bamboo, broad-leaved shade-giving 
trees, such as the jamun {Eugenia Jamboland), the karmala {Cassia 
Fistula), the semal {Bombax ma/abaricum), and the bahera { Terminalia 
Bel/erica). Bamboos are an important product, about 20,000 being 
required yearly for State purposes, while the annual revenue from sales 
averages nearly Rs. 2,000. Still more important is grass, large quantities 
of which are supplied for State purposes. When the wants of the State 
have been met, the grass preserves are thrown open to grazing on pay- 
ment of fees. The other minor produce consists of various wild fruits, 
the leaves of the date-palm, the dhak, and the dwarf ber {Zizyphus Jujuba), 


lac, gum, honey, and wax. The foresl income for the yeai i-. , 
about r-2 lakhs and the expenditure Rs. 75,000. 

The hills in the south and south-west arc fairly rich in minerals, such 
as copper, iron, and lead, but they are now hardly worked at all. Marble 
is found in various parts : namely, pink at Baldeogarh 
in the south, black near Ramgarh in the east, and 
white near the capital and at Jhiri in the south-west. The Jhiri marble 
is said to be as good for statuary purposes as any in India, but the 
distance from the railway and the badness of the roads prevent the 
quarries from being utilized to the extent that the superior quality of 
the stone would seem to justify. 

The manufactures are unimportant, and consist mainly of the weaving 
of cotton and the dyeing of turbans. Some paper is made at Tijara ; 
and from the salts extracted from the earth a few 
miles to the east of the capital a coarse glass is co Jmunicat?ons. 
manufactured, from which bangles and bottles are 
made. There is also some work in stone, such as perforated screens, 
idols, cups, &c. An indigo factory was started by a trader from Hathras 
at Bantoli in the Lachhmangarh tahs'il in 1882, and is still at work. 
The proprietor buys the crop from the cultivators, and exports the 
product to Calcutta. The amount so exported in 1895 was about 
38 cwt. ; but it is considerably less now, as the area under indigo 
has contracted, during the last three years averaging only about 
160 acres. A steam hydraulic cotton-press started in 1884, and a 
ginning factory added in 1894, both private concerns, paying a fixed 
royalty of Rs. 3,000 a year to the Darbar, are further noticed in the 
article on Alwar City. 

The chief exports are cotton, oilseeds, bajra, ghi, country cloth, 
turbans, and shoes ; while the chief imports are sugar, rice, salt, wheat, 
barley, gram, piece-goods, iron, and cooking utensils. Both exports 
and imports are carried almost entirely by the railway. 

The Rajputana-Malwa Railway (main line) runs through the centre 
of the State from north to south ; its length in Alwar territory is about 
56 miles, and there are seven stations. The Bandikui-Agra branch 
of the same railway runs from west to east through, or close to, the 
south-eastern portion of the State; the actual length in Alwar territory 
is about 19 miles, and there are four stations. The total length of 
metalled roads is nearly 68 miles, and of unmetalled roads 183 miles; 
all the roads are in charge of the Public Works department, and are 
maintained by the State. 

Imperial postal unity was accepted by the Darbar in 1902, and 
there are now twenty-eight post offices in the State. In addition to 
the telegraph offices at the various railway stations, there is a British 
telegraph ofhee at the capital. 


Famines fortunately do not occur frequently. That of 1 860-1 
was more severely felt here than in almost any other State in 
Rajputana ; it is locally known as ath sera, because the 
staple food-grains sold for some time at 8 seers for the 
rupee. In the famine of 1 868-9 there was less distress than in the States to 
the west and south-west, but the scarcity of fodder caused considerable 
mortality among the cattle. In 1877 showers of rain fell in May and 
June ; but they were insufficient for sowing, and with the exception 
of 0-7 inch at Alwar on July 5, not another drop fell till August 21, 
when about half an inch was registered. The autumn crop failed 
almost completely, and the rabi or spring harvest was only one-fourth 
of the normal. Relief works and poorhouses were opened at central 
places ; but the intensity of the distress was not fully gauged at first, 
and the relief measures would have been more effectual had they been 
more timely. The cattle died in hundreds, and the agricultural com- 
munity, especially the Meos, deserted their homesteads in thousands. 
It was calculated at the time that by emigration and deaths the State 
lost one-tenth of its population. In the recent famine of 1899- 1900, 
the outlook appears to have been as gloomy as in 1877 ; but the Darbar 
pursued a very different policy, and the distress which followed was 
infinitely less acute. A sum of nearly 3 lakhs was advanced to the 
cultivators, who were thus enabled not only to purchase cattle and 
seed, but to dig more than 7,000 temporary unbricked wells, and repair 
or deepen 900 masonry ones. More than 2,000,000 units were relieved 
on works, and 616,000 gratuitously, and the total direct expenditure 
was nearly 2 lakhs. In addition, about 5^ lakhs of land revenue was 

Since December, 1903, when the Maharaja was invested with 

powers, the administration has been carried on by him, assisted by 

a council of three members and various heads of 
Administration. . „ ,, 

departments. For revenue purposes the territory 

is at present divided into two circles (western and eastern), each under 
a Deputy-Collector, but a change is imminent. In place of the two 
Deputy-Collectors there is to be one Revenue officer with an Assistant, 
but each of the twelve tahslls will, as hitherto, remain under a 

In the administration of justice the courts are guided generally 
by the Codes of British India. The lowest courts are those of the 
tahslldars, who have the powers of a third-class magistrate and can 
decide civil suits not exceeding Rs. 100 in value. In the city of 
Alwar, the bench of honorary magistrates and the Assistant Civil 
Judge have the same powers, criminal and civil respectively, as the 
tahslldars. Next come the Faujddr (a first-class magistrate), and 
the Civil Judge, who can decide suits not exceeding Rs. 2,000 in 


value; these two officers, on their respective sides, also hear appeals 
against the orders of the courts below them. The District and Sessions 
Judge hears appeals against the decisions of the Faujdar and the * )ivil 
Judge, and tries cases beyond their powers. The highest court is the 
council, which, when presided over by the Maharaja, can pass sentence 
of death. 

The normal revenue and expenditure of the State are at the present 
time about 32 lakhs a year. The chief sources of revenue are: land, 
including cesses, nearly 24 lakhs; interest on Government securities, 
more than 1-5 lakhs; payments under the Salt agreement of 1879, 
1 »3 lakhs; and forests, about 1-2 lakhs. The main items of 
expenditure are : army, including Imperial Service troops, 8 lakhs ; 
public works, nearly 5 lakhs ; revenue and judicial staff, 4-3 lakhs ; 
stables, including the stud, elephants, camels, bullocks, .Sic, 2-8 lakhs ; 
and privy purse and palace, about 2 lakhs. The finances are in 
a flourishing condition, as the State has about 45 lakhs invested 
in Government securities, besides a large cash balance. 

Alwar had formerly a silver and copper coinage of its own, and the 
mint, which was located at Rajgarh, was opened in 1772. British 
copper coins were introduced as legal tender in 1873, while in 1877 
advantage was taken of the Native Coinage Act of the previous year 
to enter into an agreement with Government for the supply from the 
Calcutta mint of rupees bearing the Alwar device. Under this agree- 
ment Alwar rupees are legal tender in British India, and the State mint 
is closed to the coinage of silver for thirty years from May 10, 1877. 

The principal land tenures are kha/sa, istimrdri, jdgir, and muafi. 
More than 86 per cent, of the total area is kha/sa, or land paying 
revenue direct to the State. The istimrdrdCirs are mostly Rajputs ; 
their holdings are permanently assessed, but they pay an additional 
3 per cent, for dispensary, school, and road cesses. Jdgir lands 
may be divided into jdgir proper and jaiddd. Of these two tenures, 
the latter is considered the more honourable, as no service whatever 
has to be performed, while jdgir estates are held on a sort of feudal 
tenure, subject to the obligation of supplying horsemen. Bdrddrt 
grants are somewhat similar to jdgir, except that they are held by 
persons of inferior position, who have to supply foot-soldiers instead ot 
horsemen. Persons holding on any of these three tenures are liable 
to pay a cess called abwdb, but some have been excused ; it brings in 
about Rs. 17,000 yearly. Mudji lands are granted to Rajputs for 
maintenance, to kdnungos and chauklddrs as remuneration for service, 
to Brahmans, Charans, &c, in charity, and to temples for their up keep. 
Some pay the cess above referred to, but the majority pay nothing. In 
the khdlsa area the tenures are either pure zaminddri (held by a single 
owner), or joint zamlnddri (held jointly by a body of owner- 


pattldari (held by shares, ancestral or customary), or bhaiyachara (held 

by possession without reference to shares), or a combination of two or 
more of the above. The status of the zamindar has long been recog- 
nized in Alwar, where the Darbar, though asserting its own sovereign 
right, has always admitted a subordinate proprietary or biswadari right 
in the village community and its component members, whereby each 
member or unit is entitled to occupy, and be protected in the occupa- 
tion of, the land in his possession, so long as he cultivates it and pays 
the State demand. This right passes to his children or heirs by the 
ordinary rules of inheritance, and can be alienated by sale, gift, or 
mortgage within certain limits and subject to the sanction of the Darbar. 

The land revenue system is practically the same as in the Southern 
Punjab, the village communities being as a rule strong and cohesive 
bodies, generally cultivating most of the land themselves, and bound 
together by ties of common descent or community of tribe, clan, or 
caste. Prior to 1838 the land revenue was levied in kind, the State 
claiming generally one-half of the gross produce, plus one-thirteenth of 
the remainder on account of the expenses of collection. Cash assess- 
ments were introduced more or less generally by the Muhammadan 
ministers about 1838. The first settlement was a summary one, intro- 
duced for three years from 1859-60, and the demand was 14-7 lakhs. 
Since then there have been four settlements, the current one having 
been made for twenty years between 1898 and 1900. The demand as 
announced at this settlement was 22-7 lakhs, and the average assessment 
per acre on ' wet ' land varies from Rs. 6-3-0 to Rs. 7-4-6, while that 
on 'dry' land is Rs. 2-12-0. In reassessing the rates the Punjab 
system of estimates was followed, but the State claimed one-fourth of 
the total crop or two-thirds of the net 'assets.' 

The State maintains an Imperial Service regiment of cavalry, 600 
strong; another of infantry, 1,000 strong; and an irregular local force 
of 68 cavalry, 1 1 3 artillerymen, and 521 infantry. There are 272 pieces of 
ordnance, all of which are said to be serviceable. The late Maharaja 
Mangal Singh was the first chief in Rajputana to offer aid in the defence 
of the empire-. The offer was made in February, 1888, and the two 
regiments of Imperial Service troops were organized in November of 
the same year. Attached to each regiment is a transport train of carts, 
ponies, and mules. The infantry regiment served with credit in China 
in 1 900- 1. 

The police force consists of 942 of all ranks, and costs about i-i 
lakhs a year ; it is distributed over 20 police stations. In addition, 
about 200 municipal police chaukldars cost Rs. 20,000. Besides the 
Central jail at the capital, there are lock-ups at the head-quarters of 
tahslls in which persons sentenced to short terms of imprisonment 
are confined. 


In regard to the literacy of its population Alwar stands twelfth an 
the twenty States and chiefships of Rajputana, with -'•; pei cent. (5-1 
males and o-i females) able to read and write. Ex< luding 32 in< 
nous schools attended by 500 boys, there are now 10,5 edu< ational insti- 
tutions in the State. The number on the rolls in 1^04 was about 
5,500, and the daily average attendance nearly 4,200. Of the schools, 
six are maintained by the United Free Church of Scotland Mission, 
and the rest by the State. There are altogether 12 schools for girls, 
attended by about 300 pupils. English is taught in the high school, the 
nobles' school, and the mission school at the capital, and also at Rajgarh 
and Tijara. The total expenditure on education is about Rs. 42,000 a 
year, and towards this sum the school cess of 1 per cent, on the land 
revenue, fees, and miscellaneous receipts contribute over Rs. 23,000. 

Including the Imperial Service regimental hospitals and that atta< hed 
to the jail, there are now 12 hospitals in the State, with accommoda 
tion for 240 in-patients. In 1904 the number of cases treated was 
99,673 (2,550 being those of in-patients), and 6,700 operations were 
performed. The most notable institutions are at the capital : namely, 
the Lady Dufferin Hospital for women (with 54 beds), opened in 1889, 
and the general hospital (with 60 beds), opened originally as a dispensary 
in 1859. The latter is to be replaced by a new hospital, now under 
construction, named after Her Majesty, Queen Alexandra. The total 
expenditure on medical relief in 1904 was about Rs. 32,000, of which 
two-thirds was contributed by the dispensary cess of 1 per cent, on the 
land revenue. 

Vaccination was started seriously about 1870; it is voluntary 
everywhere, but with very few exceptions the inhabitants readily submit 
their children to the operation. A staff of 15 vaccinators under a 
native Superintendent is maintained; and in 1904-5 the number ol 
persons successfully vaccinated was 25,163, or more than 30 per 1,000 
of the population. 

[P. W. Powlett, Gazetteer of Alwar (1878); Rajputana Gazetteer, 
vol. iii (Simla, 1880, under revision); W. H. Neilson, Medico topo- 
graphical Account of Uhvar (1897) ; M. F. O'Dwyer, Settlement Reports 
(1898-1901) ; Administration Reports (1892-6 and 1904-5).] 

Alwar City. — Capital of the State of the same name in Rajput- 
ana, situated in 27 34' N. and 76° 36' E., on the Rajputana Malwa 
Railway, 98 miles south-west of Delhi, 792 miles north-east of Bombay, 
and about 1,050 miles north-west of Calcutta. Several modes of deriv 
ing its name are current. Some say that it was formerly .ailed Alpur 
or 'strong city'; others that its old name was Arbalpur or the city ol 
the Arballi (or Aravalli) range, with which the Alwar hills are connected. 
General Cunningham 1 was inclined to think that its name was derived 

1 Archaeological Survey of Northern India, vol. xx, p. i jo. 


' from the tribe of Salwas,' and was originally Salwapura, then Salwar, 
Halwar, and finally Alwar. The city has five gates, and is protected 
by a rampart and moat on all sides except where the rocky range, 
crowned by the fort, secures it from attack. 

The population has increased from 49,867 in 1881 and 51,427 in 
1891 to 56,771 in 1901. In the year last mentioned, 39,791, or 70 
per cent., were Hindus, and 15,758, or nearly 28 per cent., were Mus- 
sulmans. Christians numbered 116, of whom 69 were Europeans or 
Eurasians. The United Free Church of Scotland Mission has had a 
branch here since 1880. 

The buildings of most note within the city are the palace, built chiefly 
by Maharao Raja Banni Singh in the first half of the nineteenth century, 
and the cenotaph of Maharao Raja Bakhtawar Singh, a fine specimen of 
the foliated or segmental arch style. Of this tomb Fergusson writes : — 

' To a European eye perhaps the least pleasing part will be the Ben- 
gali curved cornices ; but to any one familiar with the style its employ- 
ment gets over many difficulties that a straight line could hardly meet, 
and altogether it makes with its domes and pavilions as pleasing a 
group of its class as is to be found in India, of its age at least.' 

An old tomb, said to have been erected about 1393 in memory of 
Tarang Sultan, who, according to some authorities, was the brother of 
Flroz Shah Tughlak, and according to others the grandson of Nahar 
Khan Mewatl ; several old mosques bearing inscriptions, the most con- 
siderable being a circular one called Daira-ki-Masjid, and built about 
1579, when Akbar passed through the place; and the Lady Dufferin 
Hospital for women, are also deserving of mention. The last was 
opened in 1889, and has accommodation for 54 in-patients. To the 
north-west of the city, and about 1,000 feet above it, stands the fort, 
which is said to have been built by the Nikumbha Rajputs who held 
the country before the Khanzada occupation. Its ramparts extend 
along the hill-top and across the valley for about 2 miles. Outside the 
city are the Banni Bilas palace and gardens ; another palace recently 
constructed, and known as the Lansdowne Kothi ; the public gardens, 
containing a small zoological collection ; the lines of the Imperial 
Service regiments ; the cotton-press and ginning factory, the property 
of a firm from Khurja in the United Provinces, in which in 1904-5 
nearly 1,300 tons of cotton were pressed, and more than 1,880 tons 
of cotton were cleaned ; and the Central jail, with accommodation 
for 379 prisoners, in which the principal industries are the manu- 
facture of carpets, rugs, pottery, and aerated waters, as well as 
printing and bookbinding. Near the railway station is a large tomb 
known as that of Fateh Jang, who was probably a Khanzada. At any 
rate his Hindu extraction appears to be indicated by the inscription, 
which is dated 1547, being in Nagari. This tomb is 60 feet square, 


and consists of three storeys of the same breadth with fluted o< t.igonal 
minars at the four angles. The dome springs from an octagonal 
standing on a fourth square storey of smaller size, and is < rowned by a 
small square eupola resting on a foliated base. 

Alwar has had a municipal committee since 187 1-2. The annual 
receipts, derived mainly from octroi and slaughter-house fees, are about 
Rs. 60,000, and the expenditure, chiefly on sanitation, lighting, and 
police, about Rs. 53,000. The most prominent educational institution 
is the high school. It was opened in 1871, and has since passed 
77 boys for the entrance examination at the Calcutta and Allahabad 
Universities. The number on the rolls in 1905 was 427, and the daily 
average attendance 396. English is taught in two other schools: 
namely, the nobles' school and the mission school. The daily average 
attendance at the former in 1904-5 was 108. Besides these, there are 
several primary or indigenous schools for boys, and four for girls. In 
addition to the Lady Dufferin Hospital, two Imperial Service regimental 
hospitals and jail and general hospitals are maintained. The last is just 
outside the city and has accommodation for 60 in-patients. About 
6 miles to the south-west of the city is the Sihserh Lake, formed by a 
dam thrown across an affluent of the Ruparel river by Maharao Raja 
Banni Singh in 1844. This dam is now 46 feet high and 1,000 feet 
long, and the lake, when full, is about \\ miles long and | mile wide at 
the broadest place. The water is brought to Alwar by two canals, and 
is used mainly for irrigating the State and private gardens. 

Alwaye. — A station on the Cochin-Shoranur Railway and the head 
quarters of the Alengad taluk, Travancore State, Madras, situated in 
io° 7' N. and 76 22' E., on the river Alwaye (Periyar), on whose banks 
the famous religious reformer Sankaracharya was born. Population 
(1901), 3,645. The early Portuguese used Alwaye as their favourite 
bathing-place and called it Fiera d'Alva, and it is still a sanitarium much 
resorted to during the hot months by the better classes. A Siva temple 
in the bed of the river attracts a large concourse of people on the Siva 
ratri day in February. The chief market of the taluk is held twice a 
week, and a large trade exists in grain, fish, and cattle. Besides the 
magistrate's court and a sub-registrar's office, the town contains a police 
station, a post office, a district hospital, and a customs house. 

Amala. — Petty State in the Dangs, Bombay. 

Amalapuram Taluk.— Taluk in Godavari District, Madras, lying 
between 16 25' and 16 56' N. and 8i° 43' and 82 21' E., with an 
area of 506 square miles. Excepting Nagaram Island, it comprises 
the whole area known as the Central Delta, lying between the two main 
branches of the Godavari, the Vasishta and Gautami. The population 
in 1901 was 277,445, compared with 256,081 in 1891. It contains 
one town, Amalapuram (population, 9,510), the head-quarters: and 


169 villages. The demand on account of land revenue and cesses in 
1903-4 amounted to Rs. 9,47,000. Its numerous gardens have earned 
for the tract the name Konaslma (' country of gardens '). 

Amalapuram Town. — Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name 
in Godavari District, Madras, situated in 16 34'' N. and 82 1' E., on 
the main canal of the Central Delta system, 38 miles south-east of 
Rajahmundry. Population (1901), 9,510. It possesses a high school 
and the usual taluk offices. Local affairs are managed by a Union 

Amaliyara. — Petty State in Mahi Kantha, Bombay. 

Amalner Taluka. — Taluka of East Khandesh District, Bombay, 
including the petty subdivision or petha of Parola, lying between 
20 42' and 21 13' N. and 74 52' and 75 14' E., with an area of 
528 square miles. It contains two towns, Amalner (population, 
10,294), the head-quarters, and Parola (13,468); and 228 villages. 
The population in 1901 was 111,293, compared with 109,841 in 1891. 
The density, 211 persons per square mile, is much above the District 
average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 3-4 lakhs, and 
for cesses Rs. 23,000. Amalner is generally level and the land is 
largely tilled in the north ; the southern portion, broken by a low chain 
of hills, is less cultivated. The Tapti, with its tributaries the Bori and 
Panjhra, affords an unfailing supply of water for irrigation. The chief 
works are those on the Lower Panjhra and the Mhasva Lake. The 
latter consists of a reservoir, 4 miles in circumference, in the petty 
subdivision of Parola, with a dam 1,500 feet long, and two canals, each 
3 miles in length. The climate is healthy, and the annual rainfall 
averages 23 inches. 

Amalner Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name, 
East Khandesh District, Bombay, situated in 21 2' N. and 75 4' E., 
at the junction of the Tapti Valley Railway with the Jalgaon-Amalner 
line, on the left bank of the Bori river. Population (1901), 10,294. 
The municipality, which was constituted in 1864, had an average 
income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 6,800. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 9,900, including Rs. 1,500 as sale proceeds of Govern- 
ment securities. There is an important local trade in grain. The town 
also contains two cotton-ginning factories and two presses, employing 
about 500 persons. A large fair is held annually in the month of May, 
in honour of Sakharam Bhawa, whose death, towards the close of the 
eighteenth century, is commemorated by a handsome temple. The 
town contains a Subordinate Judge's court, a dispensary, and three schools 
—one for girls with 57 pupils, and two for boys with 322 pupils. 

Amaniganj Hat. — Important silk mart in Malda District, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam. Amaniganj possesses no resident population, but 
traders come here from the neighbouring Districts of Murshidabad and 


Rajshahi to buy mulberry silk cocoons and wound and raw silk. In 
the busy season the sales on a single market day o< casionally amount to 
a lakh, falling in the dull season to Rs. 8,000 or l<s. 10,000. The ran-, 
for cocoons for each breeding-season are fixed here for the whole 1 >istrict. 

Amarapura Subdivision.— South-western subdivision of Mandalaj 
District, Upper Burma, containing the Amarapura and Patheingyi 

Amarapura Township. — South-western township of Mandalay Dis 
trict, Upper Burma, lying between 21 47' and 22 i' N. and 96 o' 
and 96 15' E., with an area of 85 square miles. The population was 
50,707 in 1891, and 43,884 in 1901, distributed in 227 villages and one 
town, Amarapura (population, 9,103), the head-quarters. The density 
is higher than in any other part of the District except Mandalay city. 
It contains several Muhammadan villages, and silk-weaving is carried 
on in all the hamlets in the south. The township is noted for its 
mango groves along the bank of the Myitnge river. In the south and 
west the land is low-lying and flooded during the rains, and the lagoons 
left by the river are planted with mayin rice as they dry up. The 
area cultivated in 1903-4 was 43 square miles, and the land revenue 
and thathameda amounted to Rs. 1,40,000. 

Amarapura Town. — Head-quarters of the subdivision and town 
ship of the same name in Mandalay District, Upper Burma, situated in 
21 54' N. and 96 3' E., on high dry ground on a strip of land between 
the Irrawaddy and the Taungthaman lake, a sheet of water fed from the 
river by an inlet to the south of the town. The old city lies to the 
north of the lake, and very little remains of the fortifications and 
palaces. There are traces of the wall, a square about a mile each way, 
and the moat still exists ; but rough cultivation covers the sites of the 
actual buildings. At each corner once stood a pagoda about 100 feet 
high. The city was founded in 1783 by Bodawpaya, in the place of 
Sagaing on the opposite side of the river, though a town had existed on 
the site long before its selection as the capital. Its name imports the 
'city of the immortals.' It was at Amarapura that Bodawpaya received 
the first British embassy under Captain Symes. The town was deserted 
by Bagyidaw in 1822 in favour of Ava, but became the capital of his 
brother Tharrawaddy in 1837, and was finally abandoned by king 
Mindon in 1857 on the foundation of Mandalay. The town abounds 
in tamarind-trees, and fine mango groves are one of its main features. 
Situated on a neck of comparatively high ground, Amarapura has been 
connected with its surroundings by a number of brick causeways and 
wooden bridges, the longest of which, known as the U Bern Tada, 
stretching across the Taungthaman lake, is about 1,000 yards in length. 
The pagodas in the neighbourhood are very numerous, the mosl 
remarkable being the Patodawgyi pagoda, one of the largest and most 


handsome shrines in Upper Burma, erected by Bagyidaw in 1818, close 
to where the Amarapura ferry railway now runs ; and the Shinbinkugyi 
pagoda, built in 1798. Across the Taungthaman lake is another 
beautiful pagoda, known as the Kyauktawgyi, built by Pagan Min. 

The population of the town decreased from 11,004 in 1891 to 9,103 
in 1 90 1. The latter figure included 368 Musalmans (many of them 
Zairbadis) and 142 Hindus. The chief industries are silk and cotton- 
spinning, weaving, and dyeing, the weaving of bamboo wagats or 
shingles, and the manufacture of kammawa writing slips, and of shoes 
and sandals. Fishermen exercise their calling in the Taungthaman 
lake and other waters ; the rest of the inhabitants are cultivators, the 
wide alluvial plain surrounding the urban area being planted with 
tobacco, beans, onions, ground-nut, and other crops. The branch line 
running from Myohaung on the Rangoon-Mandalay railway to the river 
opposite Sagaing, and connected by ferry with the Myitkyina line, 
passes through the town, with stations at Amarapura and Amarapura 

Amaravati. — Village in the Sattanapalle taluk of Guntur District, 
Madras, situated in 16 34' N. and 8o° 22' E., on the south bank of the 
Kistna river. Population (1901), 2,120. A little to the north of it once 
stood the town of Dharanikotta, the capital of the Buddhist dynasty of 
the Andhras. The village is widely known for the beautiful Buddhist 
stupa which it contains. This was first discovered by the servants of 
a local Raja who were searching for building materials. It was then 
hidden under a large mound of earth at the south-west corner of the 
village, which was locally known as the ' mound of lights.' The Raja's 
men sunk a shaft through the centre of this, and found a soapstone 
casket containing a pearl and some relics. They played havoc with the 
marble sculptures of which the stupa was constructed. Some were built 
into mean temples in the neighbourhood, others were used for making 
lime. While this work of devastation was in progress, Captain (after- 
wards Colonel) Colin Mackenzie visited the place in 1797. He wrote 
an account of the sculptures, published in the Asiatic Researches for 
1807. The work of destruction continued, some of the marbles being 
built into the sides of wells and tanks. In 1816 Colonel Mackenzie 
paid a second visit to the place with a staff of draughtsmen and 
assistants, and began the preparation of his folio volume regarding it, 
which is now in the India Office. In 1840 Mr. (afterwards Sir) Walter 
Elliot excavated a portion of the mound and sent some of the marbles 
to Madras. Some years later a number of them were shipped to England, 
where they may be seen on the staircase of the British Museum ; and 
these attracted the attention of Mr. Fergusson, whose account of them 
in his Tree and Serpent- Worship brought them a wide renown. In 1877 
further excavations were undertaken by Mr. Robert Sewell, who published 


an exhaustive account oi the locality and the sculptures in 1880. The 
vandalism of the villagers had by this time irretrievably ruim d ; 
part of the marbles, but the Government ordered the whole ol tin- 
mound to be cleared, and this was effected. This work laid bare a 
circular processional path, flagged with stones, which was edged on both 
sides by a tall railing of marble sculptures. At the points ol ihi compass 
were four small chapels, or entrances, with pillars. In the centre was 
doubtless originally the usual ddgoba, but of this there is now no tra< e. 
The pillars, slabs, and cornices of the railing are covered with car. 
astonishing excellence, the sculptures representing scenes in the life ol 
Buddha and various Buddhistic emblems and symbols. Fergusson con 
siders that 'in elaboration and artistic merit' the rail is ' probably the 
most remarkable monument in India.' Inscriptions in the Brahmi 
character are frequent, and translations of some of these are given in 
Dr. Burgess's Notes on the stupa. \ large series of the sculptures from 
the carved railing are now in the Museum in Madias, where they have 
been set up as far as possible in the relative positions which 
originally occupied. 

Amarchinta (or Atmakur). — A samasthdn or tributary estate in the 
east of Raichur District, Hyderabad State, consisting of 69 villages, with 
Atmakur (population, 2,330) as its head-quarters. It has an area of 190 
square miles, and a population (1901) of 34,147. The total revenue is 
1 «4 lakhs, and the tribute paid to the Nizam is Rs. 6,363. Amarchinta 
is an old samasthdn, but no historical records are available. The fori of 
Atmakur, the residence of the Raja, is in a good state of preservation. 
The Kistna river flows along the southern boundary, separating Amar- 
chinta from the Gadwal samasthdn ; its waters are not available for 
irrigation, owing to the height of the river banks. Amarchinta and 
Atmakur are noted for fine muslins of excellent quality, woven in the 
shape of handkerchiefs, dhotis, and turbans with gold and silk borders. 

Amargarh Nizamat. — A nizdmat or administrative district of the 
Patiala State, Punjab, lying between 30 17' and 30 59' N. and 75 39' 
and 76 42' E., with an area of 858 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 365,448, compared with 361,610 in 1891. The nizdmat contains 
three towns, Basi, the head-quarters, Pail, and SlRHlND ; and 605 
villages. The land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 9-1 
lakhs. The nizamat comprises several distinct portions, and is divided 
into three tahslls. Of these, Fatehgarh lies in the north east of the 
State round the old Mughal provincial capital of Sirhind, and Sahibgarh 
or Pail forms a wedge of territory in the British District of Ludhiana. 
The third tahsll, Amargarh, lies south of Pail between Maler Kotla on 
the west and Nabha on the east. This tahsll lies in the Jangal, the two 
former in the Pawadh. 

Amargarh Tahsll.— South-western tahsll of the Amargarh nizamat, 
vol. v. T 


Patiala State, Punjab, lying between 30 17' and 30° 37' N. and 75 39' 
and 76 12' E., with an area of 337 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 123,468, compared with 118,329 in 1891. The ta hsll contains 
161 villages, the head-quarters being at Dhiiri, the junction of the 
Rajpura-Bhatinda and Ludhiana-Jakhal Railways. The land revenue 
and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 3-4 lakhs. 

Amarkantak. — Village in the Rewah State, Central India, situated 
in 22 41' N. and 8i° 46' E., on the easternmost extremity of the 
Maikala range, 25 miles by country road from Sahdol station on 
the Ratnl-Bilaspur section of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway ; 3,000 feet 
above sea-level. Population (1901), 214. Amarkantak is famous for 
the source of the Narbada river, and is one of the most sacred spots 
in India. There are eleven places in the neighbourhood which are 
regularly visited by pilgrims, the most important being the source of the 
Narbada, the falls of Kapildhara where the footprints of the Pandava 
Bhim are shown, and Son Munda where the Son river rises. The most 
important temple now standing is curious in consisting of three 
sanctuaries arranged like a trefoil leaf, which were evidently to have 
been connected by a single mandapa or hall, never completed. The 
mouldings, though plain, are bold and good, and the sikhara or spire 
is of the graceful curvilinear form seen in the Khajraho temples. It 
is said to have been built by Kama Deo Chedl (1040-70). About 
fourteen other temples stand near, and many more farther off. The 
tank from which the river is now supposed to take its source is not the 
original one. The earlier source, an old tank half filled with earth, 
can still be seen close by. The Narmada-Bai temple is probably older 
than that of Kama ; but a thick cover of whitewash, and the fact that it 
is in use, make examination impossible. 

[ A . Cunningham, Archaeological Survey of Northern India, vol. vii, p. 2 2 . ] 
Amarnath (or Ambarnath, literally ' Lord of the Skies,' a name of 
Siva). — Village in the Kalyan taluka of Thana District, Bombay, situated 
in 19 12' N. and 73 io' E., about a mile west of the Ambarnath station 
on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, and 38 miles from Bombay. 
Population (1901), 485. The old Hindu temple, situated in a pretty 
valley less than a mile east of the village, is interesting as a specimen of 
ancient Hindu architecture. An inscription found in it is dated Saka 
982 (a.d. 1060). It was probably erected by Mamvaniraja, the son of 
Chittarajadeva, a Mahamandaleswara, or feudatory king of the Konkan, 
under the Chalukyas of Kalyan, in the Deccan. The temple itself faces 
the west, but the mandapa or antardla, the entrance hall, has doors to 
the north and south. Each of the three doors has a porch, approached 
by four or five steps, and supported by four nearly square pillars, two of 
them attached to the wall. The mandapa is 22 feet 9 inches square. The 
roof of the hall is supported by four elaborately carved columns. In 


their details no two of them are exactl) alike : but, like the pillai in the 
cave-temples of Ajanta, they have been wrought in pairs, the paii next 
the shrine being if possible the richer. The gabhdra or shrine, which is 
also square, measures 13 feet 8 inches each way. It appears to have 
been stripped of its ornamentation, and now contains only the remains 
of a small lingam sunk in the floor. The outside of the building is 
beautifully carved. The principal sculptures are a three headed figure 
with a female on his knee, probably intended to represent Mahadeo and 
Parvati j and on the south-east side of the vimdna, Kali. The sculpture, 
both on the pillars of the hall and round the outside, shows a skill not 
surpassed by any temple in the Presidency. A fair is held here on the 
Sivaratri in Magha (February-March). 

[For a more detailed account, see Indian Antiquary, vol. iii, p. 316 {{. ; 
and Bombay Gazetteer, vol. xiv, pp. 2-8.] 

Amb. — Village in independent Tanawal, North West Frontier Pro 
vince, situated in 34 18' N. and 72 55' E., on the western bank of the 
Indus. The ruler of the territory takes his title as Nawab of Amb from 
this place, where he resides in the winter. 

Amba Taluk. — South-eastern taluk of Bhir District, Hyderabad 
State, with an area of 1,342 square miles. The population in 1901, in- 
cluding j'dglrs, was 139,399, compared with 195,539 in 1891, the decrease 
being due to the famines of 1897 and 1899-1900. These figures include 
the former taluk of Kaij, which was amalgamated with Amba in 1905, 
and had a population of 50,543 and an area of 485 square miles in 
1 901. The taluk contains two towns, Amba (population, 12,628), the 
head-quarters, adjoining the cantonment of Mominabad, and Parli 
(7,289); and 269 villages, of which 51 axej'dglr. The land revenue in 
1901 was 3-8 lakhs. Amba is hilly in the north, and the Manjra river 
separates it on the south from Osmanabad District. 

Amba Town (or Mominabad). — Head-quarters of the Amba taluk 
in Bhir District, Hyderabad State, situated in 18 41' N. and 76" 24' K. 
Population (1901), 12,628, of whom 8,584 were Hindus, 3,477 Musal 
mans, and 25 Christians. The town consists of two portions, separated 
by the Jivanti river. That part which lies south-west of the river is 
called Mominabad, and up to 1903 was a cantonment. The Pancham 
Jainas of Amba are said to be the descendants of a feudatory of the 
Chalukyas, and are now represented by the Pancham Lingayats. In 
one of the bastions of the town is an old temple, built during the reign 
of Singhana, the Yadava king of Deogiri, and containing an inscription 
dated in 1240. A number of ruined cave-temples, both Brahmanical 
and Jain, are situated in the vicinity. The most important is the temple 
of Jogai, on the bank of the Jivanti, which consists of a small pavilion 
in the middle of a courtyard, and a great hall 90 feet by 45> cut in the 
rock, and supported by four rows of pillars. The town contains a post 

276 A MB A TOWN 

office and three schools, and is the head-quarters of the Second 
Talukdar. It is a flourishing trade centre. 

[Archaeological Survey Reports, Western India, vol. iii, p. 49.] 

Amba Bhawani. — Shrine and place of pilgrimage, also known as 
Ambaji, in Mahl Kantha, Bombay. See Arasur Hills. 

Ambahta. —Town in the Nakur tahsil of Saharanpur District, United 
Provinces, situated in 29 52" N. and 77 20' E. Population (1901), 
5,751, Muhammadans being nearly twice as numerous as Hindus. The 
place was originally a cantonment for Mughal troops, established by 
Flroz Shah Tughlak, and was known as Firozabad. The present town 
is modern, but contains two mosques, one built about 15 16 and the 
other in Humayun's reign. The tomb of Shah Abul Maall, who died 
in the seventeenth century, is a fine domed building with minarets, 
still in good repair. The town is administered under Act XX of 1856, 
the income being about Rs. 1,600. Ambahta carved doors have a 
well-deserved reputation. 

Ambajidurga. — A detached hill, 4,399 feet high, in the Chintamani 
taluk of Kolar District, Mysore, situated in 13 25' N. and 78 3' E. 
It was fortified by Tipfi Sultan, but was taken by the British in 1792. 

Ambala District.— Northernmost of the plains Districts of the 
Delhi Division, Punjab, lying between 30 2' and 31 13' N. and 76 19' 
and 77 36' E., with an area of 1,851 square miles. It extends from 
the Sutlej, which separates it from the District of Hoshiarpur on the 
north, to the Jumna, which divides it from the District of Saharanpur 
in the United Provinces on the south-east. On the north-east it is 
bounded by the States of Nalagarh, Patiala, Sirmur, and Kalsia ; on 
the south by the District of Karnal ; and on the west by Patiala and 
the District of Ludhiana. The District is very irregular in shape, 
and consists of two almost separate portions. The main portion lies 
between the Ghaggar and the Jumna, comprising the three tahslls of 
Ambala, Naraingarh, and Jagadhri. It is formed of the plain which 
descends from the Siwalik Hills towards the south-west. This plain is 
fertile, generally speaking a good alluvial loam, but 
aspects intersected by torrents, which pour down from the 

hills at intervals of a few miles ; and it is inter- 
spersed with blocks of stiff clay soil, which in years of scanty rainfall 
are unproductive, so that the tract, especially the Naraingarh tahsll, is 
liable to famine. In this part of the District lies the Morni ildka, a 
hilly tract of about 93 square miles, chiefly made up of two main ridges, 
and culminating in the Karoh peak (4,919 feet) on the Sirmur border. 
It is inhabited by tribes of Hindu Kanets. The second portion of the 
District is the Rupar subdivision, which comprises the tahslls of Rupar 
and Kharar, a submontane plain lying to the north between the 
Ghaggar and the Sutlej. This plain is of great fertility, highly culti- 


vated and well wooded, with numerous mango groves; but its 
eastern extremity, which is heavily irrigated from the Ghaggar, i 
logged, and though of boundless fertility is so unhealth) as 
almost uninhabitable. The District also includes the detached tracts 
containing the town of Kalka and the hill cantonment of kasauli. 

Besides the great boundary streams of the Sutlej and Jumna, each of 
whose beds passes through the various stages of boulders, shingle, and 
sand, the District is traversed in every part by innumerable minor 
channels. The Ghaggar rises in Sirmiir State, passes through the 
Morni tract, crosses the District at its narrowest point, and almost 
immediately enters Patiala ; but near the town of Ambala it again 
touches British territory, and skirts the border for a short distance. 
It is largely used for irrigation, the water being drawn off by means oi 
artificial cuts. Among other streams may be mentioned the Chautang, 
Tangri, Baliali, Sirvan, Boli, Budki, and Sombh. The Western Jumna 
Canal has its head-works at Tajewala in this District, and the Sirhind 
Canal takes off from the Sutlej at Rupar. 

With the exception of the narrow submontane strip running along 
its north-eastern border, the whole District lies on the Indo-Gangetic 
alluvium. The submontane tract consists of sandstones and conglome 
rates, belonging to the Upper Tertiary (Siwalik) series of the Himalayas. 

The District includes three very different botanical tracts : the 
southern part, which belongs to the Upper Gangetic plain ; the Siwaliks 
in the north-east ; and the Kasauli tract, which rises to over 6,000 feet. 
and is Outer Himalayan, with a flora much the same as that of Simla 
below 5,000 feet above sea-level. The Kalesar forest and the Morni 
hills generally, which fall in the second tract, have a fairly rich Siwalik 
flora, with which a few Himalayan types, such as clilr or cf&l (fin us 
longifolia), intermingle. 

Tigers are occasionally shot in the Kalesar forest and the Morni 
hills ; there are a few bears about Morni, and leopards, hyenas, and 
wolves are not uncommon, while wild hog abound. Of deer six kinds 
are found: sambar, chltal, and kakar in the hill tracts: and 'ravine 
deer' (Indian gazelle), antelope, and hog deer in the plains. 

The climate of the plains is fairly good, though, owing to the 
ness of the hills, subject to severe changes of temperature. The 
average mean temperature of January is 39-45° and of June 7755 
The hill station of Kasauli, owing to its moderate height and nearness 
to the dust of the plains, is the least esteemed for climate of the Punjab 
hill stations. The chief cause of mortality is fever. Swamping, caused 
by percolation from the Western Jumna Canal, used to affect the health 
of the people injuriously; but the careful realignment of the (anal 
which has been carried out of recent years has, it is hoped, completely 
remedied the evil. 


The rainfall varies widely in the hill, submontane, and plain tracts, 
and the average fall ranges from 28 inches at Rupar to 61 at Kasauli. 
The District on the whole is well off in the matter of rainfall, and there 
are comparatively few years in which the rains fail altogether ; the 
variations from year to year are, however, considerable. The heaviest 
rainfall recorded during the twenty years ending 1 900-1 was 
87 inches at Jagadhri in 1884-5, an d the lightest was 0-33 inches at 
Dadupur in 1889-90. 

The earliest authentic information with reference to this District is 
derived from the itinerary of Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese Buddhist 
pilgrim of the seventh century. He found it the 
seat of a flourishing and civilized kingdom, having 
its capital at Srughna, a town identified by General Cunningham with 
the modern village of Sugh, near Jagadhri. The country around 
Ambala from its position felt the full force of every important cam- 
paign in Northern India, but receives little mention except as an appur- 
tenance of Sirhind. Such references as occur in the Muhammadan 
historians are given in the articles on Ambala Citv and Rupar Town. 

The practical interest of the local annals begins with the rise of the 
Sikh principalities south of the Sutlej during the latter half of the 
eighteenth century. As the central power of the Mughal empire re- 
laxed under the blows of the Marathas on the one side and the Afghans 
on the other, numerous Sikh marauders from the Punjab proper began 
to extend their encroachments beyond the Sutlej, and ere long acquired 
for themselves the heart of the country between that river and the 
Jumna. When the Maratha power fell before the British in 1803, the 
whole tract was parcelled out among chiefs of various grades, from the 
powerful Rajas of Patiala, Jind, and Nabha down to the petty sardar 
who had succeeded in securing by violence or fraud the possession of 
a few villages ; but after Ranjit Singh began to consolidate the Sikh 
territories within the Punjab, he crossed the Sutlej in 1808, and 
demanded tribute from the Cis-Sutlej chieftains. Thus pressed, and 
fearing for themselves the fate which had overtaken their brethren, the 
Sikh chieftains combined to apply for aid to the British Government. 
The responsibility of protecting the minor States from their powerful 
neighbour was accepted, and the treaty of 1809, between the British 
Government and Ranjit Singh, secured them in future from encroach- 
ment on the north. Internal wars were strictly prohibited by a 
proclamation issued in 181 1 ; but with this exception the powers and 
privileges of the chiefs remained untouched. Each native ruler, great 
small, including even the descendants of private troopers of the 
original invading forces, had civil, criminal, and fiscal jurisdiction 
within his own territory, subject only to the controlling authority of the 
Governor-General's Agent at Ambala. No tribute was taken, nor was 


any special contingent demanded, although the chieftains were bound 
in rase of war to give active aid to the Government. The right to 
escheats was the sole return which was asked. The first Sikh War and 
the Sutlej campaign of 1845 gave Government an opportunity of testing 
the gratitude of the chieftains. Few of them, however, displayed their 
loyalty more conspicuously than by abstaining from open rebellion. 
Their previous conduct had not been such as to encourage Govern- 
ment in its policy towards them; and a sweeping measure of reform 
was accordingly introduced, for the reduction of their privileges. The 
Political Agency of Ambala was transformed into a Commissionership, 
and police jurisdiction was handed over to Fairopean officers. In 
June, 1849, a f ter tne second Sikh War had brought the Punjab under 
British rule, the chiefs were finally deprived of all sovereign powers. 
The revenues were still theirs, but the assessments were to be made by 
British officials and under British regulation. Even previous to this 
arrangement portions of the modern District had lapsed to Govern 
ment by death or forfeiture ; and the reforms of 1849 brought Ambala 
nearly to its present proportions. 

During the Mutiny of 1857, although incendiary fires and other 
disturbances gave much ground for alarm, especially at the first 
beginning of disaffection, no actual outbreak occurred, and the District 
was held throughout with little difficulty. In 1862 the dismemberment 
of Thanesar District brought three new parganas to Ambala; since 
that date there have been several alterations of boundary, the most 
important of which were the transfer of the Thanesar tahsil to Karnal 
in 1897 and the accession of Kasauli and Kalka from Simla in 1899. 

Information as to the principal remains of archaeological interest will 
be found in the articles on Sugh and Sadhaura. 

The District contains 7 towns and 1,718 villages. Its population 
at the last three enumerations was: (1881) 864,748,(1891) 863,641, 
and (1901) 815,880. During the last decade the rural 
population decreased by 6-6 per cent. The decrease 
was apparent in every tahsil, being greatest in Naraingarh and least in 
Jagadhri ; but the towns, with the exception of Ambala, Buriya, and 
Sadhaura, showed an increase. This general decline is attributable to 
the mortality caused by cholera, fever, and small-pox, and also to 
scarcity and emigration in the famine years. The District is divided 
into five tahstls — Ambala, Kharar, Jagadhri, Naraingarh, and 
Rupar — the head-quarters of each being at the place from which it is 
named. The chief towns are the municipalities of Ambala, the head 
quarters of the District, Jagadhri, Rupar, Sadhaura, and Bi riya. 

The table on the next page shows the chief statistics of population 
in 1 90 1. 

About 62 per cent, of the people arc Hindus, 30 per cent. Muham 


madans, and 7 per cent. Sikhs. In the Rupar and Kharar tahslls the 
language is Punjabi, a Hindi patois being spoken in the rest of the 




V) OJ 

c — 



Number of 





QJ . 



Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1 89 1 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 





Ambala . 
Rupar . 

Kharar . 



District total 






2 95 


I39 ; 3 2 7 



- 5-4 

- 5-i 

- 5-7 

- 7-2 

- 4-4 










35,4 6 5 

Note. — The figures for the areas of tahsils are taken from revenue returns. The 
total District area is that given in the Census Report. 

Jats or Jats (1 25,000) are the chief landowning tribe. They are divided 
into two widely different classes, those of the northern tahslls being 
the fine sturdy type found in the Punjab proper, while to the east and 
south they are inferior in physique and energy. Of the Rajputs (67,000), 
more than two-thirds are Muhammadans. The Malis (24,000) and 
Sainis (26,000) are market-gardening tribes scattered throughout the 
District, generally as occupancy tenants, though the Sainis hold many 
villages in Rupar. The Malis are nearly all Hindus, the Sainis chiefly 
Hindus with some Sikhs. The Arains (29,000) are almost all Muham- 
madans, the Kambohs (9,000) chiefly Hindus or Sikhs. The Gujars 
(46,000) are divided almost equally between Hindus and Muham- 
madans ; they chiefly inhabit the Jumna valley and the wild broken 
tract lying under the hills, and own large herds of goats. In this 
District the Gujars have an undeserved reputation as cattle-thieves. 
In the Morni hills, Kanets (2,500), Koris (4,000), and Brahmans 
(44,000) are the chief cultivators. The Kanets claim a Rajput descent, 
the Koris are of menial status. The whole Morni population are a 
simple, orderly folk, mixing as little as possible with the people of the 
plains. The Banias (29,000) are the most important commercial tribe, 
but there are also 7,000 Khattrls. Of the menial tribes may be men- 
tioned the Chamars (leather-workers, 113,000), Chuhras (scavengers, 
32,000), Jhlnwars (water-carriers, 31,000), Julahas (weavers, 20,000), 
Kumhars (potters, 9,000), Nais (barbers, 11,000), Tarkhans (carpenters, 
19,000), and Telis (oilmen, 12,000). There are 20,000 Shaikhs, 6,000 
Saiyids, 16,000 Fakirs, and 8,000 Jogis and Rawals. Of the total 
population, 51 per cent, are supported by agriculture, 19 per cent, are 
industrial, 4 per cent, commercial, and 3 per cent, professional. 

The Ludhiana American Presbyterian Mission has stations at Ambala 



city and cantonment, both occupied in 1849, with out-statioi 
Jagadhri, Mubarakpur, Naraingarh, Raipur, and Mulana. With 

of eight missionaries, it supports a high school, a middle school, a 
school for Muhammadan girls, two for Hindu girls, and a hospital foi 
women. The District contained 959 native Christians in [901. 

Every tahsil except Rupar contains a large tract of hard clay land, 
which is fit for cultivation only when the rains are abundant. Her* 1 
the autumn harvest, which is sown by aid of the 
monsoon rains, is more important than the spring 
harvest. The insecure parts are those in which this heavy clay soil 
predominates, chiefly in the Ambala tahs 11 and in the southern quarter 
of Kharar. The rest of the four iahslls which abut on the Himal 
contain, with a certain proportion of hilly country, large tracts of good 
alluvial loam ; the Rupar tahsil is practically secure ; and such 
insecurity as there is in Naraingarh and Jagadhri is due rather to the 
character of the Rajput inhabitants than to defects of soil or climate. 
The District is intersected by numerous watercourses which, though 
to all appearance dry except after heavy rain, constitute a large reserve 
of moisture, and even in times of drought enable fairly good crops to 
be cultivated along them. 

The District is held almost entirely on the patt'iddri and bhaiyachara 
tenures ; but zamlndari lands cover about 70 square miles, a larger 
proportion than in most Districts. 

The following table shows the main agricultural statistics in 1903-4, 
areas being in square miles : — 














2 74 



2 1 





1.195 7' 


The chief crops of the spring harvest are wheat and gram, which 
in 1903-4 occupied 309 and 181 square miles respectively. B 
covered only 13 square miles. Maize, the principal crop in autumn, 
occupied 151 square miles; then came rice (115), pulses (95), greal 
millet (30), and cotton (43). About 2,000 were under poppy. In the 
Morni hills tnandal {Eleusiiie coracana), knit hi {Dolichos uniflorus\ 
the tuber kachdlu {Arum colocaria), and ginger an- cultivated. 

The area under cultivation increased from 1,171 square miles in 
1890-1 to 1,195 square miles in 1903-4, in which latter year ii \\.i> 
64 per cent, of the total area of the District. Experiments wen 1 arried 


out in 1887 with a view to introducing natural khaki-coloured (Nankin) 
cotton as a staple. The cotton was a fine strong plant with a good fibre, 
and made up well as coarse cloth ; but Government decided that it could 
not take the place of dyed cotton for army purposes, and the people 
preferred the ordinary cotton, both on account of its colour and because 
the Nankin cotton took longer to come to maturity and yielded a 
smaller proportion of fibre to seed. More recent experiments have been 
made with Nagpur, Egyptian, and American cotton, the latter with good 
results as regards the out-turn. There is a tendency to substitute the 
cultivation of fine rice for coarse. Loans under the Land Improvement 
Loans Act are not very popular, the people preferring to borrow money 
from the village banker. Only Rs. 1,400 was advanced under this 
Act during the five years ending 1904, all for the construction of 
masonry wells. Loans for seed and bullocks are readily taken in 
times of scarcity, when credit with the banker has failed. Rs. 31,000 
was thus advanced during the five years ending 1903-4. 

The breed of cattle is capable of improvement ; but in the alluvial 
lands the weak home-bred stock are quite equal to the work required, 
and being accustomed to stall-feeding do not, like the stronger cattle 
imported from the upland tracts, feel the change from grazing in the 
open. For work in heavy clay soils, or with deep irrigation wells, a finer 
breed of cattle is imported. Hissar bulls have been introduced. A 
good deal of horse-breeding is carried on in the District ; the District 
board maintains seven horse and five donkey stallions. Large quan- 
tities of sheep, pigs, and poultry are kept, the high prices obtainable 
in Simla making poultry especially remunerative. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 71 square miles, or 6 per cent., 
were irrigated. Of this area, 43 square miles were irrigated from wells, 
3,396 acres from canals, and 23 square miles from streams and tanks. 
The head-works of both the Western Jumna and Sirhind Canals lie 
in the District, but it receives no irrigation from the latter. About 2,500 
acres are estimated as irrigable annually from the main line of the 
Western Jumna Canal. The District has in use 3,297 masonry wells 
worked by bullocks, almost all on the rope-and-bucket system, even in 
the riverain tracts ; also 2,095 unbricked wells, lever wells, and water- 
lifts. The hill torrents afford a certain amount of irrigation. Of the 
crops harvested in 1903-4, only 4 per cent, was grown on irrigated land, 
sugar-cane being the only crop irrigated to any great extent. It is 
proposed to add to the programme of famine relief works projects for 
the construction of storage tanks for purposes of rice irrigation in the 
clay tracts which largely depend on that crop. 

The Kalesar 'reserved' forest has an area of about 19 square miles, 
lying principally between two low ranges of hills on the right bank of the 
Jumna. The chief growth is of sal, but ebony and other trees are also 


found. This forest contains no bamboo, but a good deal grows south 
of it. Near Jagadhri is a 'reserved' plantation o\ shtsham {Dalbergia 
Sissoo), and at Ambala a military Reserve of nearly 3 square miles forms 
the grass farm. The Morni hills arc covered with a dense foresl growth 
of scrub mixed with chil {Pinus longifolta) and many other valuable 
trees, including the harrar {Terminalia Chebula), the fruit of which 
yields a considerable revenue. In 1903-4 the total forest revenue was 
Rs. 2,000. 

A good deal of limestone is burnt in the Morni hills ; but since 1887 
the industry has been discouraged, as it was found that much harm was 
being done to the forest growth by reckless cutting for fuel. Tin 1 >i 
trict also possesses some block kankar (marries, which were largely used 
when the Sirhind Canal was under construction; and in tin Kharar 
tahsil millstones are prepared. Gold is washed in minute quantities in 
the sand of some of the mountain torrents, especially the Sombh. 

Excellent cotton carpets are made at Ambala ; and the town also 

possessed four ginning factories with 369 employes in 1904, three cotton 

presses with 180 employes, and two factories in which 

cotton-ginning is combined with flour-milling, and ra e . ai \. 

, . , , communications. 

which between them give employment to 63 hands. 

The cantonment has two flour-mills, one of which was working in 1904 

and gave employment to 54 hands, and a factory for cabinet-making and 

coach-building with 195 hands. At Sadhaura there is a combined 

cotton-ginning and pressing factory and flour-mill with 55 employes, and 

at Khanpur a combined cotton-ginning factory and flour-mill with 40. 

while the Kalka-Simla Railway workshops at Kalka give employment 

to 200 operatives. A museum of industrial exhibits has recently been 

started in a building erected in memory of the late Queen-Empress. 

Rupar is famous for small articles of ironwork, and a potter in the 

town enjoys some celebrity for his clay modelling. The Rupar canal 

foundry was closed in 1901. Kharar produces good lacquer-work, 

and Jagadhri has a well-deserved reputation for its brass-ware. Cotton 

prints are made in some villages. 

Ambala city is a considerable grain market, receiving grain anil 

cotton from the Phulkian States and Ludhiana, and exporting them up 

and down country. It imports English cloth and iron from the south. 

and salt, wood, and woollen and silk manufactures from elsewhere ; 

and exports cotton goods, especially carpets. It has a considerable 

trade in hill products, such as ginger, turmeric, potatoes, opium, and 

charas; and Simla and Kasauli are largely supplied from it with various 

necessaries. Rupar is also an important mart for commerce betwi n 

the hills and the plains, and has a considerable traffic in grain, sugar, 

and indigo; salt is imported and sent to the hills in exchange for iron, 

ginger, turmeric, and potatoes, and country (loth is manufactured in the 


town and exported to the hills. Jagadhri carries on a considerable trade 
in metals, importing copper and iron and exporting the manufactured 
products. It is also a centre of the borax trade. During the American 
Civil War, a cotton mart was established at Kurali, where 5 lakhs' 
worth is still reported to change hands yearly. 

The North-Western Railway from Saharanpur to Lahore and the 
Delhi-Umballa-Kalka line cross each other at Ambala city, the latter 
being continued by the narrow-gauge Kalka-Simla line. The grand 
trunk road passes through Ambala, where the Kalka road for Simla 
leaves it. The only other important metalled roads are from Abdullah- 
pur (via Jagadhri) to Chhachhrauli, the capital of the State of Kalsia, and 
from Buriya to Jagadhri. The total length of metalled roads is 103 
miles, and of unmetalled roads 404 miles. Of these, 87 miles of metalled 
and 32 miles of unmetalled roads are under the Public Works depart- 
ment, and the rest are maintained by the District board. Both the 
Sirhind and Western Jumna Canals are navigable, taking to a large 
extent the place of the rivers which they drain almost dry except in the 
summer months. The Jumna is crossed by a ferry, which is replaced 
in the cold season by a bridge of boats, and the Sutlej by three 

Ambala District has only once suffered from serious famine since its 
formation in 1847. This was in 1860-1, when wheat rose to 8 seers a 
rupee. Regarding the distress in 1868-9 very little is 
recorded. The total number of persons employed on 
relief works was 46,000, and 57,000 received gratuitous relief. Only 
about Rs. 2,500 was spent from subscriptions, to which Government 
added as much again. The crops failed in 1884-5 an d 1890. The 
famine of 1896-7 was due, not so much to any actual failure of the 
crops in the District (though the spring harvest of 1897 was the third 
poor harvest in succession), as to the state of the grain market all over 
India. For months together the prices of all food-grains stood at about 
10 seers per rupee in rural tracts; and in the towns, when prices were 
highest, wheat rose to 7 seers, maize (the staple food of the people) and 
gram to 8 seers ; and the District only escaped worse calamities than it 
actually suffered owing in no small degree to the resources of the small 
capitalists. The greatest daily average number relieved was 5,279. 
Rs. 36,600 was spent from District funds on gratuitous and all other 
forms of relief, and Rs. 15,000 was received from the Indian Charitable 
Famine Relief Fund. In the famine of 1899- 1900, though prices did 
not rise so high, the crop failure was more complete ; there were heavier 
losses of cattle, and credit was harder to obtain. The greatest daily 
number relieved did not, however, exceed 816; the expenditure from 
District funds was Rs. 4,176, and from the Charitable Relief Fund 
Rs. 4,925. 


The District is divided for administrative purposes into five ta 
Ambala, Jagadhri, Naraingarh, Rupar, and Kharar, the twi 
forming the Rupar subdivision. Each tahsil has a 
tahsildar and a naib-tahsildar. The District is in Adminis,r ation. 
charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, aided by six Assistant or Extra 
Assistant Commissioners, of whom one is subdivisional officer in < 
of Rupar, and another is in charge of the District treasury. Ambala 
is the head-quarters of the Deputy-Inspector-Ceneral of Police, I 
Range, and of an Executive division of the Public Works department. 

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for 
the criminal justice of the District. The civil judicial work is under a 
District Judge, and both officers are supervised by the Divisional |udge 
of the Ambala Civil Division. There are three Munsifs at head- 
quarters, Jagadhri, and Rupar. There are also Cantonment Magistrates 
at Ambala and Kasauli, with an assistant cantonment magistrate at the 
former place, and seven honorary magistrates. The predominant forms 
of crime are burglary and cattle-theft. 

In the revenue history two periods of chaos have to be distinguished ; 
the first between 1763 and 1809, when the Sikhs having crossed the 
Sutlej proceeded to divide the country among themselves and rule it 
with degrees of extortion which varied with the position, necessities, ami 
temperament of individual chieftains; the second between 1809 and 1847, 
the period of British protection, when confiscation followed escheat, and 
so-called settlement followed either, under conditions so diverse as to 
baffle any uniformity of treatment, fiscal or historical. The summary 
settlements were invariably pitched too high, the demand being fixed by 
simply commuting at cash rates the grain collections made by the Sikhs. 
The only data were the accounts of the former payments, and the 
estimates made by leading men — not unbiased financiers, as their revenue 
assignments rose and fell with the Government demand. A regular 
settlement for the whole cis-Sutlej tract was carried out between 1847 
and 1855, and remained practically unaltered until the revision com- 
menced in 1882. The assessment, though not unduly light, was fair 
and, helped by the rise of prices that began in i860, worked without any 
difficulty. The Jagadhri tahsil was resettled in 1882-9, and the rest of 
the District between 1883 and 1889. The average assessment on 'di\ ' 
land is Rs. 1-3-6 (maximum, Rs. 2-2 ; minimum, 5 annas), and on 
'wet' land Rs. 3-10 (maximum, Rs. 5; minimum, Rs. 2-4). The 
result of these revisions was an increase of one lakh in the assessment 
of the whole District. The demand, including cesses, for [903 4 was 
13-8 lakhs. The average size of a proprietary holding is 2-7 acres. 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are shown 
in the table on the next page, in thousands of rupees. 

The District contains five municipalities —Ambala, Rupar, Jagadhri, 



Sadhaura, and Buriya — and two ' notified areas ' or embryo munici- 
palities, Kharar and Kalka. Outside these, local affairs are managed 
by a District board, whose income amounted in 1903-4 to 1-2 lakhs, 
while its expenditure was i-i lakhs, education accounting for one-fifth 
of the total. 





Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 

11, 11 




The regular police force consists of 803 of all ranks, including 
148 cantonment and 86 municipal police, under a Superintendent, who 
usually has one Assistant and one Deputy-Superintendent and five 
inspectors under him. The village watchmen number 1,792, including 
31 daffadars. The District has 17 police stations, 2 outposts, and 
6 road-posts. The District jail at head-quarters has accommodation 
for 856 prisoners. 

The District stands ninth among the twenty-eight Districts of the 
Province in respect of the literacy of its population. In 1901 the pro- 
portion of literate persons was 4-3 per cent. (7-5 males and 0-4 females). 
The number of pupils under instruction was 5,262 in 1880-1, 9,359 in 
1 900- 1, and 8,906 in 1903-4. In the last year the District possessed 
one secondary and 99 primary (public) schools, and 3 advanced and 69 
elementary (private) schools, with 421 girls in the public and 393 in the 
private schools. The Mission school in Ambala city was the only high 
school of the District until Government opened one at Jagadhri. The 
District possesses six girls' schools. The total expenditure on education 
in 1903-4 was 2-4 lakhs, of which the greater part was provided by 
Imperial and Provincial funds and endowments. 

The District contains a hospital at Ambala city, and seven outlying 
dispensaries. In 1904 a total of 98,679 out-patients and 1,982 in-patients 
were treated at these institutions, and 8,697 operations performed. The 
aggregate expenditure was Rs. 21,000, which was met in nearly equal 
shares by District and municipal funds, assisted by a grant from 
Government of Rs. 2,000. A description of the Pasteur Institute and 
Research Laboratory will be found under Kasauli. There is a leper 
asylum at Ambala under the American Presbyterian Mission. The 
Philadelphia Hospital for women at Ambala is also under American 

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 15,708, repre- 
senting 20 per 1,000 of the population. Vaccination is compulsory in 
Ambala city and Rupar town. 

[A. Kensington, Customary Law of Ambala District (1893), District 


Gazetteer (1892-3), and Settlement Report (1893); |. M. D 
Settlement Report of Karnal-Ambala (1891).] 

Ambala Tahsil. — South-western tahsll of Ambala District, Punjab, 
lying between 30 7' and 30° 27' N. and 76 ^ ar >d 77 ' - ''-., vs > ll > a " 
area of 355 square miles. The population in 1901 was 218,006, com 
pared with 230,567 in 1891. The head-quarters are at the city "I 
Ambala (population, 78,638). It also contains 295 villages. The land 
revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 2-8 lakhs. The tahsll lies 
in the open plain, and the hard clay subsoil is almost everywhere 
covered with alluvial loam. 

Ambala City. — Head-quarters of the District and tahsil of Ambala, 
Punjab, situated in 30° 23' N. and 76 46' E., on the North-Westem 
Railway and the grand trunk road, at the point where they are en 
by the Delhi-Umballa-Kalka Railway ; distant by rail from Calcutta 
1,077 miles, from Bombay 1,105 miles, and from Karachi 848 miles. 
The population (1901) is 78,638 : namely, Hindus, 39,601 ; Sikhs, 
2,168 ; Muhammadans, 32,149 ; and Christians, 3,610 — of whom 50,438 
reside in cantonments. Ambala is chiefly important as being one of the 
largest cantonments in India. The garrison, which is under the General 
Officer commanding the Lahore division, consists of one battery of 
horse artillery, with an ammunition column ; one regiment of British 
and two regiments of native cavalry ; and three regiments of British and 
one battalion of native infantry. The cantonment also contains 
a mounted infantry school, companies of the Army Hospital and Bearer 
corps, and detachments of the Punjab Light Horse and the Ninth 
Western and East Indian Railway Volunteers. 

The native city, which has a separate station on the North "Western 
Railway, lies 4 miles north-west of the cantonment. Its name is possibly 
derived from its mythical founder Amba, but is more probably a coi 
ruption of Ambwala, the ' mango village.' It was of no importance 
before the lapse of the Ambala estate in 1823, when it became the 
residence of the Political Agent for the Cis-Sutlej States. The canton 
ment was established in 1843, an ^ m 1849 it became the headquarter.-, 
of a District. The civil lines are situated near the city, and contain, 
besides the usual offices, a jail and a hospital. The city is well 
situated as a commercial centre, and is an important cotton and grain 
market. It also forms a depot for the supply of Simla, and carries on 
a considerable trade in hill products, such as ginger and turmeric. 1 he- 
article on Ambala District gives details of the modern industries. 
A branch of the Alliance Bank of Simla has been established in the 

The municipality was created in 1867. The income during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 56,200, and tin expenditure 
Rs. 54,300. The income in 1903 4 was Rs. 70,700, the chief souk, 


being octroi (Rs. 45,200); and the expenditure was Rs. 71,900, the 
principal items being drainage and water-supply (Rs. 22,400), medical 
(Rs. 8,100), conservancy (Rs. 5,800), education (Rs. 6,100), public 
safety (Rs. 7,500), and general administration (Rs. 9,400). The income 
and expenditure of the cantonment fund during the ten years ending 
1902-3 averaged 1-3 lakhs. Ambala has three high schools and two 
middle schools, besides a civil hospital. 

Ambalapulai.— Head-quarters of the taluk of the same name in 
Travancore State, Madras, situated in 9 23' N. and 76 22' E., 10 miles 
south of Alleppey, with which it is connected by a canal. Population 
(1901), 1,791. The shrine of Krishnaswami is visited by large numbers 
of pilgrims. Till the middle of the eighteenth century the place was 
the capital of an independent kingdom of the same name, ruled by 
the Chempakasseri Rajas, who were Nambudri Brahmans of the 
Chempakasseri Illam (house) of Kotamalur in the Ettumanur taluk. 
As rulers they bore the generic name of Deva Narayanan. As one of 
them had assisted the Kayankulam chieftain against the ruler of 
Travancore, an army was led against him in 1748 by the latter's 
minister, Rama Ayyan Dalawa, who took and imprisoned the Raja and 
annexed the principality to Travancore. 

Ambarh. — South-eastern taluk of Aurangabad District. Hyderabad 
State, with an area of 972 square miles. The population in 1901, 
including jaglrs, was 116,188, compared with 132,801 in 1891, the 
decrease being due to the famines of 1897 and 1899-1900. It 
contains 242 villages, of which 24 are jaglr, and Ambarh (population, 
3,563) is the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was 4-2 lakhs. 
The river Godavari passes through the south of the taluk, which is 
composed of regar or black cotton soil. In 1905 eight villages were 
transferred from Ambarh to Pathri in Parbhani District, and six villages 
were transferred from Pathri to this taluk in exchange. 

Ambarnath. — Town in Thana District, Bombay. See Amarnath. 

Ambarpet. — ' Crown ' taluk in the Atraf-i-balda District, Hyderabad 
State, also called the Sharki or ' eastern ' taluk, with an area, including 
jaglrs, of 750 square miles. The population in 1901 was 108,325, 
compared with 98,858 in 1891. The taluk contains 180 villages, of 
which 56 are jaglr, and Ambarpet (2,648) is the head-quarters. The 
land revenue in 1901 was 1-7 lakhs. Ambarpet contains many tanks 
near which rice is grown. The paigah taluk of Upal, with 1 7 villages, 
a population of 6,485, and an area of about 66 square miles, is 
situated to the east of Ambarpet. 

Ambasamudram Taluk. — Taluk in Tinnevelly District, Madras, 
lying between 8° 29' and 8° 57' N. and 77 12' and 77 40' E., at the 
foot of the Western Ghats, with an area of 481 square miles. The 
population in 1901 was 182,481, compared with 183,616 in 1891, 


the density being 379 persons per square mile. The apparent 

is aecounted for by the presence of a large number of labourers from 

outside at the time of the Census of 1891. The demand for land 
revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to Rs. 4,74,000. The taluk is 
mainly composed of the valleys of the Tambraparni and its affluents, 
which contain rich areas of rice cultivation yielding two unfailing crops 
every year. The irrigation system, which depends upon numerous dams 
across the Tambraparni, is ancient and very complete. Excepting the 
river valleys, however, the soil is rocky and poor. There arc two 
zaminddris, Singampatti and Urkad, both of which are well situated for 
irrigation, the former from the Manimuttar and the latter from the 
Tambraparni. The valley of this latter river is studded with numerous 
towns and villages, containing a large population of wealthy Brahman 
landowners, to whose enterprise and intelligence the prosperity of the 
taluk is mainly due. Ambasamudram (population, 12,869) ' s tnc head- 
quarters] but VIravanallur (17,327), Kallidaikurichi (14,913), and 
Sermadevi (13,474) are larger places. Papanasa.m, a famous place of 
pilgrimage, is situated within it, and there are 84 other villages. 

Ambasamudram Town. — Head quarters of the taluk of the same 
name in Tinnevelly District, Madras, situated in 8° 42' N. and 77 27' 
E., on the left bank of the Tambraparni river, 20 miles above Tinne- 
velly town. Population (1901), 12,869. Local affairs arc mai 
by a Union panchayat. There is a high school, managed by a local 

Ambela. — A mountain pass in Buner, just beyond the north-east 
border of Peshawar District, North-West Frontier Province, situated in 
34 24' N. and 72 38' E. The pass gave its name to the Ambela 
campaign of 1863. In 1824 one Saiyid Ahmad Shah of Bareilly, 
a companion-in-arms of the famous Amir Khan, the Pindari, settled 
with about forty followers among the Ytisufzai tribes on the Peshawar 
border. This event occurred just after Ranjlt Singh had gained his 
great victory over the Pathans at Naushahra. Driven out of the Peshawar 
valley by the Sikhs in 1827, Saiyid Ahmad sought refuge in Swat, and 
eventually in Buner, but in 1829 he seized Peshawar. His Pathan 
disciples, however, soon tired of his attempted reforms, and drove him 
across the Indus to Balakot in Hazara. There he was attacked by the 
Sikhs under Sher Singh, and defeated and slain. His surviving disciples 
sought a refuge at Sittana, a village of the Utmanzai Yusufzai. Here 
under Saiyid Akbar Shah, spiritual chief of Swat, the Hindustani 
fanatics built a fort and established a colony, which soon be< ame an 
asylum for political refugees, escaped criminals, and deserters from 
British India. After the annexation of the Punjab, this colony became 
a source of anxiety to the Government ; and in 1853 an invasion of the 
territory of the Khan of Amb, a British feudatory, necessitated a punitive 

VOL. V. U 



expedition. The fanatics displayed renewed activity in 1857, and in 
1858 made a daring attack on the camp of the Assistant Commissioner 
of Mardan, necessitating a second punitive expedition. The tribes then 
agreed not to allow the colony to reoccupy Sittana, and they settled at 
Malka on the northern side of the Mahaban mountain. From this 
settlement they renewed their depredations, which consisted chiefly in 
kidnapping Hindu traders from Hazara; and in 1863 they reoccupied 
Sittana. Drastic measures now became unavoidable, and two columns, 
one from Peshawar and the other from Hazara, were organized. The 
former, under Sir Neville Chamberlain, 9,000 strong, occupied the 
Anibela pass, the object being to march through the Chamla valley and 
attack Sittana. The tribes of Buner and Swat, however, rose en masse 
and made repeated attacks on the British positions in the pass. After 
protracted operations the pass was secured and the advance into the 
Chamla valley carried out ; but the expedition lost 20 officers (16 British 
and 4 native) and 219 men killed and 670 wounded. The object of 
the expedition was, however, attained. Malka, which had been made 
the chief stronghold of the Hindustani fanatics, was destroyed by the 
people of Buner themselves as a guarantee of their submission, and 
the colony has never recovered its former power. 

Amber. — Ancient but now decayed capital of the State of Jaipur, 
Rajputana, situated in 26 59' N. and 75 51' E., about 7 miles north- 
east of Jaipur railway station. Population (1901), 4,956. Its picturesque 
situation, almost entirely surrounded by hills and at the mouth of a rocky 
mountain gorge, in which nestles the little lake of Maota, has attracted 
the admiration of travellers. Heber and Jacquemont have both re- 
corded the deep impression made by the beauty of the scene. 

The town is said by some to take its name from Ambikeshwara 
(a title of Siva), but others derive it from Ambarlsha, the son of 
Mandhata and king of Ajodhya. Its full name is said to have been 
Ambarikhanera, which was gradually contracted to Ambiner or Amber. 
The oldest inscription found here is dated about a. d. 954. In the 
middle of the twelfth century the Kachwaha Rajputs, shortly after 
obtaining a footing in this part of the country, took the town from 
the chief of the Susawat Minas, and it was their capital for nearly 
six centuries. 

There are many objects of interest at Amber. The old palace ranks 
second only to Gwalior as a specimen of Rajput architecture. Commenced 
about 1600 by Raja. Man Singh, and added to by Jai Singh I (the 
Mirza Raja), it was completed early in the eighteenth century by Sawai 
Jai Singh II, who added the beautiful gateway which bears his name, 
before transferring his capital to Jaipur city in 1728. It lacks the fresh 
and vigorous stamp of Hindu originality which characterizes the earlier 
building at Gwalior, and instead of standing on a lofty pedestal of rock, 

it lies low; but nothing could lie more picturesque than the - 
which it grows, as it were, out of its rocky base and n 
architectural beauties on the water. The interior arrangement 
excellent, and the suites of rooms form vistas opening upon strikiiv 

views of the lake. The fort of Jaigarh, which crowns the sui ii of 

a hill 500 feet above, is connected with and defends the palaa 
was for many years the State treasury and prison. 

There are several handsome temples, notably the Sri Jagat Saromanji 
and the Ambikeshwar, both beautifully carved. The Sila Devi (th< 
'stone goddess') is a small but very old temple, where a goat is dail) 
sacrificed to Kali, the substitute, according to tradition, for the human 
victim which was formerly offered up. The State maintains two small 
vernacular schools, one attended by forty boys and the other by as 
many girls. 

Ambeyla.— Mountain pass in Buner, North-West Frontier Province. 
See Ambela. 

Amboli. — Sanitarium in the State of Savantvadi, Bombay, situated 
in 1 5 58' N. and 74 4' E., and 2,300 feet above sea-level, on the edge 
of the Ghats, about 19 miles north-east of Vadi and commanding tine 
views. The climate is pleasant, and the heat never oppressive. Two 
roads, one leading to the Ramghat and the other to Mahadeogarh, 
have been made. The village contains accommodation for travellers, 
and both the chief and the Political Agent have residences here. 
Population (T901), 1,371. 

Ambur. — Town in the Vellore taluk of North Arcot District, Madras, 
situated in i2°48' N. and 78°43'E. Population (1901), 15,903. It is 
a well-built and compact place, standing on the south bank of the Palar, 
about 30 miles from Vellore and r 1 2 miles (by rail) from Madras, at the 
foot of the Kadapanattam pass leading into Salem. Ambur is a station 
on the Madras Railway, and an excellent road connects it with Vellore 
and Salem. It possesses a considerable trade in oil, ,;///, and indigo, 
which the Labbai merchants collect here for export to Madras. The 
almost inaccessible Ambur Drug towers above the town, and, from its 
position commanding an important pass into the Carnatic, has been 
several times the scene of severe fighting. In 1749 the first pitched 
battle in the long wars of the Carnatic was fought under its walls, when 
Anwar-ud-dln, the Nawab of Arcot, was defeated by Muzaffar Jan-. 
This encounter is remarkable as being the first occasion when European 
troops played a conspicuous part in Indian warfare, and is memorable 
also for the effect it had on the subsequent course of events. 

Amet.— Chief town of an estate of the same name in the State 
of Udaipur, Rajputana, situated in 25 18' N. and 73 56' E., on the 
right bank of the Chandrabhaga river, a tributary of the Banas, about 
50 miles north by north-east of Udaipur city. The town i- walled 

v 2 

292 AMET 

and contains (1901) 3,297 inhabitants. The estate, which is held by 
one of the first-class nobles of Mewar, who is styled Rawat, consists 
of 26 villages. The income is about Rs. 28,000, and a tribute of 
about Rs. 2,700 is paid to the Darbar. The Rawat of Amet belongs 
to the Chondawat family of the Sesodia clan of Rajputs ; and the most 
distinguished of his ancestors was Patta, who was slain at the Ram 
Pol gate of the Chitor fort fighting against Akbar in 1567. 

Amethi. — South-western tahsll of Sultanpur District, United Pro- 
vinces, comprising the pargatias of Asl and Amethi, and lying between 
26 1' and 26 20' N. and 8i° 37' and 82° 4' E., with an area ot 
366 square miles. Population fell from 219,208 in 1891 to 217,207 in 
1901. There are 455 villages, but no town. The demand for land 
revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,19,000, and for cesses Rs. 51,000. The 
density of population, 593 persons per square mile, is the lowest in the 
District. The tahsll contains large stretches of barren usar land, and 
many swamps. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 191 square 
miles, of which 98 were irrigated, tanks of jhils being a more impor- 
tant source of supply than wells. 

Amethi. — Town in the Mohanlalganj tahsil of Lucknow District, 
United Provinces, situated in 26 45' N. and 8i° 12' E., on the road 
from Lucknow city to Sultanpur. Population (1901), 6,447. The town 
is old and, according to tradition, was taken by one of the officers 
of Saiyid Salar. It was then held by Amethia Rajputs, who gave way 
to Shaikhs about 1550, and it has since been a stronghold of Islam. 
Several saints of the Muhammadan calendar were born here ; and 
in the reign of Wajid All Shah, Maulvi Amir All of Amethi led an 
attack on the celebrated Hanuman Garhi temple at Ajodhya, but was 
defeated and killed by the king's troops in Bara Bankl District. Amethi 
contains a branch of the American Methodist Mission, which supports 
a dispensary. It is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an 
income of about Rs. 900. There is a large manufacture of cloth, but 
little trade besides. A flourishing school has 138 pupils. 

Amherst District. — District in the Tenasserim Division of Lower 
Burma, lying between 14 56' and 17° 2' N. and 97 27' and 98 51' E., 
with an area of 7,062 miles. It is bounded on the north by Thaton 
District ; on the east by the Dawna hills and Siamese territory ; on the 
south by the Mahlwe hills, a spur of the Dawna range which separates 
it from Tavoy District ; and on the west by the Gulf of Martaban. 

The District occupies the country lying south and east of the mouths 
of the Salween, Gyaing, and Ataran rivers, and consists for the most 

part of alluvial plains, watered by these streams, and 
Physical . 

aspects ut in on tne £ast ky the Dawna hills and on the 

west by the low Taungnyo chain, running parallel to 

the coast. In the extreme east is a narrow and densely wooded region, 


broken by the Dawna range and its spurs; to the south lies the valle) 
of the Ye river, wedged in between the Taungnyo ridge and thi 
and drained by numerous small streams flowing in a general westerlj 
direction. Bilugyun, an island about one mile west of Moulmein, is also 
traversed by a ridge of hills, geologically a spur of the Thaton hill 
system, running north and south. The chief hill range in the District 
is the Dawna, 5,500 feet high at its loftiest point, in 16' 5' X. and 
98 42' E. It throws out numerous spurs and runs south-east for 
200 miles, dividing the waters of the Haungtharaw stream from those 
of the Thaungyin. This range presents in most parts the appearand 
of a wooded plateau of laterite cut up into hills by drainage. In places 
the underlying rocks project into the bed of the Thaungyin and indicate 
volcanic agency. The main range and its offshoots form the watershed 
between the Bay of Bengal and the Gulf of Siam. The hills to the west 
of the main range undulate for some distance gently to the south wist. 
but end in barren limestone ridges. From the Sadaik hill in 15 17' X. 
and 98 15' E., in the extreme south of the District, the Taungnyo 
chain extends north-west to Moulmein, forming the Ataran water- 
shed, and continuing on the farther side of the Salween in the shape of a 
stretch of upland known as the Martaban hills. North of Moulmein and 
east of the Salween lies a short range of limestone rocks 16 miles long. 
Several passes over the Dawna range connect the District with Siamese 

The Salween, Gyaing, Ataran, and Thaungyin are the chief rivers. 
The Salween enters the District a few miles north of Moulmein, where 
it is joined on the east by the Gyaing and Ataran. For hundreds 
of miles from its source in the far northern mountains through the Shan 
States, the Salween's channel has been swift, narrow, and turbulent. 
Here, however, it opens out into a broad, shallow waterway obstructed 
by shoals, which prevent the entry of sea-going vessels, except at its 
southern mouth. It enters the sea about 28 miles due south ol 
Moulmein. The Gyaing, formed by the junction of the Hlaingbwe and 
the Haungtharaw streams, flow almost due west. It is choked by 
islands and sandbanks, but is navigable by native boats and launches 
all the year round. The Ataran river is formed by the junction of the 
Zami and Winyaw streams in the south of the District. It is a narrow, 
deep, and sluggish waterway, running in parts of its course between 
high banks, shut in by dense overhanging foliage. Its course is in the 
main north-westerly, and shortly before entering the Salween it flows 
close behind the town of Moulmein. The Thaungyin rises in the 
Dawna hills in the extreme east of the District, and, after flowing north 
west for 200 miles, joins the Salween in Thaton District lis breadth 
varies from 100 to r,ooo feet, but numerous rapids render its navigation 
impossible. No large lakes are found, but adjoining Kawkareik town 


is a shallow depression about 1,000 acres in extent known as the 
Hlaing Lake. 

The District is of a mountainous character. The Moulmein group 
of rocks, consisting (in ascending order) of hard sandstone, grey shaly 
beds, fine soft sandstone, and hard thick limestone, are well developed : 
the last-named series takes the form of steeply scarped hills with over- 
hanging cliffs, which prove them to have been at some remote geological 
period sea-girt. They rise precipitously from the plain, and constitute 
one of the chief features of the picturesque scenery around Moulmein. 
Hot springs occur in several places, always near the limestone outcrops. 
The largest are at Rebu, near the village of Ataran on the Ataran river, 
in some of which the water issues at a temperature of 130 . These 
springs deposit carbonate of lime, carbonic acid gas being evolved in 
large quantities. Lead ore has been found in the Taungnyo hills. 

The vegetation is similar to that of the adjacent District of Thaton. 
It has been little studied, except from a forest point of view, but ranges 
from the swamp to the evergreen hill class. There is excellent timber, 
the dani palm and bamboos abound, and fruit trees are exceptionally 
plentiful. Orchids are common in the hills. 

The chief wild animals met with are the tiger, the leopard, the hsaing 
or tsine [Bos sondaicus), the bison, and the hog. Wild dogs attack hog 
and deer in packs. In some parts of the District the rhinoceros 
is found, and the Malayan tapir is reported to have been seen in the 
Ye township. 

The low-lying country along the large rivers and the coast is hot, and 
enjoys no real cold season, but the hilly parts of the District experience 
quite a low temperature in the winter. The nights, however, except for 
short periods in April and October, are fairly cool even in the plains. 
Malarial fever, the curse of the Arakan coast, is conspicuous by its 
absence. The mean maximum and»minimum temperatures throughout 
the year at Moulmein are 89 and 73 respectively. There is no great 
daily variation, and the climate is equable throughout the year. 

Amherst, like all the coast Districts of Burma, receives a more than 
ample supply of moisture. The rainfall at Moulmein during the ten 
years ending 1900 averaged 188 inches. It is heavier at Amherst 
(213 inches), and lighter at Kawkareik (166 inches). Showers in April 
and May precede the bursting of the south-west monsoon in June, from 
which time heavy rains continue till the end of August, getting lighter 
towards October. From the beginning of November to April there 
is practically no rain. The District is rarely visited by cyclonic 
disturbances ; but the heavy rains are from time to time the cause 
of floods which, even though they do not as a rule occasion loss of 
human life, are most destructive to the crops. 

In ancient days Amherst formed part of the Talaing or Mon kingdom, 


and it is still the main stronghold of the Takings, who are probabh 
purer here than in any other part of Burma. The District \\ 
centuries disputed territory between the Mons and 
the Siamese. When the Burmese kingdom extended History, 

southwards into the Taking country in the thirteenth century, it stopped 
short at the Salween river, on the western side of which Martaban (now 
in Thaton District) was founded. The country east of the Salween was 
at that time Siamese territory. At the end of the thirteenth centurj the 
kingdom of Martaban was founded by Wariyu, an ally of Siam ; and 
shortly afterwards this was amalgamated with the kingdom of Pegu 
and eventually absorbed the Districts of Amherst, Tavoy, Tenasserim, 
and Mergui, extending northwards to Prome, and constituting the 
Taking realm {see Pegu). In the seventeenth and the early part of 
the eighteenth century the Siamese regained possession of the pn 
District, but were expelled in the middle of the latter century by tin- 
Burmese conqueror Alaungpaya, who died within two marches of 
Martaban in 1760 on his return from an expedition into Siam. The 
District became British territory by the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826, the 
Salween becoming the southern boundary of the Burmese kingdom. 
A dispute as to the possession of Bilugyun Island, opposite Moulmein 
in the Salween, was amicably settled at the end of the war, the British 
proving that the main current of the Salween ran west of the island and 
not east by floating down two coco-nuts, which were followed and 
watched on their course to the sea by British and Burmese repre- 
sentatives in boats. There was no fighting in the District during tin 
first Burmese War. The head-quarters of the District were at first at 
Amherst, but were moved thence to Moulmein shortly after 1S26, for 
strategical reasons, Martaban being then Burmese territory. Moulmein 
served as a base for the troops engaged in the attack upon Martaban 
(1852), which was the first incident of note in the second Burmese 
War, but otherwise the District played no part in that campaign. 

Bilugyun contains about sixty pagodas, held to be of great antiquity, 
the most famous being the Kalaw pagoda in the north of the island. 
supposed to have been erected over a hair of Gautama Buddha. At 
the north end of the ridge running behind the town of Moulmein is the 
Kyaikthanlan pagoda, built to commemorate the defeat of a Siamese 
invasion, and, according to tradition, the depository of sacred relics. 
To the south of this is the Uzina Kyaikpadaw pagoda, supposed, by the 
pious, to have been erected by Asoka. This and other very ancient 
pagodas on the same spur are all said to contain sacred relics. Close 
to the river bank north of Moulmein is another commemorative shrine, 
called the Kyaikpane. By Amherst Point, on the rocks about 300 feet 
from the beach, is the famous Yele pagoda, which is freely visited l>\ male 
worshippers, though no woman is allowed to approach within 100 feel 



of it. From it the Burmese, or more properly the Taking, name of 
Amherst (Kyaikkami, 'the floating pagoda') is said to be derived. 
Near Lamaing village, in the Yelamaing township, stands the Sandaw 
pagoda, said to be as old as the Shwedagon in Rangoon, where an 
annual festival is held in March, attended by the devout from all over 
the District. Near Ye are plainly discernible the vestiges of two earth 
and stone walls and a moat which, reports assert, once encompassed a 
large city called Meinma-myo (' the city of women '). It was inhabited, 
according to tradition, by Vestals, who were eventually carried away by 
one Bogale, an Indian pirate. The limestone hills on the Gyaing- 
Ataran plains contain numerous caves, the best-known being the 
Karonku caves, about 7 miles from Moulmein, which are said to have 
afforded shelter in olden times to the Talaing inhabitants when fleeing 
from the cruelties of the Burmese. 

The population of the District at the last four enumerations was as 
follows: (1872) 129,948, (1881) 180,738, (1891) 
233,539, and (1901) 300,173. The chief statistics 
of area and population for 1901 are given in the following table : — 




Number of 



age of 
on in 
ion be- 

er of 

able to 









rt u 

1.2.1 §-5 


a " 



b 3 41 c 






Moulmein . 






+ 7 








+ 56 



1 >9 6 3 




+ 45 



2 '457 




+ 23 





5 2 .746 


+ 29 







+ 21 



District total 





+ 43 







+ 28 


The chief town is Moulmein, the head-quarters of the District. 
Amherst was almost depopulated at the time of annexation by the 
struggles of the previous centuries, and there has been a constant stream 
of immigration since from India as well as from other portions of Burma. 
The population is dense along the lower reaches of the Salween in the 
Chaungzon and Mudon townships, but in the hilly areas in the east 
the villages are small and scattered. Five-sixths of the inhabitants are 
Buddhists ; and of the 43,000 persons who are representatives of 
Indian religions, about three-fifths are Hindus and two-fifths Musalmans. 
The language most in use is Talaing, which is spoken by about 
five-sixths of the Talaing inhabitants. Alaungpaya forbade its use in 
his dominions during his reign, but his sway did not extend over the 
present District, so that the Talaing tongue has been preserved to a 
greater extent here than elsewhere. 


The most numerous race is the Talaing, numbering 1^2,300. I 
form two-thirds of the population of the seaboard townships, and about 
a third of the population of the central township of Kyaikmaraw, 
practically the Ataran valley. Next in number come the Karens (the 
Sgaw and Pwo tribes being about equally represented), with a total oi 
52,400. They form three-quarters of the population of the Kawkareik 
township in the east of the District, including the Haungtharaw vallej 
and the hills on the frontier, and about a third of the Kyaikmaraw 
township in the centre. The Burmans of Amherst number only 50,600. 
They comprise half of the population of Moulmein, and are fairly 
evenly distributed throughout the District; but in no case, except perhaps 
in that of Kyaikkami, do they exceed one-third of the population of any 
township. There is a very large Indian colony, about 43,400 in all, of 
whom only 25,500 are immigrants, the balance having been born in the 
Province. Three-fourths of the immigrant foreigners come from 
Madras, the rest from Bengal. More than 2,000 were horn in Chitta- 
gong, but these are a very shifting population. Most of the Indians are 
domiciled in Moulmein. Chinese (also confined for the most part to 
Moulmein) number 5,300, a larger number than in any other District 
except Rangoon. Taungthus, so numerous in Thaton, number only 
2,340, and there are small colonies of Shans and Siamese. 

The number of persons dependent upon agriculture in 1901 was 
189,039, or 63 per cent, of the total population, a proportion rather 
below the Provincial average. Of this number 21,722 were dependent 
on taungya (shifting) cultivation alone. 

Christians are fairly numerous. More than half the District total of 
4,805 are Baptists, the American Baptists having two missions, one to 
the Karens and another to the Telugus. There is a Roman Catholic 
church at Moulmein, beyond which town that communion does not 
spread, and an Anglican mission. The number of native Christians 
in 1 90 1 was 3,385. 

The low-lying portions are fertile and lend themselves admirably to 
rice cultivation. The best land is the alluvial soil of Bilugyun, the 
island off Moulmein. Here the salt water fertilizes Agriculture 
the plants, and is drained off before the ear begins to 
ripen. Along the course of the Gyaing and Ataran rivers, which 
comprise a considerable portion of the cultivable area, the soil may be 
divided roughly into three classes : first, the sandy surface soil lying high 
near the banks ; next, the earth on the slope rising from the bank which 
receives the drainage of the rivers ; and lastly the clay soil, farther from 
the river, but liable to flood. The planting of rice is often delayed b) 
heavy rainfall, and the ripening of the ear prevented by too early 
cessation of the rains. As a rule the only preparation made lor tin 
reception of the seed is by driving a herd of buffaloes over the land, 



though a harrow (te) is run over it occasionally before this is done. 
In the Ataran valley, where the floods rise suddenly to a great height, 
the system of treading and sowing broadcast is preferred to that of 
ploughing and transplanting, as these operations take some time. 
Taungya cultivation is carried on in the hilly tracts in the east of the 
District, and in the Bilugyun Island township. 

The gardens on the islands at the mouth of the Gyaing, Ataran, and 
Salween rivers are of long standing, and contain for the most part areca 
and coco-nut palms, sugar-cane, and plantains, while those opposite 
Kado produce vegetables. The sugar-cane grown on these islands and 
on Bilugyun is planted either in virgin soil, covered at high tide, on 
which alluvial deposit collects, but which is out of reach of the flood, or 
in old fallows. The crop exhausts the soil to such an extent that only 
three or four consecutive harvests are gathered. The method of cane 
cultivation is similar to that followed in the Districts of Upper Burma. 
Madras canes were introduced shortly after annexation and are now 
almost exclusively used. The islands on the Darebauk, the northern 
branch of the Salween, bear the dani palm, which produces leaves for 
thatching after five years, and liquor after six years, as a rule ; and the 
same palm borders many of the tidal creeks in the Yelamaing and 
Kyaikkami townships. Oranges are specially cultivated in the gardens 
of the District, mainly on the banks of the Ataran river. To render 
the fruit sweet for the market, the garden must be well watered for 
two months before the fruit is plucked. 

The following table shows the main agricultural statistics for 1903-4, 
in square miles : — 


Total area. 












Kvaikmaraw . 







y 6,000 

Mudon . 













As throughout Lower Burma, the staple food-crop is rice, which 
occupied more than 500 square miles in 1903-4. Garden cultivation 
covers over 47 square miles and sugar-cane about 1,100 acres, while 
100 acres contain rubber-trees. The area under tobacco cultivation is 
insignificant, experiments with Havana seed having proved a failure. 

The area cultivated in 1 880-1 was 241 square miles, a total which 
had increased by 1 890-1 to 286 square miles. Since then the latter 
figure has been exactly doubled. With the exception of an advance of 


Rs. 1,000 fur the purpose of rubber-cultivation in 1900, no Governmenl 
loans have been made for agricultural purposes during il- 
or five years. Large loans have, however, been granted from time to 
time in earlier years, such as, for instance, 1894—5. 

Cattle and buffaloes are bred locally, and are plentiful throughoul 
the District, the former being most common. They are ol a 
breed. Ponies are brought from the Shan States and Siam. Goats 
are fairly numerous, most of them belonging to the Musalman com 
munity. An abortive attempt at sheep-breeding from animals imported 
from Calcutta was made some years ago. 

There are at present no fisheries in the District. The only irrigation 
is from small private works; the area irrigated in 1903 4 was about 
1, 100 acres, divided between the Kawkareik and Kyaikmaraw townships. 

The District is rich in teak forests, and it is believed that those on 
the eastern side of the Dawna range are among the finest in Burma. 
For administrative purposes the District lies within 
the limits of three Forest divisions : the Agency 
division, the Thaungyin division, and the Ataran division. The 
Agency division (now combined with the Kado division, which deals 
for the most part with timber that has entered Burma from beyond 
the frontier) has no local limits. It is concerned with the disposal 
of timber extracted by Government agency from the forests of 
the Ataran, Thaungyin, and West Salween Forest divisions. The 
Thaungyin division includes the rich teak forests on the eastern 
slopes of the Dawna range and the drier forests on the western side. 
extending into Thaton District. The rapids and rocky gorges of the 
Thaungyin river prevent the extraction of timber, too heavy to float, 
from the eastern forests, though they contain large forests of valuable 
trees. All timber obtained from these areas is floated out in single logs 
to the salving stations 60 to 80 miles above Moulmein. The greatei 
part (4,500 acres) of a very large Government teak plantation in this 
division lies in Amherst District. The forests on the western side of 
the Dawna range are poorer in quality but easy to work. They haw 
patches of inferior teak and other timber, such as padauk {Pterocarpus 
indicus), kanyinbyu (Dipterocarpus alatus), pyinma {Lagerstroemia / 
Reginae), in (Dipterocarpus tuberculatus), and thitya (Shorea obtusa.) 
The teak forests of the Ataran division, which lies to the west of the 
Thaungyin division in the south of the District, are almost entirely 
comprised in the basins of the Zami and Winyaw. Isolated patches <-t 
teak occur in the tracts drained by the Haungtharaw river, but obstruc 
tions in this stream are a considerable hindrance to extraction. Large 
quantities of timber are, however, floated down the Ataran. All of this 
is rafted and brought for disposal to the Kado depot on the Salwei n, 
a few miles above Moulmein. The total lot est area is about 6,000 


square miles, of which about one-sixth is ' reserved.' The forest receipts 
in 1903-4 amounted to 6-5 lakhs. 

Minerals are worked on a very small scale. Pottery clay and laterite 
are obtained near Moulmein, lead ore is found in the Taungnyo hills, 
and there is abundant limestone in isolated rocks that stand up out of 
the plain north and east of Moulmein. Salt is manufactured in the 
coast townships in two ways, from salt water and from sissa or saline 
earth. This latter is obtained by scraping the surface of marshy land 
over which the sea has flowed. When collected, it is placed on a 
bamboo sieve, and water is allowed to percolate and drain into a pot, 
where it is boiled. In the other method, salt water from a creek is 
raised and allowed to stand for some time in carefully prepared fields, 
and finally passed into a tank. The season lasts only from January till 
the monsoon breaks, but the more well-to-do manufacturers, who store 
the brine in tanks, are able to continue boiling till July. 

In Moulmein town a certain amount of gold and silver-work is pro- 
duced. Ivory-carving is a speciality, the objects carved being paper- 
cutters, handles for knives and forks, Buddhas, chess- 
communications men > an d other small articles. Moulmein is also a 
centre of mill-industries, and contains 26 saw-mills 
and rice-mills, besides a steam joinery and a foundry. 

The sea-borne commerce passes entirely through Moulmein, and 
statistics of this trade will be found in the article on Moulmein Town. 
The principal exports are rice and timber, which are sent to Europe, 
India, and Farther Asia. The imports are mainly coastwise, and con- 
sist for the most part of vegetable oils, ghi, tobacco, gunny-bags, betel- 
nuts, til, sugar, and spice from Calcutta, Bombay, and the Coromandel 
Coast ; cotton twist and yarn, cotton, silk, and woollen piece-goods, 
machinery, metals, kerosene oil, &c, from Rangoon ; and tea, sugar, 
matches,' and betel-nuts from Hongkong and the Straits. 

The overland trade with Siam is considerable. Most of it goes north- 
eastwards through the frontier station of Myawadi, over what is known 
as the Tadanku route from Moulmein ; but a second route, called the 
Kyeikdon route, leads, south of Tadanku. into Southern Siam. The 
principal imports are ponies from Northern Siam, silk piece-goods from 
Southern Siam, and cattle from both. The principal exports into Siam 
are European piece-goods, silver, and jewellery. The total imports and 
exports between the District and Siam were valued in 1 880-1 at 
Rs. 1,46,000 and Rs. 51,000, and in 1903-4 at 25 lakhs and 17 lakhs 

At present there are no railways, nor is there any immediate prospect 
of railway operations within the District ; but a steam ferry will shortly 
connect Moulmein with the railway to Pegu, now under construction, 
which is to end on the western side of the Salween opposite Moulmein. 


Of sea and river communication with the outside world there is no la< k. 
Moulmein is connected with Rangoon by a line oi steamers running 
three times a week, and a regular steamer service from Moulmein | 
down the Tenasserim coast, calling at the small port of Ye within the 

limits of the District. Native boats ply between Amherst and Moul 
mein (30 miles) in one tide if required, dm\ sampans perform the 
passage between Amherst and Ye in the dry season. Steam-launches 
run between Moulmein and Kado on the eastern hank of the Salween, 
as well as between Moulmein and several other points on the Gyaing, 
Haungtharaw, and Ataran rivers, including Kyondo, where the cart- 
road to Siam begins. 

The most important metalled road is the Moulmein-Amherst road 
(53 miles), constructed at a cost of d\ lakhs. Another road, bridged 
but not metalled, 54^ miles long to the frontier (the Tadanku route), is 
complete from Kyondo to Kawkareik, and the remainder is in course 
of construction. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into three sub- 
divisions : Moulmein, consisting of one township, which bears the same 

name: Kawkareik, comprising the Kawkareik and , . . 

T . 1-1,1 Administration. 

Kyaikmaraw townships ; and Amherst, comprising 

the four seaboard townships of Chaungzon, Mudon, FCyaikkami, and 

Yelamaing. These are in charge of the usual executive officers, under 

whom are 31 circle thugyis and 153 village thugyis. The charges of the 

former are being gradually broken up. At Moulmein, besides the 

ordinary District head-quarters staff, there is a Port Officer, who is also 

Collector of Customs. The District forms a subdivision of the Amherst 

Public Works division, which includes Tavoy and Mergui I )istricts. 

Three Deputy-Conservators of Forests hold charge of the Ataran, 

Thaungyin, and Kado-r/^;//- Agency divisions. 

The judge of the Tenasserim Divisional court has his head-quarters 
at Moulmein. Amherst District, with Thaton, forms the jurisdiction of 
a District Judge, who is also judge of the Moulmein Small Cause Court. 
The township and subdivisional courts are presided over by the 
respective township and subdivisional officers, except in the case of the 
Chaungzon and Mudon townships, the civil work of which is disposed 
of by a judge sitting at Moulmein. There is an additional magistrate 
at Moulmein. As the District is on the frontier, dacoity is not un- 
common, but has decreased of late ; there are every year, for the same 
reason, a large number of opium and excise prosecutions. Cattle-thefts 
are numerous, but criminal work is not so heavy as in the delta 1 >istri( ts. 

When the Tenasserim Districts were annexed in 1826, they were 
considered so unproductive that their restoration to Burma was con 
templated ; but the discovery of rich teak forests settled matters in 
favour of their retention. During native rule the revenue was 1 olle< ted 


by myothugyis under the governor of Martaban ; the regular revenue 
consisted only of a tax of 10 per cent, in kind on the produce of the 
land, but additional imposts were levied for special purposes from time 
to time.- The amount each headman collected was fixed ; but he was 
free to exact what he could, and in practice the authority of the governor 
of Martaban stopped short 20 miles south of Moulmein. This system 
in a modified form was continued for some time after annexation. An 
establishment of thugyis was organized in 1827-8, and a grain tax was 
levied, based on a rough estimate of the out-turn of paddy. For some 
time the rates were fixed for a period of years ; but this arrangement 
was found unsatisfactory, and on the expiry of a seven years' term in 
1 84 1-2, the system of a so-called settlement was abandoned. In 1842-3 
rates per acre were introduced by Major Broadfoot, the Commissioner, 
the rates on rice land varying from R. 1 to Rs. 3-4-0, and on garden 
land from 6 annas to R. 1. Captain (afterwards Sir Arthur) Phayre 
was deputed in 1847 to report on the rice-growing tracts of the District ; 
and as a result of his inquiries a systematic revenue scheme was intro- 
duced, providing for the measurement of cultivation by kwins and 
prescribing the taungya tax. In 1848-9 the rice rates were generally 
reduced, and a further reduction was effected in 1862-3. A resettle- 
ment and revision of rates took place in 1867-8, and rice rates from 
R. 1 to Rs. 2-4-0 were levied, except in a few cases where a rate of 
Rs. 2-8-0 was fixed. These were enhanced in 1879-80, the maximum, 
however, being still Rs. 2-8-0. The seaboard townships and the lands 
on either side of the main rivers in the interior were settled between 
1 89 1 and 1896. The rates on rice land vary from 12 annas to Rs. 3 
per acre ; on gardens, from Rs. 1-8-0 to Rs. 6 ; on dani plantations, 
from Rs. 3 to Rs. 4 ; on miscellaneous cultivation, from Rs. 1-8-0 to 
Rs. 3. Sugar-cane is ordinarily taxed at Rs. 1-8-0 to Rs. 3, but Madras 
sugar-cane in the maritime townships is assessed at Rs. 5. The capitation 
tax was levied in 1828-9, but in the first instance only on the Karens 
and Taungthus. In 1 841-2 the tax was abolished, but was reintroduced 
two years later at rates which were varied in subsequent years. 

Owing to the formation of Thaton District, it is not possible to 
obtain trustworthy statistics of the revenue collected in 1881 and 1891. 
The land revenue increased from 6-4 lakhs in 1900-1 to 7 lakhs in 
1903-4, while the total revenue from all sources increased in the same 
period from 14 to 15 lakhs. 

The District cess fund is derived chiefly from a levy of 10 per cent, 
on the land revenue, and is administered by the Deputy-Commissioner 
for the maintenance of communications and other local needs. Its 
income in 1903-4 was Rs. 75,000, and the expenditure included 
Rs. 26,000 on public works. The only municipality is Moulmein 
Town, but Kawkareik is administered by a town committee. 



Two lighthouses have been built for the protection of shipping enter- 
ing or leaving the port of Moulmein. On Double Island, about i 2 miles 
south of Amherst and 7 from the coast (15 53' N. and 97 35' E.), is a 
dioptric fixed light visible at 19 miles, erected in 1865. Its object is to 
guide ships from the south to Moulmein, and prevent their running up 
the Sittang river. A somewhat feeble light erected on Amherst Point 
was replaced in 1903 by a light visible at 17 miles on Green Island 
near the point. This new light is a third order dioptric, with equal 
flashes and eclipses of 15 seconds, and a complete revolution in two 

The District Superintendent of police is aided by an Assistant Super- 
intendent in charge of Moulmein town, the Amherst and Kawkareik 
subdivisions being in charge of inspectors. The civil police force con- 
sists of 5 inspectors, 15 head constables, 40 sergeants, and 843 constables, 
distributed in 14 police stations and 7 outposts. Of military police 
there are 222, under 4 native officers belonging to the Toungoo 
battalion, and the force is distributed at Moulmein and the head- 
quarters of townships. The existing Central jail at Moulmein, long one 
of the most important in Burma, consists of a collection of antiquated 
barracks with accommodation for 738 prisoners. The jail industries 
are of the ordinary kind. A new jail is at present under construction, 
which, when completed, will be able to house 600 prisoners. 

The proportion of persons able to read and write in 1901 was 16-8 
per cent. (20-1 males and 5-6 females). The number of pupils was 
13,616 in 1901 and 16,570 in 1903-4, including 3,253 girls. In the 
latter year the District contained 33 secondary, 235 primary, 9 special, 
and 242 elementary (private) schools. The institutions most worthy of 
mention in Moulmein are the Government high and normal schools, 
where large numbers of vernacular teachers are trained ; St. Patrick's 
boys' school, with a fair proportion of European and Eurasian pupils ; 
and a blind school (the only one in the Province), in which the pupils 
are taught reading and cane and bamboo work. There are ^t, Karen 
indigenous schools under Government inspection scattered throughout 
the District. In 1903-4 the contributions to education, other than from 
the District cess fund, were Rs. 94,500 from Provincial funds, Rs. 5 1,300 
from fees, and Rs. 4,900 from subscriptions ; total, Rs. 1,50,700, all of 
which was spent on schools in Moulmein town. The District schools 
are supported from the cess fund, and cost Rs. 17,000 in the same 

There are 4 hospitals with accommodation for 127 in-patients, 
1,830 of whom, in addition to 24,236 out-patients, were treated in 1903. 
The number of operations was i,ti2. The income of the hospitals was 
Rs. 39,500, of which Rs. 25,600 was contributed by the Moulmein 
municipality, Rs. 7,300 by Local funds, and Rs. 2,300 by subscription-. 


There is a leper asylum at Moulmein, where 29 in-patients and 23 out- 
patients were treated in 1903. 

Vaccination has been compulsory in Moulmein town since 1885. In 
1903-4 the number of persons in the District successfully vaccinated 
was 14,472, representing 48 per 1,000 of population. 

[A. P. Pennell, Settlement Report (1893) ; A. Gaitskell, Settlement 
Reports (1896 and 1897).] 

Amherst Subdivision. — Subdivision consisting of the western half 
of Amherst District, Lower Burma. It contains four townships, 
Chaungzon, Mud'on, Kyaikkami, and Yelamaing. The head- 
quarters are at Moulmein. 

Amindivi Islands. — These islands form the northern group of the 
Laccadives, and are attached to South Kanara District, Madras Presi- 
dency. There are five of them, four (with a total area of 3 square 
miles) being inhabited, and a number of isolated reefs. They lie at a 
distance of from 170 to 200 miles from the mainland. Each is situated 
on a coral shoal with a lagoon on the west, and they nowhere rise to 
more than 10 or 15 feet above sea-level. The foundation of the soil is 
a stratum of coral from i to i| feet thick, beneath which loose wet 
sand is found. All the wells are formed by breaking through this crust 
and removing the sand underneath. The upper soil is loose coral-sand. 

For more than two centuries these islands belonged to the principality 
of Cannanore, but in 1786 the people revolted and transferred their 
allegiance to Mysore. When South Kanara was taken over by the 
Company in 1799, the islands were attached to that District, and a 
remission of Rs. 5,250 was conceded in compensation to the Bibi of 
Cannanore. They are now under the immediate charge of a headman 
(monegar), who is a third-class magistrate. He also adjudicates upon 
civil disputes, and his power to deal with offences against custom covers 
a wide field. He resides in the island of Amini and is assisted by 
karanis or accountants, nadpals or watchmen, and peons. Family head- 
men also assist him in civil cases, sitting as a panchdyat. The popula- 
tion in 1 90 1 was 3,608, or the same as it had been in 1844. In 1891 it 
was 3,722. Cholera epidemics are largely responsible for this stationary 

The people are all Musalmans, but of Hindu descent ; and their own 
traditions and their language, a corrupt Malayalam, point to their 
having come from Malabar. They largely follow the Malabar Marumak- 
kattayam law of descent. There is no seclusion of women, and 
monogamy is universal. The men as a rule are of fine physique, but 
eye diseases and rheumatism are common. The people are simple, 
peaceable, and contented, and serious crime is almost unknown. They 
leave the islands only to take coir over to the mainland, and to bring 
back the annual supplies of rice, salt, and other commodities. What 


education is sought is confined to learning the Koran b) rote ; the 
attempts of Government to impart elementary instruction to the island 
youths in Malayalam on modern lines have so far tailed. 

Almost the sole cultivation is that of the coco-nut palm, and the 
preparation of coco-fibre or coir is the chief industry. Most of it is 
prepared by the women. Coir is a Government monopoly and tin- 
only source of revenue. Government buys all of it at fixed rates and 
sells it in the open market. As the coir is partly paid for in rice al 
a fixed rate, the value of the revenue naturally fluctuates according to 
the market price of both articles. The accounts for 1903-4 showed 
a net revenue of Rs. 2,387, but in this the peshkash paid to the Raja 
of Cannanore (Rs. 5,250) is not taken into account. 

Amingarh. — Town in the Hungund taluka of Bijapur District, 
Bombay, situated in 16 3' N. and 76 o' E., about 9 miles west of 
Hungund. Population (1901), 7,734. The town has a large cattle 
market. It is also a great trade centre for coco-nuts and rice, which 
are brought from the sea-coast. 

Amjhera Zila. — An isolated district of the Gwalior State, Central 
India, lying between 22 5' and 22 59' N. and 74 40' and 75 46' E., 
with an area of 1,301 square miles. It is situated in the Bhll country 
on the slopes of the Vindhyan scarp, at a mean elevation of 1,800 feet 
above the sea. Almost the whole area is thickly covered with forest, 
and cut up into narrow ravines by a succession of hills, so that there 
is little soil of any value for agricultural purposes. The population in 
1901 was 96,426, giving a density of 74 persons per square mile. The 
district contains 464 villages, including Amjhera (population, 2,954), 
the head-quarters. It is divided into two parganas, with head-quarters 
at Amjhera and Bakaner. The land revenue is Rs. 1,51,000. The 
greater part of the district has been alienated in land grants. 

Amjhera Village. — Head-quarters of the district of the same name 
in Gwalior State, Central India, situated in 22 34' N. and 75 8' E., 
on the Vindhyan scarp, 1,890 feet above sea-level, 12 miles west of 
Dhar. Population (1901), 2,954. The place is said to have been 
founded by Raja Ram Singh, a son of Raja Maldeo Rathor of Jodh 
pur, in the sixteenth century, and was subsequently a small chiefship, 
which, in the eighteenth century, became subject to Gwalior. In 1857 
Raja Bakhtawar Singh rebelled. He was caught and executed at Indore, 
and his estate was made over to Sindhia. Besides the SubaKs offices, 
a school, a hospital, a State post office, and a resthouse are situated in 
the place. 

Amliyara.— Chief place of the petty State of the same name in the 
Mahi Kantha Agency, Bombay, situated in 23 13" N. and 73 5' E., 34 
miles north-east of Ahmadabad. Population (1901), 1,474. It contains 
a temple of Siva, a Musalman tomb, and the ruins of an old town. 

vol. v. x 

3 o6 AMLOH 

Amloh. — A nizamat or administrative district of the Nabha State, 
Punjab, lying between 30 15' and 30 42' N. and 75° 57' and 76 24' E., 
with an area of 291 square miles. The population in 1901 was 115,078, 
compared with 113,364 in 1891. It contains the town of Nabha 
(population, 18,468), the capital of the State, and 228 villages. The 
head-quarters are at the large village of Amloh. The land revenue and 
cesses amounted in 1903-4 to t> % Z lakhs. The nizamat lies wholly in 
the great natural tract called the Pawadh, the soil of which is a rich 
loam and exceedingly fertile. The tract is well wooded ; but as the 
spring-level is near the surface, malarial fever and other diseases are 
common, an evil said to have been intensified by the irrigation from 
the Sirhind Canal. It is divided into three police circles of Amloh, 
Bhadson, and Nabha. 

Ammapatam. — Port in the Pattukkottai taluk of Tanjore District, 
Madras, situated in io° 1' N. and 79 15' E. Population (1901), 3,915. 
Its trade is principally with Ceylon, and rice and live-stock are the chief 
exports, the largest import being unhusked rice. Coolies for the Ceylon 
tea plantations travel regularly from here twice a week. 

Amod Taluka. — North-eastern taluka of Broach District, Bombay, 
lying between 21 51' and 22 3' N. and 72 41' and 73 4' E., with 
an area of 176 square miles. The population in 1901 was 31,911, 
compared with 38,546 in 1891. The density, 181 persons per square 
mile, is below the District average. The taluka contains one town, 
Amod (population, 4,375), the head-quarters; and 51 villages. The land 
revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 3-2 lakhs. In the neigh- 
bourhood of the Dhadhar river, which forms the northern boundary, 
the country is wooded. The taluka is chiefly black cotton soil, shading 
off towards the west into a grey soil too salt for cultivation. The water- 
supply is deficient. Of the cultivated area, grain crops occupy a third, 
and cotton a half. 

Amod Town. — Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name, 
Broach District, Bombay, situated in 22 o' N. and 72 52' E., about 
a mile south of the Dhadhar river, 24 miles north of Broach city, and 
30 miles south-west of Baroda. Population (1901), 4,375. It is the 
residence of a tkdkur, who owns about 21,200 acres of land, with an 
income of Rs. 72,000. Workers in iron make good edged tools, such 
as knives and razors. Amod has a small trade, chiefly in cotton. A 
municipality was established in 1890, its average income during the 
ten years ending 1901 being Rs. 6,100. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 6,046. The town contains a dispensary and three schools — two 
for boys, including an English school, and one for girls, attended 
by 251 and 86 pupils respectively. 

Amou Darya. — River in Central Asia. See Oxus. 

Amrabad.— Taluk in Mahbubnagar District, Hyderabad State, with 



an area of 727 square miles. The population in [901, including 

was 20,880, compared with [9,601 in [891. The taluk contains 

46 villages, of which nine axej/zgir ; and Amrabad (population. 2,267 I ' 
the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was Ks. 25,000. I he 
taluk, which is situated on a plateau, contains a large forest area, and 
the surrounding country is very hilly. In 1905 tin- limits of this 
taluk were increased ; it now contains 67 khalsa villages. 

Amraoti District (cTwrJfw/;).— District of Berar, lying between 
20 25' and 21 37' N. and 77 16' and 78 29' E., with an area 1 A 
square miles. Changes made in 1905 are descrihed at the end of this 
article, which deals with the District before the change. The name is 
said by native philologers to be derived from the old temple of Amba 
Devi in Amraoti. The derivation is exceedingly doubtful, hut no other 
can be suggested. The District is bounded on the north by tin Kllich- 
pur taluk and by the Betul District of the Central Provinces : on the 
east by the Wardha river; on the south by the Yeotmal, Darwha, and 
Mangrul taluks ; and on the west by the Akola and Daryapur taluks. 

Amraoti is a plain about 800 feet above sea-level, the soil of which 
is principally black loam overlying basalt, with a gentle slope from north 
to south, watered by numerous streams. A small chain 
of barren and stony hills, too insignificant to bear a Physical 


name, runs in a north-westerly direction between 

Chandur and Amraoti town, with an average height of 400 to 500 feet 

above the lowlands. 

The Puma rises in the southern slopes of the Gawilgarh hills, and 
flows southwards, partly through P^llichpur and partly through Amraoti, 
until it turns westward and forms the boundary between the Murtazapur 
and Daryapur taluks, passing thence into Akola District. The Bembla 
rises near Karanja Blbl and flows in a semicircular course, north- 
easterly and south-easterly, into Wun District. The remainder of the 
river system consists mainly of insignificant streams flowing eastwards 
into the Wardha. 

The geology of the District, which lies entirely within the Payanghat, 
is fully noticed in the description of Berar ; and the flora is in all 
respects similar to that of the rest of the Payanghat, with the exception 
that the vegetation in the neighbourhood of the range <>i low hills 
between Amraoti town and Chandur is scanty, and resembles that 
which fringes the lower slopes of the Gawilgarh hills. 

Game is less plentiful than formerly. The tiger is rarely found : 
but leopard, wild hog, spotted deer, and nilgai are not uncommon, 
and the antelope is seen almost everywhere. 

Climatic conditions are uniform throughout the Distriet, and 
similar to those prevailing elsewhere in the Payanghat. The heat 
in March, April, and May is great, but the nights are usually cool, the 

x 2 

3 o8 



highest and lowest readings of the thermometer in May being 115 
and 7 6°. The rainy season is temperate, the maximum and mini- 
mum in July being 96 and 70 ; and the cold season, comprising the 
months of November, December, and January, is cool, the readings in 
December being 88° and 55 . 

The rainfall recorded in 1901 was 29 inches. It is generally constant, 
with few variations from year to year, a circumstance which has led to 
the fallacious conclusion that it never failed. This prophecy was rudely 
shaken in 1896-7, and completely falsified in 1899. AmraotI has been 
fortunate in escaping serious natural calamities other than famine. 

The District was never a political entity by itself, and its history, apart 
from that of the Province in which it has always been 
included, is of no particular interest. But little is 
known even of the history of the capital town. 

At the assignment of Berar, in 1853, the Province was divided into 
two Districts, East and West Berar, AmraotI being selected as the head- 
quarters of the former, which included the Districts of AmraotI, 
Ellichpur, and Wun. In 1864 Wun, at first named the South-east 
Berar District, was separated from AmraotI; and in 1867 Ellichpur 
District, which included at first the MorsI taluk, subsequently restored 
to AmraotI, was formed. Between 1867 and 1872, when Berar was 
divided into the two Commissionerships of East and West Berar, 
AmraotI was the head-quarters of the former. The District contains 
no archaeological remains of interest. 

The number of towns and villages is 1,072. The population increased 
from 1867 to 1 89 1 and then declined. The numbers at the several 
enumerations have been as follows: (1867) 501,331, 
(1881) 575>3 28 > (1891) 655,645, and (1901) 630,118. 
The decline in the last decade was due to the famine of 1899-1900. 
The District is divided into the four taluks of AmraotI, Chandur, 
Murtazapur, and Morsi. The chief towns are AmraotI, Karanja 
Bibi, and Badnera. 

The following table gives the chief statistics of population in 1901 : — 








w a; 





* Number of 







V • 

.2 fc 

O (0 


Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 

and 1 


>--° c .; 
v a a v 










AmraotI . 

District total 




2 ,759 








- 43 

- 2.9 

- 2.6 

- 5-6 





- 3-9 



The District is more densely populated than any other in I; 
More than 76 per cent, of the people are Hindus. The language of the 
people generally is Marathi; but the Musalmans, who number 49,000, 
speak a corrupt dialect of Urdu which is generally understood hy all. 

The Kunbls, who number 159,000, or more than 25 per cent of die 
total, are the most important caste in AmraotI, as in all Distri< 
Berar. The Malls (56,000) are also an important cultivating caste. 
The Mahars (96,000) come next to the Kunbls in point of numbers ; 
the Malls, already mentioned, come third ; and the Musalmans (49,000) 
fourth. The Tells (26,000) are more than twice as numerous as in 
any other District in Berar, except AYun. Brahmans number 20,000. 
As might be expected from the preponderance of agricultural castes 
the proportion of the population dependent on the land is very large 
being as high as 72 per cent. Industries support nearly 14 per cent. 
of the total. 

There is one Roman Catholic mission in the District, at Amraoti, 
under the charge of the Order of St. Francis of Sales, and in the 
jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Nagpur. The Protestant 
missions are the Alliance Mission, the United Free Church Mission, the 
American Free Methodist Mission, and the Christian and Missionary 
Alliance. Of the 782 Christians enumerated in the District in 1901, 
436 were natives, of whom more than half were Roman Catholics. 

The District lies wholly within the Payanghat (sec Berar) and is 
generally fertile , but the soil in the neighbourhood of the rockv hills 
between AmraotI and Chandiir, and in the tract at 
the foot of the Gawilgarh hills in the north of the 
Mors! taluk, is lighter and more stony than in the rest of the J h'strict 
resembling in character the soil of the Balaghat. 

Land is held almost entirely on ryohvari tenures, the area covered 
by jaglr villages being only 36 square miles. The principal statistics 
in 1903-4 are shown below, areas being in square miles : — 



Cultivated. Irrigated. 




2,3531 \ 5 


The staple food-grain is jowar, the area under which in 1903-4 was 
898 square miles. Wheat occupied 126, and pulses 97 square miles. 
The principal crop from the point of view of profit to the cultivator is 
cotton, which covered 1,075 square miles. Oilseeds, the chief of 
which is linseed, were sown on 44 square miles. 

The extension of agriculture has been continuous since the assignment 
in 1853, but nothing has been done for the improvement of agriculture 
from a scientific point of view. On the contrary, the quality of the 



principal crop, cotton, has declined, owing to the preference of the 
cultivator for prolific varieties of short staple. Since the famine of 
1 899-1 900 cultivators have availed themselves more freely of loans 
from Government. 

The principal breed of cattle is the Umarda, or smaller variety of 
the Berari breed, but the Arvi breed is very common, and there has 
been much crossing between these two varieties. Since the famine 
of 1 899-1 900 animals of the Nimari, Sholapuri, Labbani, and 
Hoshangabadi breeds have been imported. Buffaloes are chiefly 
of the Nagpuri breed. Ponies bred locally are weedy and inferior, 
and the local breeds of sheep and goats are poor ; but goats of the 
Gujarati breed are kept in towns. 

Irrigation is at present confined almost entirely to garden crops, 
which are grown on lands watered from wells. The area thus irrigated 
in 1903-4 amounted to less than 5 square miles. The reconstruction 
of an old dam near the village of Salbardi in Betul District of the 
Central Provinces, just beyond the border of the MorsI taluk, will 
allow of irrigation in the neighbourhood of the village of Pala on 
a scale more extensive than is usual in Berar. 

The forests supply no valuable timber. There are four Reserves 
with a total area of 46 square miles ; but these may be described 
generally as grass land with low open scrub growth, the soil being 
so shallow, and the rainfall so light, that timber trees can never attain 
any respectable size. Teak grows naturally in three of these areas, 
and has been introduced, with but scanty success, into the fourth. 
In one alone is this growth of any value. The scrub growth con- 
sists of teak {Tectona grandis), salai (Boszvellia serrata), lendia 
(Lagers troemia parviflora), dhaura (Anogeissus latifolia), ma hud (Bassia 
latifolia), and other species. Nine more square miles of the forests of 
this class consist of babul-bans, or groves of Acacia arabica, sparingly 
interspersed with Acacia leucophloea, Acacia eburnea, and Prosopis 
spicigera. The babul is raised mainly in plantations, and commands 
a ready sale as fuel for ginning factories. The scanty tree-growth of 
the grazing lands is fit only for fuel, and goes to meet the demands 
of privilege holders. 

Arts and manufactures are unimportant. The silk-weaving industry 
which formerly flourished at Kholapur has dwindled, and there are now- 
only two hand-looms for the weaving of silk in the 
communications town " Cotton cloth and yarn are manufactured 
in a steam mill at Badnera. The principal industry 
is the preparation of cotton for the market. The District contains 
36 ginning factories and 21 cotton presses, worked by steam. 

Raw cotton is the chief export, and is sent by rail to Bombay 
and Calcutta, the only other exports worthy of mention being oilseeds, 


grain, and pulse. The chief imports are grain and pulse, < oal and ■ 
salt, and sugar. Oilseeds, grain, and pulse are exported to Bomba; 
the Central Provinces. Grain and pulse are imported chiefly from the 
United Provinces and the Central Provinces, coal ;md coke 
the Central Provinces and Bengal, salt from Bombay, and sugar 
chiefly from Bombay, but also from Bengal and the United Proi 1 
Most of the internal trade is effected through the agency of the < otton 
markets established at large centres, and the weekly markets throughout 
the District. The latter are managed by District boards. 

The Nagpur branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway tra\ • 
the District from east to west, its length in the District bring aboul 
68 miles. From Badnera junction a State railway, 6 miles in length, 
runs to Amraoti town. 

The total length of metalled roads is 157 miles, and of unmetalled 
roads 413 miles. The former, with the exception of 1 1 miles, are 
in charge of the Public Works department, and the rest are in charge 
of the District board. Of the roads repaired by the Public Works 
department 26 miles are maintained from Local funds. The chief 
roads are those from Amraoti town towards Ellichpur and Chandur 
Bazar, to Pusla through Mors!, and from Murtazapur to Karanja 

In respect of liability to famine the District differs in no way from 

other parts of Berar, and it has suffered from all the famines which 

have attacked the Province. In the great famine _ 

,. ,° Famine, 

of 1839 the distress was very severe, and no measures 

of relief were attempted by the native government. The extensive 

emigration which took place at this period must have been a powerful 

factor in reducing the District to its poor condition at the time of the 

assignment in 1853. The District suffered, though less than A kola, 

from the scarcity of 1896-7, and very much more severely in the 

famine of 1899-1900. At the height of the last famine, in July, 

1900, 52,644 persons were on relief works and 86,737 more wire in 

receipt of gratuitous relief; and it is calculated that 53 per cent, of the 

cattle died. 

A tahsllddr is stationed at the head-quarters of each of the four 1 
taluks, but there is no subdivision in the District. Administrationt 
The superior staff consists of the usual officers. 

For judicial purposes the District forms part of the Civil and 
Sessions District of East Berar, the District Judge of which has his 
head-quarters at Amraoti and exercises, besides his jurisdiction in civil 
suits, the powers of a Court of Session. Four Subordinate Judges 
and four Munsifs exercise jurisdiction in the District. 

Cases of dacoity, cattle-theft, and housebreaking fluctuate much 
1 The District now (1907) contains six taluks. 



in numbers with the state of the season, but are not exceptionally 
common. Murder, which is rare, generally proceeds from private 
personal motives. 

It appears from the Ain-i-Akbarl that the land revenue demand 
in the parganas now comprised in Amraoti District was 21 lakhs, 
including suyurghal. In 1853, when Berar was assigned to the East 
India Company, the demand for the same parganas, as returned by 
the officials of the Hyderabad State, was only 7 lakhs, including the 
demand in jaglr villages. These figures afford a very clear indication 
of the extent to which Berar suffered from the wars, natural calamities, 
and maladministration of the latter part of the seventeenth, the 
eighteenth, and the early part of the nineteenth centuries. After 
the assignment it was found impossible to collect the revenue even 
at this low rate ; but by degrees those whom the oppression of the 
revenue farmers and of extortionate talukdars had driven from the land 
began to return, and the cultivation of cotton was stimulated by the 
American Civil War. The first regular settlement after the assignment 
was made between the years 1870 and 1875. This expired between 
1900 and 1904 ; but owing to the famine of 1899- 1900, the new settle- 
ment was not brought into force before 1903-4 in three taluks, and in 
the Chandur taluk not until 1904-5. The land revenue demand 
in 1903-4 was nearly 21 lakhs, a sum which greatly exceeds the 
demand in 1853, and is about equal to Akbar's demand, although 
the area under cultivation must be much larger and prices have risen 
since the sixteenth century. Under the new settlement, however, 
the demand has been largely increased, by amounts varying in 
different taluks from 25 to 50 per cent. Under this settlement land 
in the Amraoti taluk will be assessed at a uniform rate of Rs. 2-12-0 
per acre, in Mors! the maximum rate will be Rs. 2-12-0 and the 
minimum Rs. 2-8-0, and in Murtazapur and Chandur the maximum 
and minimum rates will be Rs. 2-10-0 and Rs. 2-4-0. Rice land 
is assessed at a uniform rate of Rs. 6 per acre. Land irrigated from 
wells pays under the new settlement at the same rates as ' dry-crop ' 
land, but on land irrigated from tanks and streams a combined land 
and water rate of Rs. 8 per acre is levied. 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees : — 

1 880- 1. 


1 900- 1. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue . 

J 5,79 





Outside the three municipalities of Amraoti town, Amraoti civil 
station, and Karanja, local affairs are managed by the District board 


and the four taluk hoards. The total expenditure of thesi in [903 4 
was Rs. 1,32,443, of which the two principal items were education 
(Rs. 45,145) and petty establishments (Rs. 35,224). The chief source 
of income is the land cess. 

The District Superintendent of police has also general control ovei 
the railway police on that portion of the line which runs through the 
District. There are 32 police stations, and the railway police have 
a station at Badnera and 4 outposts. The total force numbers 618 of 
all ranks. The jail at Amraoti is a combined District and Central jaili 
and besides accommodating all prisoners sentenced in the District 
receives long-term prisoners from Ellichpur and Wun. 

Amraoti stands second among the six Districts of Berar in regard to 
the literacy of its population, of whom 5-4 per cent. (9-1 males and 
0-4 females) were able to read and write in 1901. In 1903 4 the 
District contained 140 public, 76 aided, and 15 unaided schools, 
the number of pupils in the public schools being 9,770 and in the 
others 2,107. Girls attending school numbered 638. The three 
special schools include the Government industrial school at Amraoti, 
which has hitherto been only moderately successful. A scheme for 
amalgamating it with a larger industrial school, to be established as 
a memorial to Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, is under consideration. 
The other two special schools are those for Europeans and Eurasians 
at Amraoti. Education is making fair progress. Of the male population 
of school-going age 12 per cent, were in the primary stage of instruction, 
and of the female population of the same age 0-9 per cent. The total 
expenditure on education in 1903-4 was 1-3 lakhs, of which Rs. 8,784 
were derived from fees and Rs. 69,000 was contributed by local bodies. 

The District contains one civil hospital, one hospital for females sup- 
ported by the Lady Dufferin Fund, and nine dispensaries. All these 
institutions together contain accommodation for 81 in-patients. In 
1903, the number of cases treated was 74,227, of whom 981 were 
in-patients, and 2,392 operations were performed. The expenditure was 
Rs. 21,458, the greater part of which was met from Provincial revenues. 

Vaccination has made satisfactory progress. In 1903 4 the number 
of persons successfully vaccinated was 34-28 per 1,000, the mean for the 
Province being 36-58. Vaccination is compulsory in the three munici- 
palities of Amraoti town, Amraoti civil station, and Karanja. 

In August, 1905, when the six Districts of Berar were reconstituted, 
the whole of Ellichpur District was incorporated in Amraoti, and on the 
other hand the Murtazapur taluk was transferred to Akola. The present 
area of Amraoti District is 4,754 square miles, and the population 
of that area in 1901 was 809,499. 

[F. W. Francis, Taluk Settlement Reports: Amraoti (1899), 
Murtazapur (1899), Morsi (1899), and Chandur (rnoo).J 


Amraoti Taluk. — Head-quarters taluk of the District of the same 
name in Berar, lying between 20° 41' and 21° 12' N. and 77 32' and 
78° 2' E., with an area of 672 square miles. Population fell from 
183,508 in 1891 to 175,557 in 1901 ; but its density, 261 persons per 
square mile, is higher than in any other taluk of the District, save 
Ellichpur. The taluk contains 259 villages and five towns, Amraoti 
(population, 39,511, including the civil station which is counted as 
a separate town), Badnera (10,859), Kholapur (5,373), and Wal- 
gaon jaglr (5,284). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 
Rs. 6,21,000, and for cesses Rs. 49,000. The taluk lies in the fertile 
valley of Berar, but the almost uniform characteristics of this valley 
are broken by a low range of stony and barren hills running from 
Amraoti town towards Chandur. 

Amraoti Town. — Head-quarters of the District and taluk of the 
same name in Berar, situated in 20 56' N. and 77 47' E. Population 
(1901), 34,216, while the civil station, 3 miles distant from the town, 
has an additional 5,295. Of the inhabitants of the town, 26,773 are 
Hindus, 6,295 Musalmans, 781 Jains, and 112 Christians. 

The temple of Bhawani or Amba Devi, which furnishes a doubtful 
derivation for the name of the town, was the traditional scene of the 
votive ceremonies of RukminI, sister of Rukmin, Raja of Vidarbha, 
before her projected marriage to Sisupala, Raja of Chedi, which was 
prevented by the demi-god Krishna carrying her off from Amraoti. 
But the town has no historical importance, and is not to be confounded 
with the Amraoti mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbarl as a pargana town in 
the sarkar of Kalam, which was Rane Amraoti, now a village in the 
Yeotmal District and taluk. The commercial importance of Amraoti 
is of recent growth, and is not traceable beyond the latter part of the 
eighteenth century, when a large number of people, driven from Akola 
by the tyranny of the talukdar, emigrated to Amraoti. In 1804 General 
Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington, encamped here after the 
capture of Gawllgarh. A strong stone wall from 20 to 26 feet in 
height, 2\ miles in circuit, and having four gates and five wickets, 
surrounds the town. The wall was begun in 1807 by the Nizam's 
government to protect wealthy traders of the town from the Pindaris. 
The Khunafi (bloody) wicket is said to be so called from 700 persons 
having fallen in a fight close to it in 18 18. About sixty years ago 
Amraoti received another large addition to its population from Akola. 
In 1848 the price of jo7var, the staple food of the people, rose tenfold 
at Amraoti owing to drought, and the populace murdered Dhanraj, 
a wealthy trader, who had bought up large quantities of rice. 

There are two municipalities, one for the town, created in 1867, and 
another for the civil station. The receipts and expenditure during 
the ten years ending 1 900-1 averaged Rs. 53,000 in the town, and 


Rs. 14,000 and Rs. 14,700 in the civil station. The incomes of the 
town and civil station in 1903-4 were Rs. 53,000 and Rs. 18,000 
respectively, the principal sources being taxes in the case of the town 
and taxes and cesses in the case of the civil station. The expenditure 
in the town was Rs. 72,000, chiefly on water-supply and conservani v, 
and in the civil station Rs. 13,000, chiefly on public works and 
conservancy. The town obtains its water-supply, which is precarious 
in years of deficient rainfall, from the Kalapani tank, the civil station 
being supplied from the Wadali tank. AmraotI was formerly the local 
head-quarters of the Berar administration, and is still the head <)iiarter> 
of the revenue Division of Berar ; but the Court of the Judicial Com 
missioner has been removed to Nagpur since the transfer of the Province 
to the administration of the Central Provinces. There are two high 
schools, one maintained by Government and the other by private enter- 
prise, several primary schools, two dispensaries, and a Lady Dufferin 
hospital. Two vernacular newspapers, the Vaidarbha and the Pramoda 
Sitidhu, are published in AmraotI. The town now contains 1 1 ginning 
factories and 19 cotton presses. It is the principal cotton-mart in 
Berar, and is connected with the Nagpur branch of the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway at Badnera by a branch (state) railway 6 miles in 
length. Until the railway diverted the trade to Bombay, the AmraotI 
cotton was chiefly sent to Mirzapur on the Ganges on pack-bullocks 
In 1842 a single merchant is said to have dispatched 100,000 bullock- 
loads by this route to Calcutta. 

Amrapur. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Amrapur. — Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay. 

Amravati. — Hill in Cuttack District, Bengal. See Cha i in. 

Amravati.— Village in Guntur District, Madras. See Amakayvii. 

Amreli Prant. — A prant or district of the Baroda State, situated in 
Kathiawar, with an area of 1,245 square miles. It consists of seventeen 
portions. The two main areas are : (1) Okhamandal, lying between 
22 5' and 22 35' N. and 69 5' and 69 20' E., and bounded on the 
north by the Gulf of Cutch, on the west by the Arabian Sea, and on 
the east and south by the Rami or salt marsh that separates the district 
from Navanagar ; (2) the tdlukas of Amreli, Dhari, Khambha, Kodinar, 
Damnagar, and Shianagar, lying between 20 45' and 22° 4 X. and 
70° 42' and 71 55' E. Of these, the Amreli, Dhari, and Khambha 
tahtkas, which adjoin one another and form the greater part of the terri 
tory, are bounded on the north and west by Jetpur and Junagarh, and 
on the east and south by Gohelwar, while Kodinar lies between the 
Gir and the sea and has Junagarh territory on the 
other two sides. Okhamandal is a flat sandy tract, aspects 

and most of the prant is level. In the Dhari taluka 
a range of hills is found, divided into four groups known as Sarkala, 


Raj trial, Nandivela, and Lapala, their heights varying from 1,500 to 
2,100 feet above the sea. 

The vegetation other than the crops in fields includes, among planted 
or sub-spontaneous trees near dwellings, Mangifera indica, Spondias 
mangifera, Tamarindus indicus, Aeg/e Marmelos, Anona squamosa, 
Ficus religiosa, Ficus bengalensis, Bombax malabaricum, and other 
similar species. Hedges enclosing fields include shrubs like Jatropha 
Curcas, Euphorbia antiquorum, Streblus asper, Capparis speciosa, Cadaba 
indica, and Celastrus senegalensis. Climbing on these are various 
Leguminosae such as Canavalia, Menispermaceae such as Tinospora, and 
Asclepiadaceae such as Daemia. Field weeds include Leguminosae, such 
as Crotalaria, Alysicarpus, Indigo/era ; Compositae, such as Blumea, 
Launaea, Sphaeranthus, Grangea ; Scrophularineae, such as Celsia, 
Stemodia, Vandellia ; and many sedges and grasses. In damp ground 
such plants as Caesulia axillaris, Herpestis Monnieria, Mollugo hirta, 
and Aeluropus villosus are plentiful. Waste places yield such plants as 
Tephrosia purpurea, Heylandia latebrosa, Calotropis gigantea, Echi?wps 
echinatus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Fagonia arabica, Elephantopus scaber, 
Volutarella divaricata, Blumea Jacquemontii, Vicoa auriculata, Tribulus 
terrestris, and Achyranthes aspera. 

Maratha incursions into Kathiawar were first made by the Senapati, 

Khande Rao Dabhade, and his lieutenant, Damaji Gaikwar I ; but 

it was not until the time of Damaji Gaikwar II 
History. . . J 

(1732-68) that the greater part ot the country was 

either subdued or laid under contributions. These conquests were, 
however, shared with the Peshwa by treaty in 1752-3. From this time 
up to the close of the century the Peshwa's and the Gaikwar's joint 
troops collected the tributes, while from 1799 to 1814 the Gaikwar 
farmed the Peshwa's share and employed his own troops to collect the 
whole. As he found great difficulties in collecting the tribute, arrange- 
ments were entered into by which a combined force of British and 
Baroda troops, accompanied by Colonel Walker, Resident at Baroda, 
on the part of the British Government, and Vithal Rao Devaji on the 
part of the Gaikwar, entered Kathiawar in 1807, and concluded agree- 
ments with the principal local chiefs which have since borne the name 
of Colonel Walker's settlement. The next significant event was that 
the Gaikwar's farm of the Peshwa's share terminated in 18 14, and the 
Peshwa sent officers to collect his own tribute, thus introducing a double 
government into the country and also weakening the influence of the 
Gaikwar. But the downfall of the Peshwa in 181 8 and the extension 
of the British power in Western India simplified matters ; the Govern- 
ment succeeded to the Peshwa's rights, and became the paramount 
authority in Kathiawar, while the Gaikwar's administration was confined 
to his own possessions. 



The population of this prdnt in [872 was estimated at [58,581. 
According to later enumerations it was: (1881) 147,46s, (1891 ) [80,188, 
and (1901) 173,436. In the last year Hindus 
numbered 150,224, Musalmans 19,771, Jains 3,267, 
and 1'arsTs 20. The following table gives the main statistics in kjoi : 




Number of 



^.si- • 



•~ c 

ctf - 






toe ceo 5 
cs .0.0 - a- 

O C 3 S C 

ons abl 
•ad am 









22 6 









+ 69 


Bhimkatta . 





- 20.3 


Damnagar . 






- 4 


Shianagar . 





— 24-1 






2 7,653 


- 6. 4 


Khambha . 





— 21-2 







1 1 1 

— 163 

1 ,696 







- 1.8 


Beyt Shankhodha 
District tota 

f 4 


4, r ' 1 5 

J '5 

— 0-2 


I i,M5 





— 3-7 



About 96 per cent, of the population speak Gujarat!, and the re- 
mainder chiefly Hindustani and Marathl. In 1901 the prdnt contained 
44 native Christians. 

For the most part the soil is black and very fertile, but in Shianagar 
a tract of half-marsh half-desert is found, where wheat is grown. The 
soil in Dhari is lighter, and becomes red near the Gir. 
The crops grown are jowdr, bdjra, wheat, udid, mag, 
math, gram, tal, banti, china, cotton, sugar-cane, rice, tobacco, and red 
pepper. The cultivation of cotton is extending. The Gir cows and 
buffaloes and the Kathiawar horses and ponies have long been famous. 
The latter, in consequence of there being no professional breeders, do 
not show any improvement. 

The only forest in Amreli is the Gir, a narrow and mountainous trai 1 
lying to the south-west of the Dhari taluka. Though in 1901 the area 
under forest was 46,600 acres, the Gir is probably more useful as 
a grazing-ground for cattle than as a timber forest. 

The industries are very limited, being practically confined to the 
weaving of cotton cloth, embroidery on cheap silk and cotton stuffs in 
Dhari and Damnagar, a little silver-work at Amreli, &nd 

a little iron-work at Dhari, and some pottery at cornm unications. 
Chalavi in the Dhari taluka. There are, however, 
seven ginning factories, which employ a fair number of workers. The 
chief centres of trade are Amreli, Kodinar, Dwarka, Damnagar, and 
Dhari. The want of railways is made up for to some extent by the 


existence of good roads leading to stations on the Bhavnagar-Gondal- 

Junagad-Porbandar Railway. The prant also contains the ports of 

Kodinar, Dwarka, and Beyt. 

The land revenue rose from 8-i lakhs in 1881 to 9-7 lakhs in 1891 

and 10-5 lakhs in 1901. The demand had been reduced to 6-5 lakhs 

in 1904-5, but owing to famine only Rs. 57,000 was 
Administration. „ ,_ , „,, . . . 

collected. The increase in earlier years was due to 

a recent survey and settlement, by which all assessments are placed 

on a cash basis. The average rates of assessment vary from 7 annas 

a bigha (f acre) in Okhamandal to Rs. 3-9-0 in Amreli. 

The number of municipalities is six : namely, Amreli, Damnagar, 
Dhari, Kodinar, Dwarka, and Beyt ; and the grants assigned to 
them by the State in 1904-5 aggregated Rs. 5,800, in addition to the 
income derived from customs, excise, and tolls in Amreli. A District 
board and local boards were constituted in 1905. 

The prant contains one high school (at Amreli), one Anglo-vernacular 
school (at Dwarka), and 148 vernacular schools, the total number of 
pupils in 1904-5 being 10,740. Education is compulsory in the Amreli 
taluka. There are two civil hospitals and four dispensaries, at which 
38,093 patients were treated in 1904-5, of whom 175 were in-patients. 

Amreli Taluka. — Taluka of the Amreli prant, Baroda State, lying 
between 21 20' and 21 37' N. and 71 2' and 71 21/ E., with an area 
of 228 square miles. Population increased from 51,598 in 1891 to 
55,183 in 1 90 1. The taluka contains one town, Amreli (population, 
17,977), the head-quarters ; and 58 villages. It forms a flat fertile plain, 
traversed by clear streams and relieved by stretches of grass and stony 
undulations. The fields are usually devoid of hedges, and there is 
nothing to interrupt the view save a few small clumps of trees at 
intervals. The soil is mostly black, and very fertile, the best land being 
on the north bank of the Shatranji river, which runs through the taluka. 
Among the chief crops produced are jotvar, bajra, wheat, tal, banti, 
cotton, and sugar-cane. In 1904-5 the land revenue was Rs. 70,000. 

Amreli Town. — Head-quarters of the Amreli prant, Baroda State, 
situated in 21 36' N. and 71 15' E., 139 miles south-west of Baroda, 
132 miles south-west of Ahmadabad, and about 10 miles from Chital, 
a station on the Bhavnagar-Porbandar Railway. Population (1901), 
1 7>97 7- The town is situated on a small river called the Thebi, and is 
fortified by a wall at present in a ruinous condition. It is an ancient 
place, the former name of which was Amarvalli. The Jiina Kot, or 
' old fort,' is now used as a jail. Being the head-quarters of the prant, 
the town possesses a civil court presided over by a judge, as well as 
a magistrate's court, and S Ft ball's and other public offices. There are 
also a hospital, a high school, and various vernacular schools, a library, 
and a printing press. A municipal board was formed in 1905, with an 


income of Rs. 7,000 from customs, excise, and tolls, and a Stat. 
of Rs. 3,000. The chief industry is hand-loom weaving, but it is not in 
a very thriving condition. Dyeing and a little silver-work are also 
practised. The town is, however, important as being one of the chief 
cotton marts of Kathiawar, and a busy scene is presented just outside 
the walls, where, during the season, there are five ginning factories at 
work. An officer of the Bombay Political department is stationed 
at Amreli as an Assistant to the Resident at Baroda. 

Amrita Bazar (Magura). — Village in the head-quarters subdivision 
of Jessore District, Bengal, situated in 23 9' N. and 89 4' E. Popula 
tion (190 1 ), 1,148. It was formed by a family of landholders and 
named after their mother. A newspaper known as the Amrita Bazar 
Patrika was formerly published here, but is now printed in Calcutta. 

Amritsar District. — District in the Lahore Division of the Punjab, 
lying between 31 io" and 32 3' N. and 74 30' and 75 24' E., with an 
area of 1,601 square miles. The District is in shape an oblong, lying 
between the Ravi, which separates it from Sialkot on the north-west, and 
the Beas, which separates it from Kapiirthala State on the south-east. 
On the north-east it is bounded by Gurdaspur, and on the south-west 
by Lahore. 

The right bank of the Beas is high and abrupt, crowned with a series 
of bluffs and sandhills, which occasionally attain an elevation of 30 feet 
above the stream at their base. From this point the 
level gradually falls away towards the channel of the 
Ravi, whose eastern bank does not exceed a few feet 
in height. The Beas now runs close under the high bank, though a 
century ago it is said to have flowed several miles farther east ; but the 
Ravi changes its course from year to year. On either river a belt of Bet, 
or low-lying alluvial land, fringes the margin of the modern bed, changing 
year by year, according to the action of the floods. Of the uplands 
between the two rivers, the part lying south of the grand trunk road is 
within the tract known as the Manjha. The District presents the 
appearance of an absolutely level plain, sparsely wooded, and broken 
only by a sandy ridge running down the middle of the doab, and by the 
drainage lines which carry down the surface-water from Gurdaspur Dis 
trict. The most important of these is the Sakki, a perennial stream. 

Amritsar contains nothing of geological interest, as it is situated 
entirely on the alluvium. As in Jullundur, cultivation has practically 
banished all but the weeds of the spring and autumn crops. In the 
north-east some dhak jungle (Butea frondosa) survives ; and there are 
extensive stretches of Saccharum, &c, on the rivers, in places. Many 
trees, including the ber (Zizyphus Jujuba), mango, and jatnun {Eugenia 
Jamboland) are cultivated, or occasionally naturalized, near dwellings, 
in groves, and by waysides. 


Wolves, the only beasts of prey, are rarely met with. Nilgai are never 
seen, antelope very rarely, and ' ravine deer ' (Indian gazelle) only 
occasionally. Wild hog are occasionally found in the Nag plantation. 
Geese are found on both the rivers in the winter, and mallard, teal, and 
other water-fowl throughout the District. Crane, curlew, quail, sand- 
grouse, and green pigeon are fairly common ; partridge and snipe less 
so. There is good mahseer fishing in the Beas. 

Owing to the nearness of the hills and the prevalence of canal- 
irrigation, the hot season in Amritsar is temperate compared with that 
at Lahore. The District is, however, distinctly malarious. This is 
mainly due to the canals, which have already seriously affected the 
salubrity of certain parts. The hot season ends with September, and 
hoar-frost is common in January and February. 

The District has a fairly constant rainfall, which varies inversely with 
the distance from the hills, ranging between 16 inches at Khara and 
24 at Amritsar. The heaviest fall recorded between 1886 and 1903 
was 48 inches at Raya in 1894-5, while in 1896-7 Khara had only 
4-35 inches. 

Amritsar District contains no noteworthy relics of an early date, and 
the interest of its local annals begins only with the rise of the Sikh 
power. The Guru or high priest, Angad, successor to 
Nanak, the founder of the sect, inhabited the village 
of Khadur, near the Beas, in the south of the District, and there he died 
in 1552. Amar Das, the third Guru, lived at Govindwal in the same 
neighbourhood, and was succeeded on his death in 1574 by his son-in- 
law Ram Das, who became the fourth spiritual leader of the rising sect, 
and died in 1581. Ram Das laid the foundations of the future city of 
Amritsar upon a site granted by the emperor Akbar. He also excavated 
the holy tank from which the town derives its name of Amrita saras, or 
' Pool of Immortality ' ; and in its midst, on a small island, he began to 
erect a temple, the future centre of Sikh devotion. Arjun, the fifth Guru, 
son and successor of Ram Das, completed the sacred building, and lived 
to see the growth of a flourishing town around the holy site. In spite of 
persecution, the sect rapidly increased in numbers and importance ; but 
Arjun, having become involved in a quarrel with the imperial governor 
of Lahore, died a prisoner at that city in 1606. Under his son, Har 
Govind, the Sikhs first offered resistance to the imperial power. The 
Guru defeated a force sent against him, but was ultimately obliged to 
leave the Punjab, and died an exile in 1644-5. Guru Govind, the tenth 
spiritual chief in succession to Nanak, organized the Sikhs into a religious 
military commonwealth, in which all men were equal and all were 
soldiers. In 1708 Banda, the chosen friend and disciple of Govind, the 
last of the Gurus, returned to Amritsar, and preached a religious war 
against the Muhammadans. Henceforth the character of the Sikh 


resistance entirely changed. Amritsar became avowedly the head- 
quarters of the new and aggressive faith. Suppressed after Nadir Shah's 
invasion by Zakariya Khan, governor of Lahore, they threw up the Ram 
Rauni fort at Amritsar and defied Mir Mannu, governor of the Punjab. 
Again conquered, they took advantage of Ahmad Shah's second invasion 
to possess themselves of the country round Amritsar, and, though 
defeated by Adina Reg, rebuilt its fort. This was again demolished by 
prince Timur and cast into the holy tank, but the Sikhs continued in 
revolt. Their last great disaster was in 1762, when Ahmad Shah utterly 
routed them at Barnala, now in the Patiala State. On his homeward 
march he destroyed the town of Amritsar, blew up the temple with gun- 
powder, filled in the sacred tank with mud, and defiled the holy place by 
the slaughter of cows. But, true to their faith, the Sikhs rose once more 
as their conqueror withdrew, and the battle of Sirhind in 1763 resulted 
in the secure establishment of their independence. The desecrated 
shrine was restored, and Amritsar became for a while the capital of the 
province. Each of the Sikh confederacies had its own quarters in the 
city, and on the division of their territory the greater part of the District 
fell to the chiefs of the Bhangi confederacy. Gradually, however, Ranjlt 
Singh, who had obtained possession of Lahore in 1799, brought the 
whole surrounding country under his sway. The Bhangi chieftains 
succumbed in 1801, and before long the whole District was included in 
the dominions of the Lahore Maharaja. 

With the remainder of the Punjab, Amritsar came under British rule 
after the second Sikh War in 1849. As originally formed, the District 
included the tahs'iloi Narowal, transferred to Sialkot in 1867 ; and other 
redistributions of territory have taken place from time to time. On the 
outbreak of the Mutiny in May, 1857, great anxiety was felt for the safety 
of the Govindgarh fortress just outside the walls of Amritsar. It was 
garrisoned mainly by sepoys of suspected regiments, and a few artillery- 
men were the only Europeans on the spot. The city, on the other hand, 
remained quiet, and the peasantry evinced a loyal readiness to aid the 
local authorities in case of need. The danger was at length averted by 
the timely dispatch in carriages of a company of British infantry from 
Mian Mir. A body of mutineers from Mian Mir were captured and 
executed by Mr. Cooper, the Deputy-Commissioner. 

The only remains of the Muhammadan period that deserve mention 
are the ruined gateways of the sarais at Fatehabad, Nur-ud-din, and 
Amanat Khan, on the old imperial road from Delhi to Lahore. The 
principal buildings are those connected with the history of the Sikhs, 
and are described in the articles on Amritsar City and Tarn Taran. 

The District contains 5 towns and 1,042 villages. Its population at 
the last three enumerations was: (1881) 893,266, (1891) 992,697, and 
(1901) 1,023,828. During the last decade it increased by 3-1 per cent. 

vol. v. y 



The District is divided into the three tahslls of Amritsar, Tarn Taran, 

_ . . and Ajnala, the head-quarters of each being at the 

Population. . , . • i v • j a,, . • f t 

place from which it is named. 1 he chier towns are 

the municipalities of Amritsar, the administrative head-quarters of 

the District, Jandiala Guru, MajItha, and Tarn Taran. 

The following table shows the chief statistics of population in 

1901 : — 






to u 




Number of 



Percentage of 
variation in 

population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901. 

Number of 

persons able to 

read and 




Tarn Taran 

District total 









+ 5-5 
+ 6.7 
+ 6-6 

8, 5' 4 






+ 3-i 


NOTE. — The figures for the areas of tahsils are taken from revenue returns, 
total District area is that given in the Census Report. 


Muhammadans number 474,976, or over 46 per cent, of the total ; 
Hindus, 280,985, or nearly 28 per cent. ; and Sikhs, 264,329, or nearly 
26 per cent. The density of the population is very high. Punjabi is the 
language of the District. 

The Jats or Jats (228,000) compose 22 per cent, of the population ; 
180,000 of them are Sikhs, and these are the famous Jats of the Manjha 
or upland of Lahore and Amritsar, inferior to their brethren of the 
Malwa (Ludhiana District) in thrift and husbandry, but in physique 
equal to any race in the Province, strong, tall, and muscular, with well- 
shaped limbs, erect carriage, and strongly marked and handsome 
features. They are good cultivators and make fine soldiers. The 
Muhammadan Jats are poor cultivators, like the Rajputs, of whom there 
are 39,000. The Arains (48,000) present no special features here. The 
Kambohs (18,000) take first rank as cultivators. Those who are 
Muhammadans resemble the Arains, while the Sikh Kambohs are in 
every way similar to the Jats. They excel as market-gardeners, and are 
ready to go anywhere to improve their position. Khattrls (34,000) and 
Aroras (22,000) are the chief trading castes ; Shaikhs (14,000) are partly 
traders and partly agriculturists. Brahmans number 37,000. Of the 
artisan classes, the Tarkhans (carpenters, 41,000), Julahas (weavers, 
46,000), Kumhars (potters, 35,000), Mochls (shoemakers and leather- 
workers, 29,000), Telis (oil-pressers, 26,000), Lohars (blacksmiths, 
22,000), and Sonars (goldsmiths, 11,000) are the most important. The 
Kashmiris (22,000), who live by the woollen industries, may also be 
mentioned here. Of the menial classes, the Chuhras, or sweepers, are 
numerically second only to the Jats, numbering 126,000, or 12 per cent- 



of the population. The other important menial castes are the fhinwars 
(water-carriers, 52,000), Ghhlmbas and Dhobis (washermen, 17,000), 
and Nais (harbers, 17,000). There are 19,000 Fakirs, 13,000 Mirasis 
(village minstrels), and 16,000 Barwalas (village watchmen). About 
39 per cent, of the population are supported by agriculture. 

The Amritsar Mission of the Church Missionary Society was started 
in 1852, and has branches at Tarn Taran, Bahrwal, Jandiala, and else- 
where. The Alexandra School for native Christian girls, built in 1S77, 
and the Amritsar Medical Mission, with branches at Ramdas and 
Jandiala, are managed by the Church Missionary Society, while the 
Church of England Zanana Society, which started work at Amritsar in 
1884, maintains St. Catherine's Hospital in the city. The District 
contained 1,492 native Christians in 1901. 

Amritsar is for the most part safe against any serious failure of 
either summer or winter rains, and the certainty of each harvest is 
further secured by ample irrigation from both canals 
and wells. The prevalent soil is a light reddish-yellow 
loam, with patches of clay where the surface drainage collects, and 
occasional expanses of sandy soil. 

The land is held almost entirely by small peasant proprietors, large 
estates covering only about 15,000 acres. The area for which details 
are available from the revenue records of 1903-4 is 1,559 square miles, 
as shown below : — ■ 








Tarn Taran . 

Ajnala .... 




5 ,f) 





' ,559 

1,2 34 


Wheat is the chief crop of the spring harvest, covering 542 square 
miles in 1903-4; gram occupied 267 square miles, and barley only 
25. In the autumn harvest maize covered 98 square miles, rice 54, 
cotton 43, pulses 25, and sugar-cane 28. 

The cultivated area increased by a little more than 2 per cent, during 
the ten years ending 190 1-2, and there is small room for further increase. 
Loans for the improvement of land are but rarely taken, less than 
Rs. 10,000 having been advanced during the five years ending 1903-4. 

Few cattle are bred locally, as the area for grazing is extremely 
limited. Cattle are largely bought at the Diwali and Baisakhi fairs held 
at Amritsar. Buffaloes are kept in large numbers, being used as much 
as bullocks for working the wells. An important horse fair is held at 
Amritsar in connexion with each of the cattle fairs ; and the number of 


ponies is large, but there is nothing remarkable about the breed. Mules 
and donkeys are largely used as pack animals. Seven horse and thirteen 
donkey stallions are kept by the Army Remount department, and four 
pony stallions by the District board. Sheep and goats are kept in 
considerable numbers, but few camels. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 733 square miles, or 60 per 
cent., were classed as irrigated. Of this area, 386 square miles, or 
53 per cent., were irrigated from wells ; 344, or 47 per cent., from 
canals; and 1,750 acres from streams and tanks. The District is 
traversed by the Lahore Main, Kasur, and Sobraon branches of the 
Bari Doab Canal, from which 486 square miles can be irrigated 
annually. In 1903-4 the Distiict contained 12,159 masonry wells 
worked with Persian wheels by cattle, besides 349 unbricked wells, 
water-lifts, and lever wells. The inundated lands are chiefly on the 
Ravi, but some lie on the Beas. 

There are four 'reserved' forests, with a total area of 2,886 acres, 
under the Forest department, and 119 acres of unclassed forest under 
the Deputy-Commissioner. Waste land is scarce, and trees are few. 
The revenue from forests in 1903-4 was only Rs. 3,200. 

The only mineral product of value is kankar, which is much used 
for road-metal and for making lime. 

The manufactures are practically confined to Amritsar Citv, which 

formerly had a considerable trade in weaving shawls from pashm, the 

fine wool of the Tibetan goat, but this industry 
Trs.dc slid 
communications. ra P icllv declined after the Franco-German War. Its 

place has been largely taken by the manufacture of 
carpets, which are turned out in great quantities and find a ready 
sale all over the world. The work is done entirely on hand-looms, and 
the prices range from Rs. 10 to Rs. 50 per yard, or even higher. Silk 
piece-goods are also extensively made. Of the minor artistic industries, 
wood-carving, ivory-carving, and the manufacture of brass and copper 
ware may be mentioned. Amritsar city contains a number of steam 
factories, the most important of which are the Amritsar cotton-spinning 
mills, with 312 employes; five combined cotton-ginning factories and 
flour and rice-mills, with 377 employes; the Canal department work- 
shops, with 250; the Government forage press, with 69; and the 
municipal workshops, with 37. The total number of hands employed 
in 1904 in the thirteen registered factories in Amritsar city was 1,129. 
A small manufacture of acids and chemicals is carried on, and soap 
is largely made. 

Amritsar city is the most flourishing trade centre in the Punjab, and 
the value of the yearly imports and exports is estimated at 3 crores and 
2-2 crores respectively. The principal articles of import are grain, 
pulses, sugar, oil, salt, tobacco, raw cotton, English piece-goods, thread, 


shawls, wood, silk (raw and manufactured), broadcloth, blankets, metals 
and hardware, glass, and dye-stuffs. Many of these are re-exported : and 
the District also exports wheat, shawls, carpets, cotton goods, brass 
vessels, jewellery, and many other articles. The city has a branch of 
the National Bank of India and a sub-agency of the Commercial Bank 
of India. The District contains no other town of any importance as a 
trade centre. 

The main line of the North-Westem Railway runs through the 
District, with branches from Amritsar to Pathankot and to PattI in 
Lahore District via Tarn Taran. The grand trunk road runs by the 
side of the railway, and metalled roads connect Amritsar city with 
Ajnala and Tarn Taran. The total length of metalled roads is 78 miles, 
and of unmetalled roads 350 miles. Of these, 45 miles of metalled and 
17 of unmetalled roads are under the Public Works department, and 
the rest are maintained by the District board. The Ravi is crossed by 
twelve ferries and the Beas by ten ; these rivers are navigable in the 
rains, but are little used. The canals are not navigable. 

Before the construction of the Bari Doab Canal, Amritsar, like the 
rest of the Punjab, was periodically visited by famine. The District 
suffered from scarcity in 1869; but since then there 
has been no distress deserving mention, and, owing 
to the large proportion of the cultivation irrigated by either wells or 
canals, it is now practically secure from famine. The crops matured 
in the famine year 1899-1900 amounted to 76 per cent, of the normal. 

The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, aided by six 

Assistant or Extra Assistant Commissioners, of whom one is in charge 

of the District treasury. It is divided into the three . . . . ± 

, -, r « \ ■ -^ j ^ r^. , Administration. 

tahsils of Amritsar, Ajnala, and larn Taran, each 

under a tahs'ildar and a naib-tahsildar. Amritsar is the head-quarters 

of a Superintending Engineer and three Executive Engineers of the 

Canal department. 

The Deputy-Commissioner as District Magistrate is responsible for 
criminal justice, while civil judicial work is under a District Judge. 
Both are supervised by the Divisional and Sessions Judge of the 
Amritsar Civil Division. In addition to a judge of the Small Cause 
Court, there are six Munsifs, three at head-quarters and one at each 
outlying tahsll, while one is registrar to the Small Cause Court. There 
are twenty honorary magistrates, of whom five exercise also civil powers. 
The Sikhs of the Manjha are as a class given to the commission of 
dacoity, and illicit distillation is prevalent. Civil litigation presents no 
unusual features, except that Amritsar city provides a large number 
of commercial cases. 

On annexation, a summary settlement was made in 1849-50. The 
value of the Sikh collections was appraised, and the cash demand thus 



arrived at was proportionately reduced. The demand, though high in 
the Amritsar tahsil, and extremely so in Ajnala, was paid for three or 
four years. In 1852 the first regular settlement was made. One-fourth 
of the gross produce was taken as the basis of the Government demand, 
and an assessment of 9^ lakhs was announced. The incidence in 
Ajnala was Rs. 2-3-5 P er cultivated acre ; but as this was found to be 
excessive, a reduction of 15 per cent, was made. In 1862 the settle- 
ment was revised, resulting in an initial demand of 9 lakhs and an 
ultimate demand of 9^ lakhs. The rates varied from 10 annas to 
Rs. 1-12 per acre (unirrigated), with a water rate of R. 1 per acre (plus 
an extra 8 annas if the same land was cropped twice in the year). 
Wells were charged lump sums, averaging about Rs. 12 each in addition 
to the ' dry ' rate. This settlement, sanctioned for twenty years from 
1865, was allowed to run on till 1891. In 1888 the reassessment was 
commenced. The water rate was given up by order of Government in 
1 89 1, and a system adopted by which land liable to canal-irrigation was 
separately classed and a small separate rate fixed for it, the figures 
obtained by its application to the irrigated area being added to the 
village assessment. Irrigation from the canal had more than trebled, 
while the number of wells in use had fallen off. The result of the 
assessment was an initial demand of 12^ lakhs, an increase of 2\ lakhs 
on the last annual payment under the expiring settlement. The 
average assessment on 'dry' land is Rs. 1-2 (maximum, Rs. t-8; 
minimum, 12 annas), and on 'wet' land Rs. 1— 1 5 (maximum, Rs. 2-14; 
minimum, R. 1). The total demand, including cesses, for 1903—4 was 
14-5 lakhs. 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are shown 
below, in thousands of rupees : — 





Land revenue . 
Total revenue. 






The District contains four municipalities, Amritsar, Majitha, 
Jandiala Guru, and Tarn Taran, and one 'notified area,' Ramdas. 
Outside these, local affairs are managed by the District board, whose 
income in 1903-4 amounted to 1-5 lakhs, derived mainly from a local 
rate. The expenditure was 1-7 lakhs, public works forming by far 
the largest item. 

The regular police force consists of 875 of all ranks, including 
5 cantonment and 499 municipal police, under a Superintendent, who 
usually has one Assistant, one Deputy-Superintendent, and 6 inspectors 
under him. The village watchmen number 1,374. There are 12 police 


stations and 3 outposts. The District jail at head-quarters has accom- 
modation for 234 prisoners. 

Amritsar stands eleventh among the twenty-eight Districts of the 
Province in respect of the literacy of its population. The proportion of 
literate persons in 1901 was 4-3 per cent. (7-4 males and 0-5 females). 
The District contained 7,182 pupils under instruction in 1 880-1, 
16,273 m 1890-1, 16,872 in 1900-1, and 15,190 in ^03-4. In the 
last year it possessed 2 Arts colleges, 21 secondary, 154 primary, and 

2 special (public) schools, and 22 advanced and 120 elementary 
(private) schools, with 1,951 girls in the public and 535 in the private 
schools. The two Arts colleges are at Amritsar city, which also contains 

3 girls' schools (one high and 2 middle). The District has 48 primary 
schools for girls, and stands first in the Province in the matter of female 
education. Amritsar municipality also maintains industrial and com- 
mercial schools. The total expenditure on education in 1903-4 was 
1-9 lakhs, to which Government contributed Rs. 19,000, fees bringing 
in Rs. 46,000, and subscriptions and endowments Rs. 39,000, while 
District and municipal funds provided the remaining cost. 

Besides the civil dispensary, a female hospital, two city branch 
dispensaries, and a midwifery school at Amritsar, the District has seven 
outlying dispensaries. In 1904 a total of 166,364 out-patients and 
2,741 in-patients were treated, and 9,265 operations were performed. 
The expenditure was Rs. 36,000, most of which was contributed by 
municipal funds. The District also contains seven mission dispensaries, 
which receive grants from District and municipal funds ; and a leper 
asylum at Tarn Taran, which was transferred to the Mission to Lepers 
in India and the East in 1903. 

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 30,528, repre- 
senting 30 per 1,000 of population. The Vaccination Act is in force 
in Amritsar city. 

[J.A.Grant, District Gazetteer (1892-3); Settiei/ie?it Report (1893); and 
Abstract of the Code of Customary Law for Amritsar District (1893).] 

Amritsar Tahsil. — Tahsil of Amritsar District, Punjab, lying be- 
tween 31 29' and 31 51' N. and 74 42' and 75 24' E., with an area 
of 545 square miles. It is bounded on the east by the Beas, which 
divides it from the State of Kapurthala. West of the high bank is a 
fertile belt of loam, irrigated by wells, which is succeeded by a belt of 
sandy country. Beyond this lies a fertile plain irrigated by the Ban 
Doab Canal. Amritsar city lies in a depression in this tract. The 
population of the tahsil in 1901 was 488,383, compared with 462,734 
in 1 891. The city of Amritsar (population, 162,429) is the head- 
quarters. It also contains the towns of Majitha (6,403) and Jandiala 
Guru (7,750) ; and 373 villages. The land revenue and cesses 
amounted in 1903-4 to Rs. 6,22,000. 


Amritsar City. — Headquarters of Amritsar District, Punjab, and 
holy city of the Sikhs, situated in 31 38' N. and 74 53' E., on the 
North- Western Railway and the grand trunk road, 33 miles east of 
Lahore; distant by rail from Calcutta 1,232 miles, from Bombay 1,260, 
and from Karachi 816. In population Amritsar comes next in the 
Province after Delhi and Lahore, and in point of commercial impor- 
tance vies with Delhi. The population was 151,896 in 1881, 136,766 
in 1891, and 162,429 in 1901, including 1,390 in the cantonment. It 
includes 77,795 Muhammadans, 65,117 Hindus, 17,860 Sikhs, 1,104 
Christians, 532 Jains, and 19 Parsls. 

The city lies in a depression in the middle of the Bari Doab. The 
canal flows within a mile of it, and irrigation channels intersect the 
fields on every side. In the rainy season the subsoil water rises every- 
where close to the surface, and in some places lies above it. Thus the 
city is completely waterlogged, and is perhaps the most unhealthy site 
in the Province. The Sikh religion centres round the Golden Temple 
of Amritsar and its tank. Guru Ram Das first settled near the tank 
about 1574, and obtained a grant of the site with 500 blghas of land 
from Akbar in 1577. The tank was called Amritsar, 'the tank of 
nectar or immortality,' though others derive the name from Amar Das, 
the predecessor of Ram Das. Arjun, the next Guru, built the temple ; 
and the foundation grew in religious and political importance until, on 
the retirement of Ahmad Shah from India, in 1762, the temple rose 
from the ashes in which he had left it, and Amritsar became the 
acknowledged capital of an independent community. It was for a time 
in the hands of the Bhangi confederacy, but Ranjit Singh seized the 
city in 1802. As a devout Sikh, he spent large sums of money on the 
decoration of the temple and roofed it with sheets of copper gilt. At 
the same time he put an end to the independent supremacy of the 
Bhangi mis/, and incorporated Amritsar in his own dominions. 

From that time circumstances combined to make the city the 
greatest commercial centre in the Sikh kingdom. The fame of the 
temple brought visitors from far and near. Close to Lahore, the sacred 
city was yet far enough off to be free from the distracting influence of 
political intrigue. Two large fairs were instituted, one at the Baisakhi 
festival in April, the other at the Diwall in November. Religious as 
they were originally, it was inevitable that these gatherings should 
acquire a commercial importance. The shawl industry appears to have 
spread pari passu with the dominion of Ranjit Singh, and received 
a great impetus about 1833, when a number of Kashmiri weavers 
left their famine-stricken country and settled in Amritsar. The 
supply created a large demand in Hyderabad, Lucknow, Delhi, and 
the States of Rajputana. The export trade began immediately after 
annexation, and 4,000 looms are said to have been at work simul- 


taneously in Amritsar. This great demand did not last. Europeans 

ceased to wear Kashmir shawls, and the number of looms dwindled to 
about 1,000. The shawl industry, however, had done its work for 
Amritsar, and established it as a centre not only of particular indus- 
tries but of trade in general. Merchants from a distance found that 
customers were plentiful at Amritsar, and caravans from Bokhara, 
Kabul, and Kashmir began to be seen at the great fairs. Trade in 
European goods, which these travelling merchants wanted in exchange 
for their local wares, sprang up automatically, while the Amritsar shawl- 
weavers, casting about for employment, found in the carpets of Afghan- 
istan and the silk-work of Bokhara occupation for their imitative talent 
and their idle looms. The carpet industry has taken root. The Native 
States and Central Asia are ransacked for choice patterns, a number of 
wealthy firms are pushing the trade with great enterprise and vigour, 
and the output has been increasing largely every year. The silk indus- 
try has had a strange history in Amritsar. The supply of raw silk from 
Bokhara was small, and China was soon indented on. The trade has 
grown, and now Amritsar exports to Peshawar and beyond the frontier 
the silk goods which the caravans from Kabul showed her artisans how 
to make. Sulphate of copper, soap, carved wood, ivory and brass-work 
are the minor products of Amritsar. The city has a branch of the 
National Bank of India and a sub-agency of the Commercial Bank of 

The Darbar Sahib, as the Golden Temple is called by the Sikhs, is a 
square building with a dome-shaped roof, plated with copper gilt. The 
walls throughout are of marble, the spoils of Jahanglr's tomb and other 
Muhammadan monuments, and are adorned with inlaid devices of 
figures and flowers. Under the dome, shaded by a gorgeous silk 
canopy, lies the Granth Sahib, the sacred book of the Sikhs, from 
which the attendant priests read passages morning and evening. The 
tank surrounds the temple on all sides, and a broad causeway leads 
across from the temple itself to the buildings which cluster round the 
tank. The most conspicuous of these are the Akal Bungah, which 
contains the temple treasures ; the seven-storeyed tower known as Baba 
Atl, erected rather more than a century ago in memory of a son of 
GurQ Har Gobind ; and the Bungah Ramgarhian, of the same period, 
with its two lofty minarets. The other buildings include a large 
number of Bungahs or hospices built by Sikh chiefs and Sardars, for 
their own accommodation and that of their friends when they come to 
worship at the temple. The fort of Govindgarh to the north-west of 
the city and close to its walls was built by Ranjlt Singh in 1805-9. 
The Ram Bagh on the north-east of the city was also laid out by his 
orders, and like the Golden Temple it owes some of its architectural 
ornament to the Muhammadan remains at Lahore. 


Amritsar is garrisoned by a detachment of native infantry from 
Tullundur or Sialkot, a detachment of garrison artillery from Feroze- 
pore, and a detachment of sappers and miners. The municipality was 
created in 1867. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 
averaged 5 lakhs, and the expenditure 4-9 lakhs. The income and 
expenditure in 1903-4 were 11-9 and 11-4 lakhs respectively. The 
chief source of income was octroi (Rs. 3,94,000) ; and the principal 
items of expenditure were conservancy (Rs. 75,000), education 
(Rs. 68,000), hospitals and dispensaries (Rs. 1,31,000), and administra- 
tion (Rs. 99,000). The income and expenditure of cantonment funds 
during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 5,000. 

The chief educational institutions are the Khalsa College and Mission 
College, both Arts colleges of the Punjab University. The city also 
contains 5 high schools and 2 middle schools for boys, and 3 schools 
for girls. The industrial school and the clerical and commercial 
schools, maintained by the municipality, are important institutions. 
Details of the industries of the city are given in the article on 
Amritsar District. 

Amroha Tahsll. — North central tahsll of Moradabad District, 
United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, 
lying between 28 46' and 29 9' N. and 78 20' and 7 8° 43' E., with 
an area of 383 square miles. Population increased from 186,183 m 
1891 to 206,564 in 1901. There are 508 villages and two towns: 
Amroha (population, 40,077), the tahsll head-quarters, and Kanth 
(7,092). The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,34,000, 
and for cesses Rs. 46,000. The density of population, 539 persons per 
square mile, is above the District average. In the east of the tahsll is 
a high sandy tract, well drained, but including extensive areas of scrub 
jungle, while the western portion consists of open plains with hardly a 
bush to relieve its monotony. The Gangan and its tributaries cross 
the north-east and the Sot rises in a swamp near Amroha. In 1902—3 
the area under cultivation was 304 square miles, of which only 19 
were irrigated, wells being the chief source of supply. 

Amroha Town. — Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name in 
Moradabad District, United Provinces, situated in 2 8° 54' N. and 7 8° 
28' E., on the Oudh and Rohilkhand branch line from Moradabad city 
to Ghaziabad on the East Indian Railway. Population (1901), 40,077. 
The founding of the city is attributed variously to a ruler of Hastinapur, 
or to a sister of Prithwi Raj ; but the first historical event connected 
with it is the arrival of Ghiyas-ud-din Balban in 1266, to put down a 
rebellion in Katehr. In 1304 the Mongols invaded Hindustan, but 
were defeated near this town by the imperial troops. Early in the 
fourteenth century the celebrated saint, Sharf-ud-dln, commonly known 
as Shah Wilayat, made Amroha his head-quarters, and is claimed as 

AN ,,, 

ancestor by many of the Saiyids who now reside here. From about 
the same time the importance of the town decreased, Sambhal taking 
its place. 

Amroha is situated on a low site, the country on each side being of 
some elevation. It is surrounded by a belt of fine mango groves, and 
a large gateway and the remains of an ancient wall give the place an air 
of some importance. The main streets are neat and clean, and many 
of the shops have handsome fronts of carved wood ; but the large blank 
walls of the houses belonging to the Muhammadan gentry present a 
gloomy appearance. Besides a few Hindu remains, there are more than 
ioo mosques, and the Jama Masjid is one of the oldest existing build- 
ings. It was originally a Hindu temple, converted to its present use at 
the end of the thirteenth century; and it contains the shrine of Shaikh 
Saddu, a former attendant of the mosque. Saddu is believed to have 
practised magic, and his shrine and that of Shah Wilayat are visited by 
crowds of Musalmans and low-class Hindus. Amroha contains a tahsill, 
a munsifi) male and female dispensaries, and a branch of the American 
Methodist Mission. It has been a municipality since 1870. During 
the ten years ending 1901 the income and expenditure averaged 
Rs. 22,000. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 32,000, chiefly from octroi 
(Rs. 28,000) ; and the expenditure was Rs. 35,000. There is a good 
deal of local trade, which may be expected to increase owing to the 
new railway. Cloth and ornamental pottery are the chief manufactures. 
The high school has 82 pupils, and there are also a middle school 
with 176, and nine municipal schools with 610 pupils. 

Amta. — Village in the Ulubaria subdivision of Howrah District, 
Bengal, situated in 22 35' N. and 88° 1' E., on the Damodar river. 
Population (1901), 210. Amta is a considerable trade centre, and is 
connected with Howrah by a light railway, of which it is the terminus. 

Amwa Khas. — Village in the Padrauna tahsil of Gorakhpur 1 >is- 
trict, United Provinces, situated in 26 51' N. and 84 13' E., 68 mile 
east of Gorakhpur city, near an old bed of the Great Gandak. Popu- 
lation (1901), 8,918. It is an agricultural village, composed of a 
number of scattered hamlets. 

Amzera. — Zila and village in Gwalior State, Central India. See 

An. — Township of Kyaukpyu District, Lower Burma, lying between 
1 9 i6 r and 20 40' N. and 93 45' and 94 26' E., with an area of 
2,861 square miles. It comprises practically the whole of the inland 
portion and nearly two-thirds of the whole District. In 1901 it con- 
tained 353 villages and 29,337 inhabitants, compared with 27,863 in 
1 89 1. A considerable portion is covered by the forests of the Arakan 
Yoma, and the density is only 10 persons per square mile. More than 
one-third of the population consists of Chins. The head-quarters are at 

33 2 AN 

An (population, 826), on the An river in the centre of the township, 
near the foot of the Yoma, over which a pass leads into the Minbu 
District of Upper Burma. About 39 square miles were cultivated in 
1903-4, paying Rs. 31,000 land revenue. 

Anahadgarh Nizamat. — A nizamat or administrative district of the 
Patiala State, Punjab, lying between 29 33' and 30 34' N. and 74 41' 
and 75 50' E., with an area of 1,836 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 377,367, compared with 347,395 in 1891. It contains four 
towns, Govindgarh, Bhadaur, Barnala or Anahadgarh, the head- 
quarters, and Hadiaya; and 454 villages. It is interspersed with 
detached pieces of British territory, the principal being the Mahraj 
pargana of Ferozepore District, and forms the western portion of the 
State. It lies wholly in the Jangal tract, and is divided into three 
tahstls, Anahadgarh, Govindgarh, and Bhikhi. The land revenue 
and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 7-2 lakhs. 

Anahadgarh Tahsil (or Barnala). — Head-quarters tahsil of the 
Anahadgarh nizamat^ Patiala State, Punjab, lying between 30 9' and 
30 34' N. and 75 14' and 75 44' E., with an area of 346 square miles. 
The population in 1901 was 105,989, compared with 104,449 m 1891. 
The tahsil contains the three towns of Barnala or Anahadgarh 
(population, 6,905), the head-quarters, Hadiaya (5,414), and Bhadaur 
(7,710) ; and 86 villages. The land revenue and cesses amounted 
in 1903-4 to i-8 lakhs. 

Anaimalais. — The Anaimalais, or 'elephant hills' (io° 15' to 
io° 31' N., 76 51' to 77 20' E.), are a section of the Western Ghats, 
situated in the south of Coimbatore District, Madras, and in the 
adjoining Native State of Travancore, and are perhaps the most striking 
range in Southern India. Like the rest of the Coimbatore Hills and 
the Nilgiris, they consist of gneiss, with broad bands of felspar and quartz 
crossing its foliations. They are divided into a lower and a higher 
range. The latter consists of a series of plateaux 7,000 feet in eleva- 
tion, running up into peaks of over 8,000 feet. These are covered with 
rolling downs and dark evergreen forest, and are cut off from one 
another by deep valleys containing some magnificent scenery \ They 
cover 80 to 100 square miles and extend into the Travancore Hills, 
the best known of them, the Anaimudi ('elephant's forehead') plateau, 
which contains the Anaimudi peak, 8,837 feet, the highest point in 
Southern India, being entirely within the territory of that State. Two 
other well-known peaks are the Akka (' elder sister ') and Tangachi 
('younger sister'). The climate of these plateaux resembles that of 
the Nilgiris. 

The lower range of the Anaimalais lies to the west and has an average 

1 Sketches of this, with some account of the range, will be found in Cleghorn's 
Forests and Gardens of South India (iSfiiV 


elevation of 3,000 to 4,500 feet. Along the slopes lure, 18,500 acres 
in twenty blocks have recently been opened out for coffee-growing ; and 
the department of Public Works has constructed a cart-road and bridle- 
path through this area which, in addition to serving the coffee estates, 
is expected to facilitate the transport of the rarer hard woods which 
grow upon the upper levels of this part of the hills and have hitherto 
been inaccessible. But the chief interest of this lower range lies in its 
forest. It contains the celebrated teak belt. This varies in height 
from 1,500 to 3,000 feet, and contains most of the timbers usual in 
deciduous forests of the same elevation as well as the best teak in the 
Presidency. In 1895 a teak-tree was cut here which was 124 feet high 
and 23 feet in girth, and contained between 500 and 600 cubic feet of 
workable timber. Before 1848 large quantities were exported from this 
belt for use in the dockyards at Bombay, and the forests were so over- 
worked that when systematic control was introduced felling was stopped 
for some years. It has now been resumed both in the Government 
forests and in an adjoining area of 27 square miles, which had been 
leased from the Nambidi of Kollangod, a Malabar proprietor, for an 
annual payment of Rs. 5,000, and is known as the Tekkadi leased 
forest. The forest station, Mount Stuart, is in the Torakadavu valley 
next to this. In 1889-90 a tramway worked by bullocks was laid for 
7 miles through the leased forest to the top of the ghat road leading to 
Pollachi through the Anaimalai village, where the timber depot is 
situated. Elephants drag the timber to the tramway, which then brings 
it to a wire rope-way made in 1899 from the head of the ghat to the 
low country, and also to a saw-mill, driven by a Pelton wheel fed by the 
Torakadavu stream, which was put up at the same time. The rope- 
way is over a mile in length with a fall of 1,000 feet, and carries loads 
up to half a ton. Much of the timber is trammed to the saw-mill, cut 
up, and then trammed to the rope-way, by which it is run down to the 
low country. Heavy logs go down the ghat road by cart. 

The forest museum at Coimbatore contains-an excellent collection of 
various woods, fibres, &c, found in the Anaimalais. Game is plentiful, 
the hills affording shelter to bison {gaur), sdmbar, tigers, leopards, and 
bears, and, on the high range, to the rare Nllgiri ibex (Hemitragus 
hy/ocrius), which is not found anywhere in India north of the Nilgiris. 
There are also numerous elephants, considerable numbers of which 
are annually caught in pits by the Forest department and trained to 
timber-dragging or otherwise disposed of. 

The only inhabitants of the Anaimalais are a few hundred jungle- 
folk— Kadans ('jungle-men'), Muduvans, Pulaiyans, and Malasars 
(' lords of the hills ')— who live in rude hamlets on the slopes, and 
subsist chiefly by collecting the minor produce of the forests, such as 
cardamoms, rattans, wax, and honey. The Kadans have two customs 


worth notice. Both men and women chip their incisor teeth into points 
in the manner followed by some of the tribes ot the Malay Archipelago 
and the Congo country, and they climb trees by driving a succession of 
bamboo pegs into the bark and lashing them together in exactly the 
manner adopted by the Dyaks of Borneo. They are also clever at 
collecting honey from combs built on the faces of the cliffs, letting them- 
selves down from above by ladders made of a series of rattan loops. 

Anaimudi (' Elephant's forehead '). — A peak of the Western Ghats, 
in the extreme north-east of Travancore State, Madras, situate in io° io' 
N. and 77 4' E. It is 8,837 feet above the sea and the highest point 
in Southern India. Though very precipitous, it is accessible from 
the north and with less ease from the east. From the top is obtained a 
magnificent view over the Madras Districts of Coimbatore, Madura, and 
Malabar, and the States of Travancore and Cochin. On a fine day, the 
sea can be seen on the west, the intermediate hills and forests making a 
splendid foreground to the picture, while to the north rise the great 
Anaimalai Hills ; on the north-east stretch the plains of Coimbatore, 
the Nilgiri plateau, and the Anchanad valley ; in the south rise the 
Cardamom Hills and the range beyond Pirmed ; and in the south- 
east a glimpse of the Bodinayakkanur valley is seen. Round Anaimudi 
are clustered a number of other peaks of nearly the same elevation, run- 
ning in a horseshoe, the opening of which lies towards the north-east. 
The low valleys between these hills drop to 3,000 or 2,000 feet. The 
whole area, extending over 100 square miles, forms the plateau known 
as the High Range. The greater part of this is covered with fine short 
grass, with stretches of heavy forest on the lower ground. Before tea 
and coffee estates were opened, this was a famous place for game of all 
kinds ; but now the Nilgiri ibex and the bison are the only animals 
found in any considerable numbers. Small game may be said to be 
entirely absent. Elephants visit the plateau in large numbers during 
the south-west monsoon. Some of the most valuable trees of Travan- 
core grow here and in the adjoining Anchanad valley. 

Anakapalle Tahsil. — Tahsil in the south-west of Vizagapatam 
District, Madras, lying between 17 29' and 17 55' N. and 82 57' and 
83 15' E., with an area of 297 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 165,478, compared with 152,157 in 1891. The head-quarters are 
at Anakapalle (population, 18,539), and there are 143 villages. The 
demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,22,000. The 
northern part of the tahsil is very fertile and well watered, and is exten- 
sively cultivated with rice, sugar-cane, and other valuable crops. The 
coast soils are sandy and relatively infertile. The tahsil is entirely 
zamindari, being divided among the Code family and the Kasimkota, 
Vizianagram, and Chirpurupalle estates. Kasimkota was formerly a 
Faujdari of the Chicacole Sarkar, and later, from 1794 to 1802, was 


the head-quarters of one of the three Collectorates which in 1802 
were formed into the present Vizagapatam District. 

Anakapalle Town. — Head-quarters of the of the same name 
in Vizagapatam District, Madras, situated in 17 42' N. and 83 2' E., 
on the Sarada river, about 20 miles west of Vizagapatam town, in 
the midst of a fertile plain. It is a rising agricultural centre, with a 
large export trade in jaggery (coarse sugar) and grain. Population 
(1901), 18,539. The affairs of the town are managed by a municipal 
council established in 1878. The revenue and expenditure during 
the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 16,000. In 1903-4 they 
were Rs. 25,000 and 21,000 respectively. Most of the revenue is 
derived from taxes on houses and lands and from tolls. The usual 
officers are stationed at Anakapalle, and it is also a favourite place of 
residence among Hindus. It is a station on the East Coast Railway, 
484 miles distant from Madras. 

Anamalais.— Mountain range in Madras. See Anaimai.ais. 

Anambar. — River in Baluchistan. See Nari. 

Anand Taluka. — Central taluka of Kaira District, Bombay, 
lying between 22 26' and 22 44" N. and 72 52' and 73 13' E., with 
an area of 244 square miles. It contains three towns, Umreth (popu- 
lation, 15,549), Od (6,072), and Anand (10,010), the head-quarters ; 
and 85 villages, including Karamsad (5,105) and Sarsa (5,113). The 
population in 1901 was 143,305, compared with 169,766 in 1891. The 
density is 587 persons per square mile. The land revenue and cesses 
amounted in 1903-4 to more than 4-8 lakhs. Except towards the 
east, where the land is bare of trees, uneven, and seamed with deep 
ravines, the whole is a flat rich plain of light soil, well tilled and richly 
wooded. The water-supply is scanty. 

Anand Town. — Chief town of the taluka of the same name in 
Kaira District, Bombay, situated in 22 $$' N. and 72 58' E. Popula- 
tion (1901), 10,010. It is a junction on the Bombay, Baroda, and 
Central India Railway, 40 miles south of Ahmadabad, where the 
Godhra-Ratlam and the Petlad Railways join the main line. The 
municipality was established in 1889. The receipts during the decade 
ending 1901 averaged Rs. 6,600. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 6,900. 
There are branches of the Irish Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and 
Salvation Army missions in Anand ; and the town has 2 ginning 
factories, 3 dispensaries, and 5 schools (4 for boys and one for girls), 
attended by 612 male and 209 female pupils. These include 2 English 
middle schools with 66 boys. The Salvation Army maintains a well- 
equipped hospital, which is open to all classes. 

Anandpur.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay. 

Anandpur. — Village in Keonjhar, one of the Tributary States of 
Orissa, Bengal, situated in 21° 13' N. and 86° 7' E., on the left bank of 


the Baitarani river. Population (1901), 2,945. Anandpur is connected 
by a fair-weather road with Keonjhar town and also with Bhadrakh 
station on the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. A considerable trade is carried 
on, the rural and forest produce brought by land from the south-west 
being bartered for salt carried by boats from the coast. 

Anandpur. — Town in the Una tahsil of Hoshiarpur District, Punjab, 
situated in 31° 14' N. and 76 31" E., on the left bank of the Sutlej. 
Population (1901), 5,028. Founded by the Sikh Guru, Tegh Bahadur, 
it became a stronghold of the tenth Guru, Govind Singh, who was 
defeated here by the troops of Aurangzeb. It is still of religious 
importance as the head-quarters of the branch of the Sodhls descended 
from Tegh Bahadur's nephew, and contains many Sikh shrines and 
monuments of interest. The municipality was created in 1867. The 
income and expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged 
Rs. 2,900. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 3,000, chiefly derived from 
octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 2,600. There is a Government 

Anantapur District (Anantapuram). — The central of the four 
Ceded Districts in the Madras Presidency, lying between 13° 41' and 
15 14" N. and 76 49' and 78 9' E., with an area of 5,557 square miles. 
It is bounded on the north by Bellary and Kurnool Districts ; on the 
west by Bellary and the State of Mysore ; on the south by the same 
State ; and on the east by Cuddapah District. 

Anantapur forms part of the northern extremity of the Mysore plateau 
and slopes from south to north. In the south the country has an 
elevation of about 2,200 feet, which gradually decreases 
asDects to a b°ut 1,000 feet at Gooty in the north and 900 feet 

at Tadpatri in the north-east. The eastern side of 
the District, towards Cuddapah, is hilly, the Erramalas or Errakondas 
(' red hills ') flanking that frontier in the north and other detached hills 
breaking it farther south. The north-eastern portion is for the most 
part an open plain of black cotton soil, surrounded by ridges of the 
Errakonda range and containing long valleys running up into it. 
Excluding this and the western portion of the Gooty taluk, which forms 
part of the Bellary cotton soil plain, the general aspect of the District 
is a barren, treeless, undulating plain of red soil, broken by long ridges 
of almost equally barren and treeless hills. In the bottoms between the 
ridges are occasional groves ; but the uplands are extraordinarily bare, 
and even on the hills the area of forest is small and none of it of any 
density. In the south, the Penukonda taluk is very hilly and much of it 
is consequently unfit for cultivation ; Hindupur is for the most part flat; 
and Madakasira is hilly and rocky towards the south, but to the west 
more level. Except in the northern parts of the District, where there is 
much cotton soil, the land is generally extremely poor and infertile, 


formed from the granitoid rocks on which it lies; but in Madakasira 
it is richer and, aided by a better supply of water, is more pro- 
ductive. This taluk has long been known as the garden of the 

Through the Tadpatri taluk run the low Muchukota hills. Iti other 
parts of the District granite occurs in clustered and detached dome- 
shaped masses, often of great boldness and beauty. The principal 
clusters are those at Palasamudram and Penukonda. The highest 
point in the latter is 3,091 feet above the sea. Nearly the whole of the 
District is drained by the Penner, which enters it from the south and, 
after a course of about 80 miles nearly due north, turns suddenly 
eastwards near Pennahobilam, and about 50 miles farther on passes into 
Cuddapah. The Chitravati river enters the District in its south-east 
corner and flows northwards. After feeding the great tanks at Bukka- 
patnam and Dharmavaram, it turns to the north-east and leaves the 
District in the Tadpatri taluk, falling soon afterwards into the Penner. 
A small portion of the Madakasira and Kalyandrug taluks is drained 
by the Hagari northwards into the Tungabhadra. 

Only the northern and eastern parts of the District have been 
examined by the Geological Survey, and of the remainder it is only 
known that it consists of crystalline rocks of Archaean character. In 
the north-western corner a very narrow band of Dharwar rock enters 
from Bellary District, being an extension of the Penner-Hagari band 
of that system. It runs nearly south-east for 24 miles to its crossing 
over the Penner river, when it trends south and south-by-west for about 
22 miles. Beyond this point it was not mapped, the survey being left 
unfinished. It probably dies out a few miles farther south. It contains 
none of the hematites which are usually found in rocks of this class. 
The north-eastern corner of the District is occupied by deposits of the 
Cuddapah system, which continue northward into Kurnool District. 
The Archaean gneissose rocks show considerable variety, but are mainly 
granites. In the northern part a porphyritic syenitic stone forms a 
number of rocky hills, and a band of the same kind stretches 
southwards down to and beyond the Penner. A very handsome red 
micaceous granite forms the group of hills near Nagasamudram in the 
Gooty taluk. Granite rocks build the bold hills of the District, such 
as Gampamalla, Singanamalla, Devarakonda (close to Anantapur town), 
the Kalyandrug group, and the hills south and south-east of Dharmava- 
ram. A remarkable feature of the Archaean region is the large number 
of dioritic trap dikes which traverse it. The Cuddapah rocks occupying 
the north-eastern corner of the District are parts of the two lower groups 
of that system which make a great semicircular band extending north- 
west and north from Cuddapah District into Kurnool. Of sub-aerial 
deposits, the only examples calling for notice are the great travertine 
vol. v. z 


rocks — fossil waterfalls as they may be well designated— which occur in 
the upper parts of the Kona-Uppalapadu valley. 

Of economically valuable minerals diamonds come first ; they occur 
occasionally on the surface near Wajrakarur, but their source is as 
yet a mystery. The neck of blue rock at this place bears a strong 
resemblance to the Kimberley blue clay, but has been shown to be 
of different origin. Corundum is found in many villages. Steatite of 
good quality, compact and free from grit, is reported from Sulamarri 
and Nerijamupalli. 

The ordinary plants of the District are those of the drought-resisting 
classes, which will thrive even on barren soils. Euphorbias, Asclepiads, 
and cactus abound. The most noticeable trees are the babul and the 
viargosa, but tamarinds also do well. All the stony wastes are covered 
with the golden-flowered Cassia auriculata, the bark of which is used 
for tanning ; and among this is often seen the graceful Cassia fistula, 
the Indian laburnum. The kanuga (Pongatnia glabra) is largely grown 
for its leaves, which make an excellent manure. Date-palms thrive in 
some of the damper hollows. 

The jungles bordering on Cuddapah contain bears, leopards, wild 
hog, and a few sambar. Leopards are also found in some of the other 
hills in the District. Antelope are fairly common in most parts of the 
low country. Quail, partridge, and hares abound, but the District is 
too dry to be a favourite haunt of water-fowl. 

The climate is indeed one of the driest in all Madras, and, probably 
in consequence of this, it is very healthy. The hot season begins early 
in March and ends suddenly with the arrival of the monsoon, usually 
early in June. Thereafter the climate is more pleasant than in most 
Districts. The southern taluks of Madakasira and Hindupur, which 
slope gradually down from the Mysore plateau, are considerably cooler 
than the northern part of the District. 

Anantapur does not get the full force of either monsoon, and the 
rainfall in consequence is often deficient. It is also frequently irregular. 
The south-west monsoon generally gives showers in June, July, and 
August, and a good supply in September. The north-east rains bring 
a good fall in October, but after that the rain is insignificant in quantity 
until June comes round again. The average for the whole District for 
the thirty-four years from 1870 to 1903 was 23 inches (one of the lowest 
figures in the Presidency), the two best months being September and 
October (5-3 inches and 4-9 inches respectively). The centre of the 
District (Anantapur, Dharmavaram, and Kalyandrug) is the driest part, 
the fall there being less than 21 inches on an average ; Gooty and 
Tadpatri get about 23 inches ; and in the three southern taluks, where 
the fall is less scanty than elsewhere, over 24 inches is registered. 

With the exception of famine, the District has enjoyed immunity 


from serious natural calamities. In 1851 a violent storm swept ovei 
it and damaged many of the tanks, the ruin of the crops being com- 
pleted by a heavy fall of rain before the damage was made good. In 
1889 another violent storm did considerable damage. 

Nothing definite is known of the history of the District until it be< atne 
part of the empire of Vijayanagar in the middle of the fourteenth 
century. The strong hill-fortresses of Penukonda 
and Gooty were two of the most valued possessions 
of that dynasty ; and when the last of its real kings, Rama Raja, was 
killed at the battle of Talikota in 1565 by the allied Musalman Sultans 
of the Deccan, the puppet king Sadasiva fled to the former of these 
refuges with a few retainers and such treasure as he could carry with 
him. For some years afterwards it was the home of the fallen dynasty, 
and it resisted more than one siege by the Muhammadans before it fell 
into their hands. The Vijayanagar family had meanwhile removed 
their head-quarters to Chandragiri in North Arcot. Gooty fell 
eventually, and it passed from the Musalmans to the famous Maratha 
chief Morari Rao, whose favourite place of residence it became. During 
these years